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Agenda 2/18/10. Question Contest Parking Lot Correlation Graph Learning Matrix Chapter 2 Minerals. Chapter 2 Minerals. Minerals have four characteristics. Minerals have four characteristics. A mineral is a substance that: •  forms in nature • is a solid

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Agenda 2 18 10
Agenda2/18/10

  • Question Contest

  • Parking Lot

  • Correlation Graph

  • Learning Matrix

  • Chapter 2 Minerals


Chapter 2 minerals

Chapter 2 Minerals


Minerals have four characteristics
Minerals have four characteristics

  • Minerals have four characteristics. A mineralis a substance that:

    • forms in nature

    • is a solid

    • has a definite chemical makeup

    • has a crystal structure



Rocks vs minerals
Rocks vs. Minerals

  • While two samples of the same type of rock may vary greatly in the amounts of different minerals they contain, minerals are always:

    • Made of the same materials in the same proportions.

  • Therefore, a ruby found in India has the same makeup as a ruby found in Australia. A mineral is the building block of rocks.


  • Minerals form in nature
    Minerals Form In Nature

    • Minerals are formed by natural processes. Every type of mineral can form in nature by processes that do not involve living organisms. A few minerals can also be produced by organisms as part of their shells or bones.

    • Rocks are different from minerals in that rocks only have two of the four characteristics listed on the last slide.

      • Rocks are a solid

      • And rocks form naturally


    Mineral formation
    Mineral Formation

    • Minerals form in many ways. The mineral halite, which is used as table salt, forms when water evaporates in a hot, shallow part of the ocean, leaving behind the salt it contained. Many types of minerals, including the ones in granite, develop when molten rock cools. Talc, a mineral that can be used to make baby powder, forms deep in Earth as high pressure and temperature cause changes in solid rock.


    Minerals are solid
    Minerals are Solid

    • A mineral is a solid—that is, it has a definite volume and a rigid shape. Volume refers to the amount of space an object takes up. For example, a golf ball has a smaller volume than a baseball, and a baseball has a smaller volume than a basketball.   A substance that is a liquid or a gas is not a mineral. However, in some cases its solid form is a mineral. For instance, liquid water is not a mineral, but ice is.


    Minerals have a definite chemical makeup
    Minerals have a definite Chemical makeup!!!!!

    • Each mineral has a definite chemical makeup: it consists of a specific combination of atoms of certain elements. An element is a substance that contains only one type of atom. In turn, an atom is the smallest particle an element can be divided into.


    Chemical makeup continued
    Chemical Makeup Continued

    • Everything you can see or touch is made up of atoms. Some substances, including the minerals gold and copper, consist of just one element. All the atoms in gold or copper are of the same type. However, most substances contain atoms of more than one element. Most minerals are compounds, substances consisting of several elements in specific proportions. Halite, for example, has one atom of sodium for every atom of chlorine.   The types of atoms that make up a mineral are part of what makes the mineral unique. The way in which the atoms are bonded, or joined together, is also important. As you will read, many properties of minerals are related to how strong or weak the bonds are.



    Crystal structure
    Crystal Structure

    • If you look closely at the particles of ice that make up frost, you will notice that they have smooth, flat surfaces. These flat surfaces form because of the arrangement of atoms in the ice, which is a mineral. Such an internal arrangement is a characteristic of minerals. It is the structure of a crystal, a solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern.


    Crystal structure1

    Each mineral has its own type of crystal structure. In some cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Crystal Structure


    Crystal structure2

    Each mineral has its own type of crystal structure. In some cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Crystal Structure


    Crystals continued
    Crystals Continued cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    In nature, a perfect crystal is rare. One can grow only when a mineral is free to form in an open space—a condition that rarely exists within Earth's crust. The photographs on page 47 show examples of nearly perfect crystals.


    Minerals are grouped according to composition
    Minerals are grouped according to composition. cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Scientists classify minerals into groups on the basis of their composition. The most common group is the silicates. All the minerals in this group contain oxygen and silicon—the two most common elements in Earth's crust—joined together.


    Mineral composition
    Mineral Composition cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Though there are about 3800 different minerals, only about 30 are common in Earth's crust. These 30 minerals make up most rocks in the crust. For that reason, they are called rock-forming minerals. Silicates, which make up about 90 percent of the rocks in Earth's crust, are the most common rock-forming minerals. Quartz, feldspar, and mica (MY-kuh) are common silicates.


    Mineral composition1
    Mineral Composition cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    The second most common group of rock-forming minerals is the carbonates. All the minerals in this group contain carbon and oxygen joined together. Calcite (KAL-SYT), which is common in seashells, is a carbonate mineral.


    What will you learn in section 2 2
    What Will you Learn in Section 2.2 cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Which mineral properties are most important in identification?

    How minerals are identified by their properties?


    What can you tell by looking at a mineral
    What can you tell by looking at a mineral? cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    The photographs at the right show five pieces of the mineral fluorite. As you can see, the pieces are very different in color and size. Fluorite occurs in many colors, even in colorless forms. Its crystals can be well formed or poorly formed. Also, the sides of the crystals may be smooth or rough.


    A mineral s appearance helps identify it

    A mineral's appearance helps identify it. cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    To identify a mineral, you need to observe its properties—characteristic features that identify it. You might begin by looking at the mineral's color. However, many minerals occur in more than one color, so you would need to examine other properties as well. You might also notice how the mineral reflects light, which determines how shiny or dull it is. Most minerals reflect light in characteristic ways. In this section you will read about how the properties of a mineral—including its appearance—are used to identify it.


    Luster
    Luster cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    A mineral's luster is the way in which light reflects from its surface.

    The two major types of luster are metallic and nonmetallic.


    Luster1
    LUSTER cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Metallic luster looks as if it were made of metal.


    Luster2
    LUSTER cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    A mineral with a nonmetallic luster can be shiny, but it does not appear to be made of metal.

     Like a mineral's color, its luster may vary from sample to sample. If a mineral has been exposed to the atmosphere or to water, its surface luster can become dull.


    Lets fill in the chart on luster
    Lets Fill In The Chart On Luster cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.


    Challenge
    Challenge cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    • Which metals occur naturally in pure form in nature?

    • Which metal do not occur naturally?

    • Do you know of any metal that is not metallic?


    Directions for 2 4 10
    Directions for 2/4/10 cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    • Today you will be conducting the first of several tests to determine the names of minerals.

    • Today you will test Luster!!!

    • Groups of four or five students!

    • You will need activity sheet 3 on my desk, all students.


    Ways to identify a mineral
    Ways to Identify a Mineral cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    • Luster

    • Hardness

    • Cleavage

    • Fracture

    • Density

    • Streak


    Hardness
    Hardness cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull.

    Hardness is another dependable clue to a mineral's identity.

    A mineral's hardnessis its resistance to being scratched.

    A mineral's hardness is determined by its crystal structure and the strength of the bonds between its atoms. Harder minerals have stronger bonds.


    Mohs scale
    Mohs cases, two minerals have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures. For example, both diamond and graphite consist of just one element—carbon. But the arrangements of the carbon atoms in these two minerals are not the same, so they have different crystal structures and very different properties. Diamonds are extremely hard and have a brilliant sparkle. Graphite is soft, gray, and dull. Scale

    • A scale known as the Mohs scale is often used to describe a mineral's hardness.

    • This scale is based on the fact that a harder mineral will scratch a softer one.

    • A mineral can be scratched only by other minerals that have the same hardness or are harder.


    When identifying the hardness of minerals ask yourself this. This mineral is only as hard as what? Your fingernail, the penny, the nail. Or can the mineral scratch the glass? If yes to glass than it’s hardness is 6-9. You will not have a 10 for this activity!!!!!!!!


    Hardness continued
    Hardness Continued

    In place of minerals, you will use your fingernail, a copper penny, and a steel nail to test an unknown mineral. To avoid damage to the minerals, you can test whether the mineral scratches these items.


    Hardness test
    Hardness Test

    • PLEASE READ ALL THE DIRECTIONS FOR THE HANDOUT, AFTER I GO OVER IT IN CLASS!!!!!!!!!

    • One person from each group will get all the supplies for this activity. That person will sign in and out for the group and will be responsible for all items!


    Ways to identify a mineral1
    Ways to Identify a Mineral

    • Luster

    • Hardness

    • Streak

    • Cleavage

    • Fracture

    • Density


    Color and streak
    Color and Streak

    Some minerals can be almost any color, but most minerals have a more limited color range. For example, a particular mineral may almost always be brown to black.


    Color and streak1
    Color and Streak

    Three main factors cause minerals to vary in color.

    1. First, a mineral may get its color from tiny amounts of an element that is not part of its normal chemical makeup.

    For example, a sample of pure quartz is clear and colorless, but tiny amounts of iron can give quartz a violet color.


    Color and streak2
    Color and Streak

    2. Second, a mineral's color can change when it is at or near Earth's surface and is in contact with the atmosphere or water.

    3. Third, mineral crystals can have defects in their crystal structures that change their color.


    Streak
    Streak

    Some minerals have a different color when they are ground into a fine powder than when they are left whole. A mineral's streakis the color of the powder left behind when the mineral is scraped across a surface.


    Streak1
    Streak

    Streak is a better clue to a mineral's identity than surface color is.

    All samples of the same mineral have the same streak.


    Streak vs color
    Streak vs. Color

    What is the difference between color and streak?


    Today you will test streak
    Today You Will Test Streak

    • You will use a tile of unglazed porcelain, called a streak plate, as a tool to identify minerals by their streaks.

      PLEASE READ THE DIRECTIONS ON THE HANDOUT BEFORE YOU START!!!!!!!!!!!


    Minerals with special properties
    Minerals with special Properties

    • Minerals in the carbonate group, such as calcite, react with acid. Chalk is a familiar item that is made up of carbonate minerals. The test consists of putting a drop of a weak solution of hydrochloric acid on a mineral sample. If the acid reacts with the mineral, carbon dioxide gas will form and bubble out of the acid. The bubbles show that the mineral is a carbonate.


    Fluorescent
    Fluorescent

    • Some minerals have a property known as fluorescence (flu-REHS-uhns). Fluorescent minerals glow when they are exposed to ultraviolet (UHL-truh-VY-uh-liht) light. The word fluorescence comes from the name of the mineral fluorite, which has this property.


    Magnetic minerals
    Magnetic Minerals

    • A few minerals respond to magnets. A magnet is pulled toward these minerals. The mineral magnetite strongly attracts magnets, and some other minerals weakly attract magnets. To test a mineral, hold a magnet loosely and bring it close to the mineral. You will be able to notice if there is even a small pull of the magnet toward the mineral. Magnets are commonly used in laboratories and industries to separate magnetic minerals from other minerals.


    Cleavage
    Cleavage

    • Each kind of mineral always breaks in the same way, and this property can help identify a mineral. In fact, the way a mineral breaks is a better clue to its identity than are its color and luster.


    Cleavage1
    Cleavage

    • Cleavage:is the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces.

    • The way in which a mineral breaks depends on how its atoms are bonded, or joined together. In a mineral that displays cleavage, the bonds of the crystal structure are weaker in the directions in which the mineral breaks.



    Fracture
    Fracture

    • Fracture:is the tendency of a mineral to break into irregular pieces.

    • Some minerals such as quartz break into pieces with curved surfaces, as shown below. Other minerals may break differently—perhaps into splinters or into rough or jagged pieces.


    Fracture1
    Fracture

    • In a mineral that displays fracture, the bonds that join the atoms are fairly equal in strength in all directions. The mineral does not break along flat surfaces because there are no particular directions of weakness in its crystal structure.


    Density
    Density

    • A substance's densityis the amount of mass in a given volume of the substance. For example, 1 cubic centimeter of the mineral pyrite has a mass of 5.1 grams, so pyrite's density is 5.1 grams per cubic centimeter.


    Density1
    Density

    • Density is very helpful in identifying minerals. For example, gold and pyrite look very similar. Pyrite is often called fool's gold. However, you can tell the two minerals apart by comparing their densities. Gold is much denser than pyrite. The mass of a piece of gold is almost four times the mass of a piece of pyrite of the same size.






     When a piece of quartz is heated to a very high temperature, it melts into a liquid. Is it still a mineral? Why or why not?


    Which mineral group do most rock forming minerals belong to
    Which mineral group do most rock-forming minerals belong to? temperature, it melts into a liquid. Is it still a mineral? Why or why not?


    True or false all minerals of the same type have the same streak
    True or False temperature, it melts into a liquid. Is it still a mineral? Why or why not?All Minerals of the same type have the same streak?


    What is streak
    What is streak? temperature, it melts into a liquid. Is it still a mineral? Why or why not?









    How does the strength of the bonds between atoms determine whether a mineral displays cleavage or fracture?


    What is density
    What is density? whether a mineral displays cleavage or fracture?





    A mineral s density is determined by what
    A mineral's density is determined by what? cm³ what is the minerals density?


    What is one of the four characteristics of a mineral
    What is one of the four characteristics of a mineral? cm³ what is the minerals density?


    True or false some minerals have no crystal structure
    True or False cm³ what is the minerals density?Some minerals have no crystal structure?













    Describe what would happen if you rubbed a mineral with a Mohs hardness value of 7 against a mineral with a value of 5.


    Explain why you could not use a steel file to tell the difference between a sample of topaz and a sample of quartz?




    How are rocks different than minerals
    How are rocks different than minerals? you have are the minerals?


    Name two elemental minerals
    Name two elemental minerals? you have are the minerals?


    Fill in the graph
    Fill in the Graph you have are the minerals?


    Final jeopardy
    Final Jeopardy!!!!!! you have are the minerals?

    Use the mineral identification tests of (luster, hardness, streak and the acid test) that we conducted in class to identify the mineral at your table? Record you answers on a sheet of notebook paper. Then use your notebook paper to choose the correct mineral name from the handout at your table.


    Final jeopardy1
    Final Jeopardy!!!!!! you have are the minerals?

    Fill in the Mohs hardness scale that we used in class during our experiments?


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