Vlan inter vlan r outing
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VLAN 间路由 Inter-VLAN R outing. 深圳职业技术学院计算机系网络专业. 教学目标( Objectives ). 1. 介绍 VLAN 间路由 ( Introducing Inter-VLAN Routing ) 2. VLAN 互联问题及解决方案 ( Inter-VLAN Issues and Solutions ) 3. 独臂路由器( A Router on a Stick ) 4. Trunk 连接的路由器( Trunk-Connected Routers )

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VLAN 间路由 Inter-VLAN R outing

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Vlan inter vlan r outing

VLAN间路由Inter-VLAN Routing

深圳职业技术学院计算机系网络专业


Objectives

教学目标( Objectives)

  • 1.介绍VLAN间路由(Introducing Inter-VLAN Routing)

  • 2. VLAN互联问题及解决方案

  • (Inter-VLAN Issues and Solutions)

  • 3.独臂路由器(A Router on a Stick)

  • 4. Trunk连接的路由器(Trunk-Connected Routers)

  • 5.配置VLAN间路由(Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing)


Vlan introducing inter vlan routing

介绍VLAN间路由(Introducing Inter-VLAN Routing)

  • 没有路由的辅助VLAN1和VLAN200不能通信。

  • VLAN1 and 200 cannot communicate without assistance of a router.


Vlan introducing inter vlan routing1

介绍VLAN间路由(Introducing Inter-VLAN Routing)

  • 为了路由在一个非Trunk环境下VLAN1和200的信息,路由器必须用一个接口连接在VLAN1中,用一个接口连接在VLAN200中。

  • To route traffic between vlan1 and vlan200 in a non-vlan-trunk environment ,a router must connect to a port in vlan 1 and a port in vlan 200.


Vlan introducing inter vlan routing2

介绍VLAN间路由(Introducing Inter-VLAN Routing)

  • 1.当在一个广播域中的主机想要访问在另一个广播域中的主机,必须通过路由器。

  • When a host in one broadcast domain wishes to communicate with a host in another broadcast domain, a router must be involved .

  • 2.如果一个VLAN 跨越多个设备,在设备之间要用Trunk连接。

  • If a VLAN spans across multiple devices a trunk is used to interconnect the devices.


Vlan inter vlan issues

VLAN互联问题(Inter-VLAN Issues)

  • 当多个VLAN连接到一起时,几个技术问题随之出现When VLANs are connected together, several technical issues will arise.

  • 1.端用户设备需要到达非本地主机

  • The need for end user devices to reach non-local hosts

  • 2.不同vlan的主机需要通信

  • The need for hosts on different VLANs to communicate


Vlan inter vlan solutions

VLAN互联解决方案(Inter-VLAN Solutions)

  • 1. VLAN间通信可以通过逻辑的或者物理的连接来解决。

  • Inter-VLAN connectivity can be achieved through either logical or physical connectivity.

  • 2. 逻辑连接涉及一个从交换机到路由器的单独Trunk连接Trunk链路携带多个VLAN的信息,这种拓扑称为独臂路由器。

  • Logical connectivity involves a single connection, or trunk, from the switch to the router. That trunk can support multiple VLANs. This topology is called a router on a stick

  • 3. 物理连接需要为每一个VLAN指定一个单独的物理接口。

  • Physical connectivity involves a separate physical connection for each VLAN.


Logical and physical connectivity

逻辑和物理连接( Logical and Physical Connectivity)


A router on a stick

独臂路由器(A Router on a Stick)


Physical and logical interfaces

物理和逻辑接口(Physical and Logical Interfaces)

  • 在传统情况下,有4个VLAN的网络需要交换机和路由器之间使用四个物理连接

  • In a traditional situation, a network with four VLANs would require four physical connections between the switch and the external router.

  • 随着技术的发展,向ISL变得应用更为广泛,网络设计者开始在交换机和路由器之间的连接使用Trunk。

  • As technologies such as Inter-Switch Link (ISL) became more common, network designers began to use trunk links to connect routers to switches.


Isl and 802 1q

ISL and 802.1q

  • ISL和 802.1Q是快速以太口链路Trunk链路的封装格式。

  • ISL and 802.1q are used to trunk VLANs over Fast Ethernet links

  • 一个单一的ISL或 802.1Q链路可以传输多个VLAN信息

  • A single ISL or 802.1q link can support multiple vlans


Trunk trunk connected routers

Trunk连接的路由器(Trunk-Connected Routers)

  • 在路由器的接口上封装ISL 或 802.1q,可以连接交换机的Trunk接口。

  • A ISL or 802.1q-enabled interface on the router connects to a trunk port on the switch.

  • 使用Trunk的主要好处是节省路由器和交换机的接口。不仅省钱,而且减少配置的复杂性。

  • The primary advantage of using a trunk link is a reduction in the number of router and switch ports used. Not only can this save money, it can also reduce configuration complexity.


Dividing physical interfaces into subinterfaces

将物理接口划分为子接口(Dividing Physical Interfaces into Subinterfaces)


Dividing physical interfaces into subinterfaces1

将物理接口划分为子接口(Dividing Physical Interfaces into Subinterfaces)

  • 1. 子接口是在物理接口上的逻辑接口。

  • A subinterface is a logical interface within a physical interface.

  • 2. 每一个子接口支持一个VLAN,可以指定一个IP地址

  • Each subinterface supports one VLAN, and is assigned one IP address.

  • 3. 为了完成VLAN间路由,必须为每个VLAN创建一个子接口

  • In order to route between VLANs with subinterfaces, a subinterface must be created for each VLAN.


Vlan configuring inter vlan routing

配置VLAN间路由(Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing)


Vlan configuring inter vlan routing1

配置VLAN间路由(Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing)

  • 1.在执行这些命令之前,每一个交换机和路由器都要确认它们支持VLAN封装。

  • Before any of these commands are implemented, each router and switch should be checked to see which VLAN encapsulations they support.

  • 2.为了正确的完成VLAN间路由,所有的路由器和交换机必须支持相同的封装。

  • In order for inter-VLAN routing to work properly, all of the routers and switches involved must support the same encapsulation.


Define subinterfaces on a physical interface

在物理接口上定义子接口(Define Subinterfaces on a Physical Interface)

  • 1.定义子接口

    Identify the interface.

    2.定义VLAN封装

    Define the VLAN encapsulation.

    3.配置IP地址

    Assign an IP address to the interface.


1 exercise1

练习1(Exercise1)

Host A in the graphic is connected to a switch port assigned to VLAN 1.

Which two settings on host A are required to allow connectivity with Host B on

VLAN 2? (Choose two)

A. IP address: 192.1.1.66 255.255.255.240

B. IP address: 192.1.1.130 255.255.255.192

C. IP address: 192.1.1.142 255.255.255.240

D. Default gateway: 192.1.1.129 E. Default gateway: 192.1.1.65

F. Default gateway: 192.1.1.1


2 exercise2

练习2(Exercise2)

Which of the following are valid configuration values for the host shown in the

graphic? (Choose three)

A. host A IP address: 192.1.1.65 B. host A subnet mask: 255.255.255.224

C. host B IP address: 192.1.1.125 D. host B default gateway: 192.1.1.65

E. host C IP address: 192.1.1.166 F. host C subnet mask: 255.255.255.224


Vlan vlan inter vlan r outing by layer 3 switching

VLAN通过三层交换实现VLAN路由( Inter-VLAN Routing by Layer 3 Switching)

  • 1.打开路由功能(enable routing)

  • Switch(config)#ip routing

  • 2.为该接口分配一个IP地址(configuring IP address for SVI)

  • interface vlan 11

  • (路由器上配置的接口号与交换机上配置的 VLAN号相对应)

  • ip address 10.1.1.254 255.255.255.0


Questions

思考题(Questions)

  • 1.VLAN间的通信要借助第层的设备?

  • 2. VLAN互联问题及解决方案分别是什么?

  • 3.什么是逻辑和物理连接?

  • 4.什么是独臂路由器?

  • 5.支持VLAN封装的两种方法是什么?

  • 6.使用Trunk的好处是什么?

  • 7.在物理接口上定义子接口的步骤是什么?


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