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Interactional corrective feedback in L1 & L2 learning. Krakow 2006 Mina Drever, consultant, Training and Development Agency for schools, London. Competence: implications for Language Education Framework. Assessment & competence. Why correct errors?. Self-repair

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Interactional corrective feedback in L1 & L2 learning

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Interactional corrective feedback in L1 & L2 learning

Krakow 2006

Mina Drever, consultant, Training and Development Agency for schools, London


Competence: implications for Language Education Framework


Assessment & competence


Why correct errors?

  • Self-repair

  • Assist transitional competence

  • Develop metalinguistic awareness

  • Avoid fossilisation


Whaterrors?

  • Corder’s systematic errors

    When?

  • immediately? / defer?

    How?

  • implicitly? / explicitly?


Corrective feedback dimensions


Most effective feedback in L2

  • Locate errors

  • Immediate rejection + repetition of error in emphatic tone

  • Metalinguistic explanation > self-correction

  • Rephrase original question if no self-correction

  • Peer assistance if no self-correction


Least successful feedback

  • Exact repetition of error

  • Expansion

  • Mixed

  • Intonation

  • idiosyncrasy


Empirical enquiry: corrective feedback

  • 33 education authorities

  • 65 primary schools – 1 teacher in each

  • 33 schools > questionnaire

  • 33 schools > interview

  • Cross-validation

  • Observation study: 8 questionnaire schools


Feedback type by 65 teachers


Feedback to speaking


Cross-validated findings: 8 questionnaire teachers’ observed feedback in recorded lessons


Learner errors corrected covertly


Confusing feedbackCVN = covert negativeCON = covert overt negativeCNP = covert negative positive


Feedback dilemma

This reveals what must be a source of ambiguity for young L2 learners as well as a dilemma for teachers whose mandate is to teach both language and content: namely, how to reinforce the substantive content of student messages while giving them clear messages about language form

Lyster, 1998, p 71


Covert Negative Positive: example 8 utterances on Christmas


Error correction: 6 children’s attitudes to error correction at 3 different times over a period of 10 lessons


Conclusion: corrective feedback

  • metalinguistic √

  • Recasts X

  • Idiosyncratic ?

  • Confusing ?


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