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AMgryzW dIAW KyqI-bwVI sbMDI nIqI. AiDAwpk dw nwm – vIr pwl kOr klws – A`TvIN AiDAwey nM- 12 skUl dw nwm – s.h.s gurny klW. pUrv igAwn. AMgryzI SwSn kwl dw smW kdoN qoN kdoN q`k sI? AMgryzW ny Bwrq iv`c ikhVy-2 kMm kIqy? AMgryzI SwSn kwl dOrwn BwrqI lokW dw mu`K ik`qw kI sI?

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Amgryzw diaw kyqi bwvi sbmdi niqi

AMgryzW dIAW KyqI-bwVI sbMDI nIqI

AiDAwpk dw nwm – vIr pwl kOr

klws – A`TvIN

AiDAwey nM- 12

skUl dw nwm – s.h.s gurny klW


Purv igawn
pUrv igAwn

  • AMgryzI SwSn kwl dw smW kdoN qoN kdoN q`k sI?

  • AMgryzW ny Bwrq iv`c ikhVy-2 kMm kIqy?

  • AMgryzI SwSn kwl dOrwn BwrqI lokW dw mu`K ik`qw kI sI?

  • AMgryzW ny BwrqI KyqIbwVI leI ikhVIAW-2 nIqIAW ApxweIAW?


Amgryzw diaw kyqi bwvi sbmdi niqi1
AMgryzW dIAW KyqI-bwVI sbMDI nIqI

  • Bwrq iv`c AMgryzW dIAW KyqIbwVI sbMDI nIqIAW dw mu`K audyS Bwrq iv`coN v`D qoN v`D Dn ie`kTw krnw sI[

  • lgwn pRxwlI iv`c vI AMgryzW ny ies audyS nMU mu`K r`Kdy hoey Bwrq iv`c v`K-2 lgwn pRxwlIAW lwgU kIqIAW sn[



Tyky qy bumi dyx dw prbmd
Tyky qy BUmI dyx dw pRbMD sI[

  • Lwrf vwrn hysitMgz ny lgwn ie`kTw krn leI pMj swlW Tyky dw pRbMD kIqw ijs Anuswr sB qoN v`D bolI dyx vwilAW nMU pMj swlW leI BUmI kr ie`kTw krn dw AiDkwr id`qw igAw[

  • 1777 eI. iv`c aus ny pMj swlW Tyky dI QW ie`k swl pRbMD SurU kIqw[ Tykydwr ikswnW nMU bhuq lu`tdy sn[

  • ies krky lwrf kwrnvwils ny 1793 eI: iv`c bMgwl Aqy ibhwr dy pRwqW iv`c sQweI bMdobsq pRbMD SurU kIqw[




Sqwei bmdobsq
sQweI bMdobsq sI[

  • ies pRbMD Anuswr izMmIdwrW nMU hmySw leI BUmI dy mwlk bxw id`qw igAw[

  • auhnW duAwrw srkwr nMU id`qw jwx vwlw lgwn inSicq kr id`qw[

  • izMmIdwr inSicq lgwn dI rwSI srkwrI ^zwny iv`c jmHW krvwauNdy sn[

  • jykr auh iksy kwrx krky Aijhw nhIN krdy sn qW srkwr auhnW dI zmIn dw ku`J ih`sw vyc ky lgwn dI rkm pUrI kr lYNdI sI[



Sqwei bmdobsq dy lwb
sQweI bMdobsq dy lwB sI[

  • ies bMdobsq kwrn izMmIdwr BUmI dy mwlk bx gey[

  • eIst ieMfIAw kMpnI dI Awmdn inSicq ho geI[

  • izMmIdwr AmIr ho gey sn Aqy auhnW ny audXog nMU sQwpq krn Aqy vpwr dw ivkws krn leI Dn Krc kIqw[

  • Lgwn dw mslw hmySw leI h`l ho igAw[

  • izMmIdwrW dy XqnW nwl KyqI-bwVI dw bhuq ivkws hoieAw[



Sqwei bmdobsq dy dos
sQweI bMdobsq dy doS sI[

  • izMmIdwr ikswnW au~qy bhuq Aiq`Awcwr krdy sn[

  • Srkwr nMU ies nwl AwriQk hwnI hoeI ikauNik aus dI Awmdn qW inSicq sI pRqMU aus dw ^rc v`D irhw sI[

  • krW dw boJ KyqI-bwVI nw krn vwly hor DMdy dy lokW au~qy pYx l`gw[ srkwr dw ikswnW nwl koeI is`Dw sMprk nhIN sI[

  • sQweI bMdobsq ny bhuq swry izMmIdwrW nMU AwlsI Aqy AYS-psMd bxw id`qw[


R eiaqwvwvi prbmd
r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD sI[

  • 1820 eI. iv`c Qwms munro ny mdrws Aqy muMbeI iv`c r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqw[

  • ies pRbMD dy Anuswr srkwr ny is`Dw ikswnW qoN BUmI lgwn lYx dw PYslw kIqw[

  • ikswnW nMU zmInW dy mwlk bxw id`qw igAw[

  • ies pRbMD Anuswr BUmI kr dI rkm hryk 20 qoN 30 swlW ip`CoN vDw id`qI jWdI hY[


R eiaqwvwvi prbmd dy lwb
r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD dy lwB sI[

  • ies Anuswr bMdobsq izMmIdwrW dI bjwey is`Dw ikswnW nwl kIqw igAw[

  • ikswnW nMU zmInW dy mwlk bxw id`qw igAw[

  • dUjw, ies pRbMD Anuswr srkwr dI Awmdn iv`c pihlW nwloN vwDw hoieAw[

  • ikswnW dw lgwn iniScq kr id`qw igAw jo pYdwvwr dw 40% qoN 55% q`k huMdw sI[


R eiaqwvwvi prbmd dy dos
r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD dy doS sI[

  • r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD ADIn izMmIdwrW dI bjwey srkwr ikswnW dw SoSx krdI sI[

  • ikswnW qoN aupj dw kw&I ih`sw lgwn dy rUp iv`c lY ilAw jWdw sI[

  • grIb ikswnW nMu lgwn dI rkm Adw krn leI SwhUkwrW qoN krzw lYx bdly AwpxIAW zmInW gihxy r`KxIAW pYNdIAW sn[



Mihlvwvi prbmd
mihlvwVI pRbMD sI[

  • ies pRbMD Anuswwr srkwr nMu lgwn dyx dI izMmyvwrI swry BweIcwry dI huMdI sI[

  • ieh pRbMD lMby smyN leI kIqw jWdw sI[

  • ies pRbMD nMU sB qoN cMgw mMinAw jWdw sI[

  • ies iv`c pihly donW sQweI bMdobsq Aqy r`eIAqvwVI pRbMDW dy gux Swml sn[

  • ies pRbMD dw mu`K doS ieh sI ik ies Anuswr lokW nMU bhuq izAwdw BUmI lgwn dyxw pYNdw sI[


AMgryzW dIAW KyqI-bwVI sbMDI nIqIAW dw pRBwv sI[

  • Bwrq iv`c AMgryzW duAwrw pRcilq kIqI geI lgwn ivvsQw kwrn ikswnW au~qy zulm hox l`gI[

  • srkwr izMmIdwrW nMU ikswnW Aqy muzwirAW au~qy A`iqAwcwr krn qoN nhI rokdI sI[

  • ijhVy KyqrW iv`c r`ieAqvwVI Aqy mihlvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqy gey sn, au~Qy izMmIdwrW dI bjwey srkwr Awp ikswnW dw SoSx krdI sI[




Ikrsi dw vxzikrx
ikRSI dw vxzIkrx pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • Bwrq iv`c AMgryzI Swsn dI sQwpnw qoN pihlW BwrqI lokW dw mu`K ik`qw KyqI-bwVI krnw sI[

  • KyqI-bwVI ipMf dy lokW dIAW loVW nMU pUrw krn leI kIqI jWdI sI[

  • pRqMU Bwrq iv`c AMgryzI rwj ho jwx nwl ipMfW dI Awqm-inrBr ArQ ivvsQw nMU bhuq nukswn hoieAw[

  • AMgryzW duAwrw lwgU kIqI geI BUmI lgwn pRxwlI Anuswr ikswnW nMU lgwn dy qOr qy inSicq rkm smyN isr srkwr nMU dyxI pYNdI sI[


Bwrqi dw mu k ik qw kyqi bwvi
BwrqI dw mu`K ik`qw KyqI-bwVI pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[


  • auhnW dw audyS &slW qoN v`D-2 Dn kmwauxw ho igAw sI[ pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • ikswn hux kpwh, kxk, qyl dy bIj, gMnw Aqy ptsn Awid &slW pYdw krn lgy ikauNik iehnW dI mMfIAW iv`c bhuq mMg sI[

  • ieMglYNf iv`c audXoigk kRWqI Awaux kwrn au~Qy sQwpq kIqy gey kwrKwinAW leI k`cy mwl dI bhuq lOV sI[

  • ies krky AMgryzI srkwr ny KyqI-bwVI Bwv ikRSI dw vxjIkrx surU kr id`qw, jo pMjwb, bMgwl, gujrwq, KwndyS Aqy brwr Awid KyqrW iv`c sB qoN v`D hoieAw sI[


Aibaws
AiBAws pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[


Kwli qwvw bro
KwlI QwvW Bro pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • _________ eI. iv`c aus ny pMj swlW Tyky dI QW ie`k swl pRbMD SurU kIqw[

  • _________ ny lgwn ie`kTw krn leI pMj swlW Tyky dw pRbMD kIqw[

  • _________ iv`c Qwms munro ny mdrws Aqy muMbeI iv`c r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqw[

  • ikswnW dw lgwn iniScq kr id`qw igAw jo pYdwvwr dw ______ qoN _____ q`k huMdw sI[


Kwli qwvw bro1
KwlI QwvW Bro pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • 1777 eI. iv`c aus ny pMj swlW Tyky dI QW ie`k swl pRbMD SurU kIqw[

  • Lwrf vwrn hysitMgz ny lgwn ie`kTw krn leI pMj swlW Tyky dw pRbMD kIqw[

  • 1820 eI: iv`c Qwms munro ny mdrws Aqy muMbeI iv`c r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqw[

  • ikswnW dw lgwn iniScq kr id`qw igAw jo pYdwvwr dw 40% qoN 55% q`k huMdw sI[


Shi jw glq
shI jW glq pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • sQweI bMdobsq kwrn izMmIdwr BUmI dy mwlk bx gey[

  • 1825 eI. iv`c Qwms munro ny mdrws Aqy muMbeI iv`c r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqw[

  • ikswnW dw lgwn iniScq kr id`qw igAw jo pYdwvwr dw 45% qoN 65% q`k huMdw sI[

  • ies krky lwrf kwrnvwils ny 1793 eI: iv`c bMgwl Aqy ibhwr dy pRwqW iv`c sQweI bMdobsq pRbMD SurU kIqw[


Shi jw glq1
shI jW glq pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • sQweI bMdobsq kwrn izMmIdwr BUmI dy mwlk bx gey[ (shI)

  • 1825 eI. iv`c Qwms munro ny mdrws Aqy muMbeI iv`c r`eIAqwvwVI pRbMD lwgU kIqw[ (glq)

  • ikswnW dw lgwn iniScq kr id`qw igAw jo pYdwvwr dw 45% qoN 65% q`k huMdw sI[ (glq)

  • ies krky lwrf kwrnvwils ny 1793 eI: iv`c bMgwl Aqy ibhwr dy pRwqW iv`c sQweI bMdobsq pRbMD SurU kIqw[ (shI)


Prsnwvli
pRSnwvlI pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[

  • sQweI bMdobsq iks ny, kdoN Aqy ikQy SurU kIqw sI?

  • r`eIAqvwVI pRbMD iks ny, kdoN Aqy ikQy-2 SurU kIqw?

  • mihlvwVI pRbMD ikhVy iqMn KyqrW iv`c lwgU kIqw igAw?

  • ikRSI vxzIkrx ikvyN hoieAw?

  • ikRSI vxzIkrx dIAW do mu~K &slW ikhVIAW sn?


Mu k sroq
mu`K pirvwr dy mYNbrW iv`c vMf huMdI geI[sRoq

pMjwb skUl is`iKAw borf dI A`TvIN klws dI smwijk is`iKAw dI pwT pusqk iv`coN [

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