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Mindset: Recent motor behavior research applied to volleyball. Nels Rydberg, MS Assistant Coach University of Portland. Preview. Background Information Motor Behavior Research Focus of Attention Choose your words carefully Observational Learning Two for the price of one Mindset

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mindset recent motor behavior research applied to volleyball

Mindset: Recent motor behavior research applied to volleyball

Nels Rydberg, MS

Assistant Coach

University of Portland

preview
Preview
  • Background Information
    • Motor Behavior Research
  • Focus of Attention
    • Choose your words carefully
  • Observational Learning
    • Two for the price of one
  • Mindset
    • What are they thinking?
  • Ideas and Questions
background information
Background Information
  • Motor behavior research
    • Learning vs performance
      • Retention test
    • Open vs closed skills
      • Generalizability
      • Transfer test
        • Volleyball skills
focus of attention
Focus of Attention
  • Internal focus: on body movements
  • External focus: on the movement effect
    • Not related to visual focus

Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sportand Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77-104.

Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

focus of attention1
Focus of Attention
  • Initial findings

Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, 169-179.

    • Pressure exerted on platform vs feet exerting the pressure
    • Markers on board horizontal rather than feet horizontal
      • Retention (and later, transfer) had no instructions, internal or external
focus of attention2
Focus of Attention
  • Movement effectiveness
    • Accuracy, consistency, balance
  • Movement efficiency
    • Muscular activity, force production, cardiovascular responses
      • Higher skill level is achieved sooner
      • Benefits performance and learning
focus of attention3
Focus of Attention
  • Measurements
    • Balance, accuracy, muscular activity, maximum force production, speed and endurance, movement kinematics and kinetics (whole-body coordination patterns optimized)
  • Tasks
    • Golf shots, volleyball serve, kicks, free throws, weight lifting, throwing accuracy and form, jumping, sprinting, agility, swimming, rowing
focus of attention4
Focus of Attention
  • “…even a single instructional cue can impact whole-body coordination” (Wulf, 2013, p. 78).
    • Why does this work?
      • “Self-invoking trigger”
      • Negative effects of self-consciousness
        • Mindset?
focus of attention5
Focus of Attention
  • In your gym
    • Serving
      • Target, point of impact on the ball
    • Passing
      • Target, trajectory
    • Blocking
      • Attacker’s shoulders, points to reach for
    • Reading and external focus
focus of attention6
Focus of Attention

Beckmann, J., Gröpel, P., & Ehrlenspiel, F. (2013). Preventing motor skill failure through hemisphere-specific priming: Cases from choking under pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 679-691.

  • In short
    • Right brain = automated behavior
    • Squeeze left hand to activate right hemisphere
observational practice
Observational Practice

Shea, C. H., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (1999). Enhancing training efficiency and effectiveness through the use of dyad training. Journal of Motor Behavior, 31, 119-125.

Shea, C. H., Wright, D. L., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32(1), 27-36.

  • Form of mental training
    • Model does not have to be an expert
observational practice1
Observational Practice
  • Experiment 1
    • Physical vs observational practice
      • Retention
        • physical > observational > control
      • Transfer
        • physical = observational > control
          • Better able to apply parameters and strategies
observational practice2
Observational Practice
  • Experiment 2
    • Dyads: “…participants develop some form of interactive relationship during practice…” (Shea, et al., 2000, p. 34)
    • Physical vs combined (physical and observational) practice
      • Acquisition
        • Physical = combined
      • Retention
        • Physical = combined > control
observational practice3
Observational Practice
  • Physical vs combined (cont.)
    • Transfer
      • Combined > physical > control
        • Physical deteriorated in transfer, combined did not
  • Possible explanations
    • What worked vs what did not
    • Mental processing that cannot be done during physical practice
    • Social interactions including motivation and social comparison
      • Mindset?
observational practice4
Observational Practice
  • Benefits and application
    • Increased learning efficiency
      • Space, equipment, time
    • Decreased fatigue and chance of injury/overuse
      • Effective use of rest intervals
    • Teach your players to observe each other
    • Design drills that facilitate observational learning
observational practice5
Observational Practice

Granados, C., & Wulf, G. (2007). Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: Contributions of observation and dialogue. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 78(3), 197-203.

  • Observational practice enhanced learning regardless of dialogue
mindset
Mindset
  • More specifically
    • Enhanced expectancies
    • Conceptions of ability
    • Self-confidence
    • Social-cognitive
    • Positive affect
    • Intrinsic motivation
mindset1
Mindset
  • Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

http://www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/

    • Basic needs
      • Autonomy, competence, relatedness
        • Intrinsic motivation, positive affect
mindset2
Mindset
  • Feedback after successful trials
    • Increased intrinsic motivation and self-confidence
      • Catch someone doing something well and tell them about it
      • Trip on the curb, shank one pass

Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2002). Self-controlled feedback: Does it enhance learning because performers get feedback when they need it? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 408-415.

mindset3
Mindset

Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2011). Feedback after good trials enhances intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 360-364.

Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Namazizadeh, M., & Wulf, G. (2012). Feedback after good versus poor trials: Differential effects on self-confidence and activation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2), 196-203.

mindset4
Mindset
  • Acquirable skill > inherent ability
    • Incremental theorists > entity theorists

Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2009). Conceptions of ability affect motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41(5), 461-467.

  • Normative feedback
    • “Above average” performance 

Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2010). Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. QuarterlyJournal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4), 738-749.

mindset5
Mindset
  • Performance under pressure
    • Throwing accuracy

McKay, B., Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve performance under pressure. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00008

mindset6
Mindset

Experienced, trained athletes

Increased physiological efficiency

Stoate, I., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve movement efficiency in runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(8), 815-823.

mindset7
Mindset
  • Why?
    • Automaticity vs conscious control processes
  • How?
    • Instructions or feedback should focus on learners’ improvements or effort invested in practice
  •  Ideas?
    • Feedback after good trials
    • Self-controlled feedback
      • Establish the proper mindset
review
Review
  • Background Information
    • Motor Behavior Research
  • Focus of Attention
    • Choose your words carefully
  • Observational Learning
    • Two for the price of one
  • Mindset
    • What are they thinking?
  • Ideas and Questions
mindset8
Mindset
  • Sharing of ideas
    • Focus of attention
    • Observational practice
    • Mindset
  • Questions
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