Atomic structure and atomic notations
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Atomic Structure and Atomic Notations. Decide whether each of the following statements concerning atoms is true or false. All of the particles in the nucleus of an atom are charged. The atom is best described as a uniform sphere of matter in which electrons are embedded.

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  • Decide whether each of the following statements concerning atoms is true or false.

    • All of the particles in the nucleus of an atom are charged.

    • The atom is best described as a uniform sphere of matter in which electrons are embedded.

    • The mass of the nucleus is only a very small fraction of the mass of the entire atom.

    • The size of the nucleus is only a very small fraction of the total size of the atom.

    • The number of neutrons in an atom must equal the number of electrons.


Modern atomic theory
Modern Atomic Theory atoms is true or false.

Atom – smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element.

  • Atoms are composed of two regions and three subatomic particles.

    • Nucleus- positively charged region located at the center of the atom.


Very small compared to the total size of the atom. (marble = size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

Composed of two particles

i. Proton= Positive particle

ii. Neutron = Neutral particle

Almost all mass is located in nucleus (extremely dense)

Nucleus held together by strong nuclear forces.


  • b) Electron Cloud – size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    • Mostly empty space

    • Gives atom its size

    • Contains tiny negatively charged particles called electrons.

  • Atoms are very small in size.

    • So small use picometers (1x10-12m)

    • Atomic radii range from 40 to 270 pm


  • 3) Atoms have very small masses. size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    • Example: mass of oxygen atom 2.6 x 10-23g.

    • atomic mass unit (amu)

    • 1 amu = 1.66 x 10-27g = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.

    • atoms have masses from 1-300 amu’s


    Comparison of subatomic particles
    Comparison of Subatomic Particles size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)


    4) Atoms are electrically neutral. size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    • Although an atom contains charged particles, the atom overall is neutral.

    • A proton and an electron have the same amount of charge just opposite in sign.

    • Number of protons = number of electrons.


    Atomic number and mass number
    Atomic Number and Mass Number size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    Atomic Number (Z) –

    • number of protons in the nucleus of atom of a particular element.

    • whole number listed on the periodic table.

      Mass Number (A) –

    • number of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom.

    • do not confuse with decimal number listed on periodic table.


    There are two different ways to represent atoms. size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    Symbol Notation –


    • Consists of name of element and a number. size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

      • Example: chlorine – 37

    • Number after name is the mass number.

    • Sample Problem:

      Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for a bromine-80 atom.

    Hyphen-Notation


    Reflection
    Reflection size of nucleus / football field = size of atom)

    What is still unclear about today’s lesson?


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