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Discovery of a wide planetary mass companion of a very young brown dwarf. “Breaking News” Talk. ApJ Letter La Laguna 2008. Víctor J. S. Béjar. Collaborators: M. R. Zapatero Osorio, A. Pérez-Garrido, C. Álvarez, E. L. Martín, R. Rebolo, I. Villó-Sánchez, A. Díaz-Sánchez. Outline.

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discovery of a wide planetary mass companion of a very young brown dwarf

Discovery of a wide planetary mass companion of a very young brown dwarf

“Breaking News” Talk. ApJ Letter

La Laguna 2008

Víctor J. S. Béjar

Collaborators:

M. R. Zapatero Osorio, A. Pérez-Garrido, C. Álvarez, E. L. Martín, R. Rebolo, I. Villó-Sánchez, A. Díaz-Sánchez

outline
Outline
  • Short introduction to substellar objects
  • Discovery of UScoCTIO108B
  • Possible formation mechanisms
  • Relevant results of the letter
brown dwarfs and planets

(Chabrier & Baraffe 2000)

Brown dwarfs and planets
  • Substellar objects does not stably burn H (M<75 MJup )
  • Brown Dwarfs M<65 MJup does not burn Li (the Li test)
  • Substellar objects M<13 MJupdoes not burn D(Brown dwarf/planet frontier)
direct image of extrasolar planets
Direct image of extrasolar planets

>250 extrasolar planets discovered

by indirect tecniques

(radial velocity, transits,..)

Secondary transit of an extrasolar planet behind its star with Spitzer (Deming et al. 2005; Charbonneau et al. 2005)

2M1207AB: Enana marrón y planeta en TWA (10 Ma, 70 pc)

(Chauvin et al. 2004, 2005)

discovery of usco ctio 108b
Discovery of USco CTIO 108B

"Discovery of a wide companion near the deuterium-burning mass limit

in the Upper Scorpius association"

Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Álvarez, C.; Martín Guerrero, E. L.; Rebolo, R.; Villó-Pérez, I.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.

2008, ApJ Letter, 673, L185

the upper scorpius association
The Upper Scorpius association
  • Distance ~ 145pc
  • Age ~ 5 Myr
images of the uscoctio 108 companion
Images of the UScoCTIO 108 companion

2MASS search for red objects (J-Ks>1) around 500 candidates members of USco

Discovery image: J-band 2MASS

Colour composite image: IJK’ (WHT,TNG)

ρ~ 4.6” (670UA)

θ = 177°

Discovery image: I-band IAC80

photometry of uscoctio 108 a b
Photometry of UScoCTIO 108 A & B
  • Common proper motion with Upper Scorpius association (-11,-25 mas/yr)
  • UScoCTIO108A:µαcosδ,µδ = (-8,-17 mas/yr)
  • UScoCTIO 108B:µαcosδ,µδ= (-6,-20 mas/yr), but large error bar
  • Both objects belong to the photometric sequence of the association
spectroscopy of uscoctio 108 a b
Spectroscopy of UScoCTIO 108 A & B
  • UScoCTIO 108 B:
  • SpType: M9.5-L3
  • Low gravity features
  • Activity
  • Teff= 2150 ± 300 K
  • UScoCTIO 108 A:
  • SpType: M7
  • Low gravity features
  • Li is totally preserved
  • Signatures of an accretion disks
  • Teff= 2700 ± 100 K
physical parameters of uscoctio 108 ab
Physical parameters of UScoCTIO 108 AB

Masses from theoretical models

(Burrows et al. 1997; Baraffe et al. 2003)

60 ± 20 MJup

14+2-8 MJup

Mbol=MIJK+BCIJK (SpT)

UScoCTIO 108 A: LogL/Lsol = -1.95 ± 0.15

UScoCTIO 108 B: LogL/Lsol = -3.14 ± 0.20

binarity of uscoctio 108ab
Binarity of UScoCTIO 108AB
  • Probability ofchance alignment: <<1.3%
  • Projected separation: 670 UA (period 65500 yr)
  • Escape velocity: 0.4Km/s
  • Disruption Time (USco: 0.3 obj/pc3): ≥200 Myr

(Solar neigh: 0.07obj/pc3): >10Gyr

<5Myr ->density of birth <20obj/pc3

(Weinberg et al. 1987; Binney&Tremaine 1987)

  • Dissipation time of Upper Scorpius : ~10Myr

There could be similar systems at Solar age

  • MJ=15,22 (J=17 a 1pc)
  • Teff=1000, 350 K
  • Sp Type = T6, Y?

Close et al. 2007

formation of uscoctio 108b
Formation of UScoCTIO 108B
  • DISK
    • Core-Accretion: Similar to the current accepted Solar System models (Pollack et al. 2006).Problem: Only a few Jupiter masses is available at distances <50UA
    • Disk Fragmentation(Boss 2006).Problem: Fragments of 10 MJup con be formed, but at much shorter separations (<100-200UA)
  • Protostellar embryo ejection (Reipurth & Clarke 2001). Problem: Ejection need close encounters which disrupt the system
  • Collapse and Fragmentation of proto-(sub)stellar “cores”:Similar to other stellar binaries are formed(Bodenheimer 1998). Problem:Similar to form isolated planetary mass objects (IPMOs)

If these systems formed in denser

environment, they will become IPMOs

relevant results
Relevant results
  • Direct image and spectroscopy of the least luminous and massive companion, after 2M1206b
  • Substellar companion at the widest projected separation (670UA) and lower gravitational bound energy
  • Key to understand the formation of isolated planetary mass objects
  • Detected in the IAC80!!!
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