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The Enlightenment. Mr. Hardy Randolph Middle School 2012-2013. The Beginning of the Enlightenment. 1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc.

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The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

Mr. Hardy

Randolph Middle School

2012-2013


The beginning of the enlightenment
The Beginning of the Enlightenment

  • 1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature

    • Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc.

  • Early 1700’s: If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws?

    • Laws that govern human nature

    • Reformers begin studying human nature and societal problems


Major enlightenment ideas
Major Enlightenment Ideas

  • Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reason

  • Governments are created to secure an orderly society

  • Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties

  • All men are created “free and equal”

  • A free market should be allowed to regulate trade



Enlightenment thinkers
Enlightenment Thinkers

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke


Social contract
Social Contract

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

  • Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish.

  • To escape this “brutish” life people entered into a social contract.

  • Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.

  • Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly.

  • Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good

  • Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property

  • People form governments to protect natural rights

  • Best government was one with limited power

  • If a government violates people’s natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government


Jean jacques rousseau
Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • believed politics and morality are not separate

  • he is considered an opponent of the Enlightenments emphasis on reason

  • rely more on instinct and emotion

  • government is a contract between the ruler and citizens

  • wrote The Social Contract


Enlightenment and the economy
Enlightenment and the Economy

  • Physiocrats were Enlightenment

    thinkers who focused on economic reforms

  • Laissez-Faire: allowing business to operate with little or no government interference


Activity
Activity

  • THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS

  • Complete the Body Biography Activity on either Locke, Rousseau, or Hobbes. You pick!

  • DO NOT GLUE IT IN YOUR NOTEBOOK!


The enlightenment day 2
The Enlightenment Day #2

Mr. Hardy

Randolph Middle School

2012-2013


Enlightenment and society
Enlightenment and Society

  • Detested the slave trade and slavery

  • Deplored religious prejudice

  • Defended freedom of speech

  • Attacked divine right theory

  • Urged education for all

  • Hated unequal distribution of property

  • Believed governments should be freely elected

  • Women’s first duty was to her family


Enlightenment changes society
Enlightenment Changes Society

  • Women: Women were not equal and were criticized for attempting to gain equality

  • Salons: Gatherings to discuss ideas

  • Music: Ballets and operas become popular

  • Art: Baroque gives way to rococo art (simple, elegant and charming)

  • Literature: Novels become popular


Enlightenment changes society1
Enlightenment Changes Society

  • Majority/Lower Class/Peasants: Slow to change and hurt the worst

  • Some peasants become eager for change, some resist change completely


Baron de montesquieu
Baron de Montesquieu:

  • Criticized absolute monarchy and admired British government

    • British protected themselves from tyranny by dividing powers of government between three branches: legislative, executive and judicial (misconception)

    • Each branch of government should be able to ‘check’ the other two

  • What government does this sound like?


Voltaire
Voltaire

  • Advocated freedom of thought, speech, politics, and religion.

  • Against the Roman Catholic church and Christianity- religious tolerance

  • He was imprisoned in the Bastille in Paris and exiled because ofhis attacks on the French government and the Catholic Church.


Mary wolstonecraft
Mary Wolstonecraft

  • disagreed with societies treatment of women

  • believed marriage was particularly unfair to women

  • advocated equal education for women and men

  • wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women

  • believed that both sexes could contribute equally to society


Activity1
Activity

  • THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS

  • Complete the Philosopher’s Chart. Write in complete sentences.

  • Your icon should be no bigger than the box provided and should symbolize the thoughts of that Philosopher.


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