The enlightenment
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The Enlightenment. Mr. Hardy Randolph Middle School 2012-2013. The Beginning of the Enlightenment. 1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc.

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The Enlightenment

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The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

Mr. Hardy

Randolph Middle School

2012-2013


The beginning of the enlightenment

The Beginning of the Enlightenment

  • 1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature

    • Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc.

  • Early 1700’s: If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws?

    • Laws that govern human nature

    • Reformers begin studying human nature and societal problems


Major enlightenment ideas

Major Enlightenment Ideas

  • Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reason

  • Governments are created to secure an orderly society

  • Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties

  • All men are created “free and equal”

  • A free market should be allowed to regulate trade


The spread of the enlightenment

The Spread of the Enlightenment


Enlightenment thinkers

Enlightenment Thinkers

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke


Social contract

Social Contract

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

  • Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish.

  • To escape this “brutish” life people entered into a social contract.

  • Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.

  • Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly.

  • Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good

  • Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property

  • People form governments to protect natural rights

  • Best government was one with limited power

  • If a government violates people’s natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government


Jean jacques rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • believed politics and morality are not separate

  • he is considered an opponent of the Enlightenments emphasis on reason

  • rely more on instinct and emotion

  • government is a contract between the ruler and citizens

  • wrote The Social Contract


Enlightenment and the economy

Enlightenment and the Economy

  • Physiocrats were Enlightenment

    thinkers who focused on economic reforms

  • Laissez-Faire: allowing business to operate with little or no government interference


Activity

Activity

  • THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS

  • Complete the Body Biography Activity on either Locke, Rousseau, or Hobbes. You pick!

  • DO NOT GLUE IT IN YOUR NOTEBOOK!


The enlightenment day 2

The Enlightenment Day #2

Mr. Hardy

Randolph Middle School

2012-2013


Enlightenment and society

Enlightenment and Society

  • Detested the slave trade and slavery

  • Deplored religious prejudice

  • Defended freedom of speech

  • Attacked divine right theory

  • Urged education for all

  • Hated unequal distribution of property

  • Believed governments should be freely elected

  • Women’s first duty was to her family


Enlightenment changes society

Enlightenment Changes Society

  • Women: Women were not equal and were criticized for attempting to gain equality

  • Salons: Gatherings to discuss ideas

  • Music: Ballets and operas become popular

  • Art: Baroque gives way to rococo art (simple, elegant and charming)

  • Literature: Novels become popular


Enlightenment changes society1

Enlightenment Changes Society

  • Majority/Lower Class/Peasants: Slow to change and hurt the worst

  • Some peasants become eager for change, some resist change completely


Baron de montesquieu

Baron de Montesquieu:

  • Criticized absolute monarchy and admired British government

    • British protected themselves from tyranny by dividing powers of government between three branches: legislative, executive and judicial (misconception)

    • Each branch of government should be able to ‘check’ the other two

  • What government does this sound like?


Voltaire

Voltaire

  • Advocated freedom of thought, speech, politics, and religion.

  • Against the Roman Catholic church and Christianity- religious tolerance

  • He was imprisoned in the Bastille in Paris and exiled because ofhis attacks on the French government and the Catholic Church.


Mary wolstonecraft

Mary Wolstonecraft

  • disagreed with societies treatment of women

  • believed marriage was particularly unfair to women

  • advocated equal education for women and men

  • wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women

  • believed that both sexes could contribute equally to society


Activity1

Activity

  • THIS ACTIVITY WILL BE EXPLAINED BY MR. HARDY AND DONE IN CLASS

  • Complete the Philosopher’s Chart. Write in complete sentences.

  • Your icon should be no bigger than the box provided and should symbolize the thoughts of that Philosopher.


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