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Взаимодействие между потребителями и их пищей PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Взаимодействие между потребителями и их пищей («потребитель-корм», или «хищник-жертва») и энергетический бюджет организма.

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Взаимодействие между потребителями и их пищей

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4237454

(-, -)

- [-] , ,

, . , - , . , - [] , , , , , . (.. . . 1990, . 125)


4237454

, (, -, ), -

, , , , . ( , ), ( ) ( ). .


4237454

() ( )

*

Pg

, Ps

Ps

, Pg

P

T

,T

, P

(.. -) , - , -, A

A

U

(), U

C

(), C

* , , ; , , , , ,


4237454

( )

( )

( )

, K1..

(. )

, K2..

.


4237454

, . , - (. )

T = 288 W0.76,

T /, W . , - .

A = P + T

K2

K2 = P/A = P/(P+T) ,

P = [K2/(1 K2)]*T.

(!) , T K2, P. , ,

A = P + T,

, ()

C = A/.

, , ! , , , . , C, A, P T, .


4237454

( )

T (/)

( R)

W ()

( )

T = 288 W0.76

: .. 1987. , . 32, . 4.

: Benedict F.G. 1938. Vital Energetics: A Study in Comparative Basal Metabolism. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.


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. , () , - ( )

(functional response). -. , .

(Holling 1959)

I

II

III

( ), R


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I

T R

Cmax

(1)

Cmax

, ; , .

a

[a] = []-1 []-1

, R

RL

RL(incipient limiting concentration).: (1) ? (2) ? (3) (1) , , ?

( )

C= a R R < RL

C = Cmax = const R > RL


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F2

F2 (-, )

RL

R

R

R

R*

RL ? : - r 0. R* : R > R* r > 0. - RL , .. ( ). RL ( !), , .


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1- , - R0, . -

. , R<R0 . !

T R

, ; , - R0. R = R0 . : T R?

Cmax

( )

RL

R0

, R

R0 . , .

C= a (R R0) R0 < R RL

C = Cmax = const R > RL


4237454

, , r . ( r). .

, . - ( -).

r

m

b

r

R*


4237454

( ) , () , ( ). . , .

( )

:

?

?

: . ? :

( )

!

/ /

R

0

( )

= const

: !

: Lampert W., Sommer U. 2007. Limnoecology ( )


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( )

II

, , , (handling time), h. ( .) - R(T= 1/aR) h

Cmax/2

Cmax

Cmax = 1/h

R = 1/ah

, R

( ) :

2- 1- ? , 2- - , 1- - -

, - . (?)


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, . , !

:

(Monod 1950) , , -, - (. 14-18).

- ( )

(Holling 1959)

( 2- )

!

, , -. , , , : ? . Pg b: Pg = w0*b, w0 - . Pg C: = Pg/C. , b C ,b = (/w0)*C,

, , = const.


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..

2- .. , ..

C , R


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(1955)

.. (1907-1964)

1977 .


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( 1955)

Cyprinus carpio

http://fish.krasu.ru

Rutilus rutiluscaspicus

http://sumskoyclub.ru

Alburnus alburnus

http://www.poplavok-kiev.narod.ru

:

.. . . . 1955 ( 1977 .)


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3- S-- . , , , .

III

, R

3- 2- . , 3- S- ?

.

S-

: ( S- ) !


4237454

( )

T (/)

( R)

W ()

( )

T = 288 W0.76

: .. 1987. , . 32, . 4.

: Benedict F.G. 1938. Vital Energetics: A Study in Comparative Basal Metabolism. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.


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:

1 500

=

25000 20 ?

?

..


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!!!

25 . 11 ,

..

!


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?

T = 288 W0.76

T / W . 500

T () = 32404.8 /

?

20

T () = 14.729 /

, 25 .

T (25 .) = 368227 /

25 .

11.36 (= 368227/32404.8)

? ( ) 11.36 , . !


4237454

, . :

Y = a Wb

Y , - , , W ,ab , .

:

lgY = lg(a Wb) = lga + b lgW

..

: ?


4237454

,

, 1 ( 1 ) . / O2 / O2. 1 1.748 2. 1 ( , ) 5.65 , 5.65/1.748 = 3.23 / O2 13.6 / O2. ( , ) 3.38 / O2. .. 1934 . (Ivlev 1934) ( 1989).

:

1 = 4.2 , 1 = 239

. .. . . 1989, . 13. .. 14.2 / O2, 3.38 / O2 (3.38 * 4.2 = 14.2).


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() 39:

Th = 4.1 W0.751

() 20:

Tp = 0.14 W0.751

20:

Tu = 0.018 W0.751

..

, ( )


4237454

..


Http books nap edu openbook php record id 11634 page 52

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11634&page=52

Max Kleiber

(18931976)

Credit: University of California, Davis

..


4237454

, , , . , ?

..


4237454

:1) , , . , , . , (HammondDiamond 1997). , TourdeFrance, 4.2-5.6 . (6.5 ), .

..


4237454

:2) b = 0.75, , , , . b , , 0.67 0.86 (Darveauetal. 2002).

, 0.75

(1) 0.75 ( )

(2) ( ) 0.75 (.. 0.75) , (1),

(3) 0.75

(2) (3) !

..


4237454

~

( )+0.75

T ~ W+0.75

..


4237454

..


4237454

..


4237454

.. ,


4237454

..


4237454

- , , ( ), , ( ).

.

( ) ( ). ( ). , , -.

(. )


4237454

( -)

(, ) . ( ) . .

: , ,

() : =

() : = ( , = 0)

, , : = () =

, ( ): 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2. .

.


4237454

+

+

-

+

: .. . 1986.


4237454

S- !

, G

, , , . ( ) ( )!

: Erickson etal. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.Nature 2001 V.412. P.429-433


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- -

(A.J. Lotka)

(V. Volterra)

..


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(1)

V ( ) (victims)

P () (predators)

( , )

, . , . , ( -), . , / .


4237454

(2)

(1):

, ,

:

(?)

r

()

(2):

I, .. ( ).

- aVP -, -

aV = C , , ( I)


4237454

(1)

( . f, g)

(1):

. (: *.) . , ( , ?)

d

: ., ., . 1989. : , , 2, . 254-263.


4237454

(2)

(2):

, , , . , . (numerical response) . - .

b1 , b1V . b1 (. ). , b1 - dN/dt = bN dN ( b, b1). : b = b1V.


4237454

, , , - (aV), , , - (b1V). . .


4237454

(b1) (a)

w0

Pg

, Ps

Ps

, Pg

P

T

,T

, P

(.. -) , - , -, A

A

U

(), U

C

, C


4237454

(Monod 1950)

b

bmax

bmax/2

, []-1

R

k

k

. , . . , , .


4237454

- -

V ( ) (victims)

P () (predators)


4237454

,

:

- , (N1, N2) ( , -, )

1- (N1, N2),

2- (N1, N2),


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- -

(V, P),

(V, P),

! , ,

! -, ,


4237454

- -

:

d, ,

r, ,

( b1), , ,

( a), - ,


4237454

- -

,

,

dP/dt = 0

, P

, dV/dt = 0

, V

: (1) - !( .)

(2)

(3) ( )


4237454

(Robert May) -

-

( )

-

, P

, V

, V

, , , , . . ( !) ,

, .


4237454

: The ellipse indicates that the peak of the predator population occurs when the victim population is at its midpoint, and vice versa (Gotelli N. J. A Primer of Ecology.1995: 145-146)

!

, P

(. )

, V


4237454

( )

( )

- ( )

, P

I

II

III

IV

I

P, V

III

II

IV

I

, V

, t

, .

, ?

I, II, III IV


4237454

-

(1) . -, ( - ! )

(2) - . , - : , !

P V

, t

(3)

( r) - ( d), . ( , - -.)


4237454

-

, - , . , ( )? , , , . (, .).


4237454

-

(V, P),

(V, P),

. -, ,

() .


4237454

-

,

,

dP/dt = 0

, P

, dV/dt = 0

, V

, (r/c) , (d/b1)

- , ( ). ! !


4237454

-:

- ( ?)

..


4237454

..

http://endangeredmammals.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/lynx2.jpg


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BioScience 2001 51(1): 25-35

..


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