Business reports
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Business Reports. Types Preparation Organization presentation. Mailing Address: Third Floor 207 Regent Street London W1B 3HH Email:  [email protected] Website : http://www.contentwritings..com. Meaning and Classification of Business Reports. Business Reports Definition.

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Business Reports

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Business reports

Business Reports

  • Types

  • Preparation

  • Organization

  • presentation

Mailing Address: Third Floor 207 Regent Street London W1B 3HH Email:[email protected]

Website : http://www.contentwritings..com


Meaning and classification of business reports

Meaning and Classification of Business Reports

  • Business Reports Definition.

    Business Reportis an impartial, objective, planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for specific, significant business purpose.

    The report facts could relate to events, conditions, qualities, progress, results, products, problems, or suggested solutions.

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Long formal report

Long Formal Report

The length of a long report is not less than 10 pages, and the report usually includes the following parts “some of the parts optional”

  • Prefatory Parts:

    Cover; title fly; title page; letters of authorization; acceptance;

    approval; transmittal; acknowledgements; (abstract, synopsis,

    executive summary); table of contents; table of tables.

  • Report Body:

    Introduction, Text or body, Terminal section.

  • Supplemental Parts:

    Appendix, bibliography or endnotes, glossary, index.

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Business reports classification

Business Reports Classification

.

  • Function:informational or analytical.

  • Subject matter: accounting, advertising, finance, marketing…etc.

  • Formality: formal or informal, the formal is long and the informal

    is short report.

    Formal reports always include some of or all these prefatory and

    supplemental parts:

  • prefatory parts:

    cover; title fly; title page; letters of authorization; acceptance; approval;

    transmittal; acknowledgements; (abstract, synopsis, or executive

    summary); table of contents; table of tables.

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Business reports

  • Supplemental parts:

    appendix, bibliography or endnotes, glossary, index.

    some informal reports may include ,in addition to the body, a title page,

    transmittal, endnotes, and appendix.

  • Origin:authorized or voluntary, private or public.

  • Frequency of issue:periodic or special.

  • Type or Appearance:influenced by length and formality.

    informal and short reports: memorandum, letter, a printed form

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Preparation before writing reports

Preparation before Writing Reports

  • Define the Problem, Purpose, and Scope

  • Consider Who will Receive the Report

  • Determine Ideas to Include

  • Collect Needed Material

    Secondary/ Primary

  • Sort, Analyze, and Interpret Data

  • Organize Data and Prepare Final Outline


Main parts of the report

Main Parts of the Report

  • Introduction:

  • Authorization,

  • Plan of presentation (layout)*,

  • Problem*,

  • Purpose*,

  • Scope*,

  • Methodology*,

  • Sources*,

  • Background or (history of the situation being investigated)*,

  • Definition of Terms, (introduction, a glossary at the end, or text)

  • Limitations,

  • Brief Statement of the Results or Recommendation.

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Business reports

  • Text or body:

    The longest portion of any report body, Its title may be “Discussion”, “Findings” or “Data”.

  • Terminal section:

    It is based on the text discussion no new material included.

    The terminal section for the informational report is called “Summary”.

    For analytical report is called “Conclusions” or “Recommendations”.

    or combination.

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Organization and outline of report body

Organization and Outline of Report Body

when you choose the organizational plan for the entire report body and text section, you should consider the reader, purpose, and subject matter.

  • Plans for Organizing Report Body:

    Two ways to organizing a report body: deductive and inductive arrangement.

  • Deductive Arrangement “ direct” is common way in organizing business reports.

    The three sections may be arranged in one of these two ways:

    Terminal section Introduction

    Introduction or Terminal section

    Text (discussion & explanation) Text (discussion &

    explanation)

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Business reports

  • Inductive Arrangement “indirect”.

    The three sections are arranged as the following:

    Introduction

    Text (discussion & explanation)

    Terminal section

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Ways to organize report text section

Ways to Organize Report Text Section

  • By criteria or topics:

    This is the most common way.

    The main headings could be the standards, factors, solutions, benefits…etc.

  • By order of occurrence. “Progress reports,

  • By order of location or space.

  • By procedure or process.

  • By order of importance or by alphabetization.

  • By order of familiarity or simplicity.

  • By sources.

  • By problem solution.

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Business reports

For example, organizing report text section by criteria.

The problem is to replace the old PCs by new PCs.

  • DISCUSSION

  • Reliability

  • Service

  • Warranty Period

  • Price

  • Case Style

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Methods of outlining

Methods of Outlining

  • Methods of Outlining

    It is becoming your table content.

    Before writing the report, the outline helps you to see the relationship between topics, compare proportions and headings, check for loopholes in logical order, and eliminate overlapping.

    you need to consider Types of Heading, Formats of Outline, and Parallelism in Heading.

  • Type of Heading:

    For wording heading, you can choose from four type of heading:

    Topic: single words (nouns), a few words, or short phrases. Globalization

    Complete sentence heading:Globalization is a Syndrome of Process and

    Activities

    Imperative sentence heading:Keep Driving Record Clear

    Variant heading: Improving Employees’ Productivity

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Business reports

A good “Heading” should indicate the “Subject Matter”. It is better not to use more than eight words. If your topic is one word, make sure that the word not to be too “Broad”.

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Formats of outline

Formats of Outline:

After choosing your organizational plan and the wording of your main headings, you next choose a way to show levels “degrees) for various items in your outline.

For long report, three ways to number heading degrees.

  • Numeral-Letter Combination: it is used in business.

  • Decimal System: it is used in scientific and technical reports.

  • Letter-NumeralCombination: it is used by those who prefer letters before

    main heading and they do not need the

    additional degree that is possible with

    Roman numerals.

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Business reports

  • Degree of HeadingNumeral-Letter Combination:

    1st I.

    Introduction 2d A.

    2d B.

    2d C.

    1st II.

    2d A.

    Text/ 3d 1.

    Discussion 3d 2.

    2d B.

    3d 1.

    3d 2.

    4th a.

    4th b.

    5th (1)

    5th (2)

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Business reports

1st III.

2d A.

Text/ 3d 1.

Discussion 3d 2.

2d B.

3d 1.

3d 2.

1stIV.

2d A.

3dh 1.

3d 2.

2d B.

3d 1.

3d 2.

Terminal 1st

2d


Five important cautions

Five Important Cautions:

  • Place the most important ideas (Criteria) in the highest degrees of heading, considering report length, subject matter, and reader.

  • Try to balance the sections as well as possible.

    For example, if section II.A, had 12 subheading and section II.B had no subheading, the proportion would be lopsided. Then try to narrow the scope of heading II.A (by rewarding it and by rearranging facts) and broaden II.B.

  • Have at least two subheading if you divide any topic; for example, A.1 and A.2 never ever only A.1.

  • The number of section headings neither too many nor too few. Usually three to seven main sections are desirable.

  • Do not consider the report title as a section heading, and do not begin the first sentence with exactly the same words as the heading.

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Parallelism in heading

Parallelism in Heading:

  • For parallel, consistent, and construction all headings of the same degree within any part of an outline should be parallel to each other. They should have the same grammatical form- all nouns, all phrases, or all sentences. For example, the following headings should be parallel to each other:

    I, II, III, IV, V.

    A, B, C under I.

    1, 2, 3 under II.A

    1 and 2 under II.B

    a and b under II.B.2…etc.However, subheadings 1, 2, 3 under II.A need not be parallel with subheadings 1 and 2 under II. B, and other third-degree subheadings in other sections.

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Visual aids

Visual Aids

  • To improve both readability and appearance of a report, you should use

    heading and when desirable also graphic materials.

    Heading and Subheading as Directional Signs:

    The headings you have selected for your final outline will be directional signs for the reader of the finished report. Headings help direct the reader through the entire presentation.

    System of styling the headings:

    FIRST-DEGREE HEADINGS

    (Centred and in all capitals-caps)

    Second- Degree Headings

    ( Centred, caps and lowercase, underlined)

    Third-Degree Headings

    (left margin, caps and lowercase, underlined)

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Business reports

Fourth-degree headings.-- (Indented, underlined, lowercase; paragraph

begins on same line).

Fifth-degree headings(Indented, underlined; sentence begins with

the heading).

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Sample graphics for quantitative and other data

Sample Graphics for Quantitative and Other Data

  • Tables

  • Bar Graphs

  • Pie Charts

  • Line Graphs

  • Area Graph

  • Pictograms…etc.

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Cover design and wording of title

Cover Design and Wording of Title

  • Wording Title Includes:

  • Who: the company

  • What: the subject matter

  • When: the year

  • Where: the country

  • Why: the objective

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How to make references

How to Make References

  • Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5).

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