Aerosols. Dr. Bridg’ette Israel Spring 2011. Aerosols.
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Definition: The term aerosol is used to denote various systems ranging from those of a colloidal nature to systems consisting of pressurized packages. Aerosols have been defined as colloidal systems consisting of very finely subdivided liquid or solid particles dispersed in and surrounded by a gas.
Dry powders have been used for inhalation therapy for over 75 years.
The active ingredients were packaged in capsules, representing a single dose of drug.
The capsule was punctured and a small amount of powder fell into a chamber while the patient inhaled.
The procedure was repeated until all of the powder was inhaled. While these dry powders were somewhat popular during the early 1940s–1950s, they fell into disuse with the introduction of the aerosol metered dose inhaler (MDI), which became available around 1955.
consists of a pressurized container filled with active ingredient, excipients and propellant, and a metered-dose valve.
The pressurized container is placed within an oral adapter (mouthpiece), and when the unit is dispensed, an exact amount of drug is expelled in the proper particle size distribution to achieve maximum deposition of drug into the lungs.
The aerosol dosage form (MDI) has become the dosage form of choice for delivery of drugs to the lungs.
Metered dose inhalers are formulated as solutions or suspensions of active drug in a mixture of solvents, dispersing agents, and liquefied gas propellants.
This dosage form has been used orally to dispense a variety of agents such as budesonide, salmeterolxinafoate, fluticasone propionate, fenoterol, epinephrine hydrochloride, albuterol, albuterol sulfate, metaproterenol sulfate, cromolyn sodium, flunisolidehemihydrate, ipratropium bromide, beclomethasonedipropionate, and triamcinoloneacetonide.