A simple object oriented program
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A Simple Object Oriented Program. public class Simple { public static void main (String [] args) { System.out.println(“howdy”); } } System.out is an object of class PrintStream, provided by the Java library

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A Simple Object Oriented Program

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A simple object oriented program

A Simple Object Oriented Program

public class Simple {

public static void main (String [] args) {

System.out.println(“howdy”);

}

}

System.out is an object of class PrintStream, provided by the Java library

println is a method of the PrintStream class


Objects and classes

Objects and Classes

  • Object: entity that contains data and can performs actions in a program (by invoking methods)

  • Class: describes a type of object, a class must be defined in order to ‘create’ an object

  • So, each object belongs to a class

  • Class determines legal methods for an objectSystem.out.fill(); // Error, no fill methodSystem.out.println(“howdy”); // OK


Creating objects

Creating Objects

The System.out object has already been created, and already exists for your use in a Java program.

Typically, you must create an object before you can use it. In order to create an object, a class must exist which ‘describes’ this type of object . To use this class, you must be familiar with the creation methods (constructors) it provides.

A constructor method always has the same name as the class.


A simple object oriented program

One class which already exists for your use in the Java library is the Rectangle class. Let’s create a Rectangle object………

Two of the constructors available with the Rectangle class:

Rectangle()

Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height)

www.java.sun.com provides class specs (see API specs)


A simple object oriented program

Declare a rectangle reference variable:

Rectangle myrec;

Construct a rectangle:myrec = new Rectangle(5, 10, 20, 30);

Adjust the size of this Rectangle object by

calling the setsize method of the Rectangle class:

myrec.setsize(45,15);

  • Print the Rectangle object

  • System.out.println(myrec); printsjava.awt.Rectangle[x=5,y=10,width=45,height=15]


Attributes of a rectangle object

Attributes of a Rectangle Object


Syntax variable definition

Syntax: Variable Definition

TypeName variableName;

TypeName variableName = expression;

  • Example:

    Rectangle myrec; Rectangle box = new Rectangle();

  • Purpose:

    To define a new variable of a particular type

    and optionally supply an initial value


Syntax object construction

Syntax: Object Construction

  • new ClassName(parameters)

    • Example:

  • new Rectangle(5, 10, 20, 30)

  • new Car(“red”, “Ford”,”Pinto”, 4.5)

    • Purpose:

  • To construct a new object, initialize it with the construction parameters, and return a reference to the constructed object.


  • Object variables

    Object Variables

    Declare

    Rectangle crispyCrunchy;

    Declare and initialize:

    Rectangle cerealBox = new Rectangle(5, 10, 20, 30);

    • Once you have an object, you can apply methods:

      cerealBox.translate(15, 25);

      crispyCrunchy.translate(10,5); //error !!

    • Share objects:r = cerealBox;


    Uninitialized and initialized variables

    Uninitialized and Initialized Variables

    Rectangle cerealBox;

    Rectangle cerealBox = new Rectangle(5,10,20,30);


    A simple object oriented program

    These variables are references (like pointers) to objects, SO:

    Rectangle r;

    r = cerealBox;

    is NOT the same as:

    r = new Rectangle(5,10,20,30);

    In the first case, two variables will refer to the SAME object, in the second, an additional object is created and referred to by crispCrunchy.


    Two object variables referring to the same object

    Two Object Variables Referring to the Same Object


    Writing a test program

    Writing a Test Program

    • Invent a new class, say MoveTest

    • Supply a main method (which makes this an application class)

    • Place instructions inside the main method

    • Import any library classes you need by specifying the package and class name:import java.awt.Rectangle;

    • You don't need to import classes in the java.lang package such as String and System


    Syntax importing a class from a package

    Syntax : Importing a Class from a Package

    • import packageName.ClassName ;

      • Example:

  • import java.awt.Rectangle;

    • Purpose:

  • To import a class from a package for use in a program


  • File movetest java

    File MoveTest.java

    import java.awt.Rectangle;

    public class MoveTest {

    public static void main(String[] args){

    // declare and create the rectangle

    Rectangle cerealBox = new

    Rectangle(5,10,20,30);

    // move the rectangle

    cerealBox.translate(15, 25);

    // print the moved rectangle

    System.out.println(cerealBox);

    }

    }


    Using class methods

    Using Class Methods

    In order to call a class method successfully, you must examine it’s signature:

    // the following bold signature indicates how to use this

    // method of the Rectangle class

    public boolean contains (int x, int y) {

    //method body

    }


    Using class methods1

    Using Class Methods

    • access specifier (such as public)

    • return type (such as String or void)

    • method name (such as contains or

      setSize)

    • list of parameters (number, type and purpose of

      parameters needed in call)


    A simple object oriented program

    public boolean contains (int x, int y) {

    //method body

    }

    • This method is ‘callable’, because its access specifier is public

    • This method will return a true or false result, so the call should occur within an expression

    • The method is called using the name ‘contains’

    • the call must provide 2 arguments

      Call: myrec.contains(6,7)


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