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Behavioral Research. Chapter 6-Observing Behavior. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches . Quantitative  focuses on the numerical or statistical aspects of the study

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behavioral research

Behavioral Research

Chapter 6-Observing Behavior

quantitative and qualitative approaches
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
  • Quantitative focuses on the numerical or statistical aspects of the study
  • Qualitative focuses on themes that emerge from the study; is usually expressed in non-numerical terms using language and images
four types of non experimental research
Four Types of Non-Experimental Research:
  • Naturalistic observation observation of events as they occur in natural settings
  • Systematic ObservationThe careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting
  • Archival research studying info from already existing records made in natural settings
  • Case studies making extensive observations of a single group or a person
naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
  • Makes observations in a particular natural setting over an extended period of time, using a variety of techniques.
  • Used when researcher wants to describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live, work, and experience the setting.
  • Does not have a hypothesis prior to the observation.
  • Hypothesis are generated to explain the observed data.
  • Qualitative in nature
description and interpretation of data
Description and Interpretation of Data
  • Goals of the naturalistic observation:
    • Describe the setting, events and persons observed
    • Analyze what was observed  generating hypotheses that help explain the data and make them understandable.
issues in naturalistic observation
Issues in Naturalistic Observation
  • Participation vs. Concealment
    • Participation
        • They could begin to associate with whatever group they have joined to study
        • Their observation could then be biased and their conclusions will lack objectivity.
        • Reduces the likelihood the observer will influence behavior
    • Concealment
      • ethical standpoint
limits to naturalistic observation
Limits to Naturalistic Observation
  • Time consuming
  • Expensive
  • Difficult to analyze
systematic observation
Systematic Observation
  • The researcher is interested in only a few very specific behaviors.
  • The observations are quantifiable.
  • The researcher frequently has developed hypothesis about the behavior.
  • Behavior is observed and coded for analysis
case studies
Case Studies
  • Case studies usually aren’t carried out in natural environments, but rather in a setting selected by the researcher
  • Case studies typically focus on an individual or case.
  • Case studies look at limited classes of behavior rather than at the context and natural flow of behavior.
archival research
Archival research
  • Involve using previously compiled info to answer research questions.
  • Statistical Records
  • Survey Achieves
  • Written and Mass Communication Records
  • Content Analysis of Documents
problems with archival data
Problems with Archival data
  • The desired records may be difficult to obtain.
  • We can never be completely sure of the accuracy or info collected by someone else