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Biomedical applications of molecular imaging. Tony Lahoutte UMons Nov-Dec 2011. Course 1. Part 1: Introduction and general principles. Biomedical Imaging. R önt gen. Hand of Anna Berthe 1895. Biomedical Imaging. R önt gen. 22 dec 1895 Hand of Anna Berthe. 23 January 1896

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Biomedical applications of molecular imaging

Tony Lahoutte

UMons

Nov-Dec 2011


Course 1

Part 1: Introduction and general principles


Biomedical Imaging

Röntgen

Hand of Anna Berthe

1895


Biomedical Imaging

Röntgen

22 dec 1895

Hand of Anna Berthe

23 January 1896

Hand of Albert von Kölliker


Biomedical Imaging

Weissleder and Pittet, Nature 2009


Biomedical Imaging

1. Microscopy: In vitro samples or in vivo tissues

2. Preclinical Imaging:

In vivo imaging in animal models

3. Clinical Imaging: Imaging in patients


CT – X-ray

MRI

SPECT & PET

Bioluminescence

Fluorescence

FRET/FRAP

ImageStream

Biomedical Imaging

www.mi-central.org


Biomedical Imaging

Anatomy

Physiology

Cell

Molecular

Anatomical imaging: Organ and tissue morphology

Physiologic Imaging: Organ and tissue function

Molecular Imaging: Molecules and cells


Molecular Imaging

  • Definition:

    • Molecular imaging is the visualization, the characterization and the measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living systems


Hybrid Imaging

Anatomical

Molecular


Anatomical

CT scan

of a women


Molecular

Glucose

molecules


PET-CT scan

  • Computed Tomography

  • or CT scan

    • Anatomical

Positron Emission Tomography

or PET scan

  • Molecular


Anatomical + Molecular

PET/CT

fusion

image


Anatomical


Molecular

Radiolabeled antibody fragments that recognize cancer cells


SPECT-CT


Anatomical + Molecular

SPECT/CT

fusion

image


Anatomical

MRI scan


Anatomical + Molecular


PET/MRI scanner

Courtesy of University of Tübingen


FMT/MRI

FMT

MRI

Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging

=

FMT/MRI

J. Chen, JCI, 2009: “Combined magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging

of the living mouse brain reveals glioma response to chemotherapy”


FMT/CT

FMT/CT fusion

Nature 2008;452:580-589


FMT scanner

Imaging Near Infrared Fluorescence

Visen


Anatomical + Molecular

PET/CT

SPECT/CT

PET/MRI

FMT/MRI

FMT/CT

=

Hybrid imaging


Physiological Imaging

  • = Functional Imaging

  • visualizing cardiac contraction

  • Imaging blood perfusion

  • ...


Planar and Tomographic Imaging

Planar = 2D projection

Tomographic = 3D volume


Planar and Tomographic Imaging

Gamma Camera


Planar and Tomographic Imaging

Anterior and posterior view of a

planar bone scintigraphy

Planar = 2D projection


Planar and Tomographic Imaging

Tomographic = 3D volume


Static and Dynamic Imaging

Static image= 1 time interval

Dynamic image = multiple time intervals


Static and Dynamic Imaging

Static image of a radiolabeled antibody between 1-10 s after intravenous injection in a rat

Static image = 1 time interval


Static and Dynamic Imaging

Dynamic image of a radiolabeled antibody between 1second and 10 min after intravenous injection in a rat. Every frame is 10 seconds

Dynamic image = multiple time intervals


Special case of dynamic: Gated Image

Gated image = images are synchronized with cardiac contraction or respiration


Special case of dynamic: Gated Image

Gated image = images are synchronized with cardiac contraction or respiration


Static and Dynamic Imaging

Different combinations are possible:

Static planar image

Dynamic planar image

Static tomographic image

Dynamic tomographic image


Slicing and orientation


Slicing and orientation

A

Sagittal

R

L

A

L

R

Coronal

Transverse


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


Slicing and orientation

R

L

Orientation: we look from the feet to the head


End of part 1


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