Applications of GIS to Water Resources Engineering

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Applications of GIS to Water Resources Engineering

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1. Applications of GIS to Water Resources Engineering Francisco Olivera Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University

2. Geographic Information Systems

3. The Problem To analyze hydrologic processes in a non-uniform landscape. Non-uniformity of the terrain involves the topography, land use and soils, and consequently affects the hydrologic properties of the flow paths.

4. The Solutions Lumped models: Easy to implement, but do not account for terrain variability.

5. Overview Soil Water Balance Flow Routing Methods Results

6. Soil Water Balance Model

7. Soil Water Balance Model

8. Global Data

9. Monthly Surplus – Niger Basin

10. Monthly Surplus – Niger Basin

11. Overview Soil Water Balance Flow Routing Methods Results

12. Flow Routing Models Cell-to-cell Element-to-element Source to sink

13. Cell-to-Cell Model Sets a mesh of cells on the terrain and establishes their connectivity. Represents each cell as a linear reservoir (outflow proportional to storage). One parameter per cell: residence time in the cell. Flow is routed from cell-to-cell and hydrographs are calculated at each cell.

14. Mesh of Cells Congo River basin subdivided into cells by a 2.8125° ? 2.8125° mesh. With this resolution, 69 cells were defined.

15. Low Resolution River Network Low resolution river networks determined from high resolution hydrographic data.

16. Low Resolution River Network High resolution flow directions (1-Km DEM cells) are used to define low resolution river network (0.5° cells).

17. Cell Length The cell length is calculated as the length of the flow path that runs from the cell outlet to the receiving cell outlet.

18. Element-to-Element Model

19. Sub-Basins and Reaches

20. Hydrologic System Schematic

21. Hydrologic System Schematic

22. Delineated Streams

23. Guadalquivir Basin

24. HMS Schematic of the Guadalquivir Basin

25. Source-to-Sink Model

26. Sinks Sinks are defined at the continental margin and at the pour points of the inland catchments. Using a 3°x3° mesh, 132 sinks were identified for the African continent (including inland catchments like Lake Chad).

27. Drainage Area of the Sinks The drainage area of each sink is delineated using raster-based GIS functions applied to a 1-Km DEM (GTOPO30).

28. Land Boxes Land boxes capture the geomorphology of the hydrologic system. A 0.5°x0.5° mesh is used to subdivide the terrain into land boxes. For the Congo River basin, 1379 land boxes were identified.

29. Surplus Boxes Surplus boxes are associated to a surplus time series. Surplus data has been calculated using NCAR’s CCM3.2 GCM model over a 2.8125° x 2.8125° mesh. For the Congo River basin, 69 surplus boxes were identified.

30. Sources Sources are obtained by intersecting: drainage area of the sinks land boxes surplus boxes Number of sources: Congo River basin: 1,954 African continent: 19,170

31. Response Function

32. Overview Soil Water Balance Flow Routing Methods Results

33. Global Monthly Surplus

34. Global River Network

35. Hydrographs - Congo River

36. Hydrographs - Amazon River

37. Watershed Geomorphology

38. Flooding t.u. Campus

39. Flooding t.u. Campus

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