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Mental Health and Illness. An Epidemiological Perspective. Mental Health-Everybody’s Business. Peter Sims Professor of Public Health medicine University of Papua New Guinea <[email protected]>. Teaching and Learning Aims.

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Mental Health and Illness

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Mental Health and Illness

An Epidemiological Perspective


Mental Health-Everybody’s Business

  • Peter Sims

  • Professor of Public Health medicine

  • University of Papua New Guinea

  • <[email protected]>


Teaching and Learning Aims

  • There is ignorance, superstition, stigma and fear around Mental Illness

  • Aetiology, pathogenesis diagnosis and treatment are imperfect.

  • There is a different paradigm and a less rigorous epidemiology


Often sad,sometimes mad,occasionally bad

  • The medical model is

  • insufficient

  • Diagnosis is largely

  • clinical and experiential


More of an art than a science

  • Treatment is pragmatic

  • Prevention is about the politics of health

  • “populations,people pressures, poverty”


Mental Health is a worldwide problem


Mental illness is common 6 in 10 women and 4 in 10 men

in Western Europe and North America will have a

significant mental illness during their lifetime

Mental illness can affect any one of us

Mental illness occurs in all societies and cultures


We are all vulnerable


A Holistic Approach

BODY

Arrow of Time

CULTURE

MIND

SPIRIT


Intelligence

IQ = 100

IQ

I.Q. = the Mental Age x 100 the Chronological age


Personality

  • Each human being is unique

  • We all have different personalities

  • My personality reflects genetic inheritance and Environment


Behaviour

The Parent

SUPER-EGO

EGO

The Adult

The Child

ID


The Subconscious Mind

The Conscious

The Subconscious


Affective Disorders

Anxiety,depression,mania,obsessional disorders

Schizophrenia

Simple,Hebephrenic,Catatonic,paranoid

Organic states

Delirium,dementia

Personality Disorder

Abnormal personality,Psychopathy

A Classification

Substance abuse problems

Drugs, alcohol

Learning disorders

Subnormality


The Classification of Mental Illness:The NeurosesDepression, Anxiety, Mania, Obsessions and compulsions(usually the patient retains insight and orientation; they experience deep distress and may commit suicide)The PsychosesSchizophrenia, puerperal psychosis(the patient is disorientated, deluded, and lacking in insight)The DementiasProgressive deterioration with loss of recent memory and deterioration of a normal personality,They may be primary or more commonly secondary to another condition e.g. alcohol, stroke


Clinical Diagnosis


The Classification of Mental Illness

Drug Problems

Addictive drugs, (Heroin, Cocaine, Amphetamines,) alcohol and drug related illness-psychosis, delirium and dementia

Personality Disorders

A personality and behaviour that is damaging to the individual and/or to society and which is not tolerated by the dominant culture

Mental subnormality/learning disorders:

Problems around intelligence and ability to learn on the basis of teaching and experience


Aetiology

Inheritance-Genetics/Intra-uterine environment Schizophrenia,Huntington’s

Drug Abuse

Alcohol,Heroin etc

Upbringing

Mothering,education,parenting

Neurological diseases

MS,Brain tumour

Trauma/head injury

Biochemistry/metabolic

Porphyria,Diabetes

Infections-HIV,Syphilis,CJD

Vascular-CVA

Nutrition/PCM


Treatment and Care

Hospital Care

Community Care


Preventive NetworksChurch,Family, Home, Friends, Work


The Mental Health Act

Compulsory Psychiatric Treatment

Criminal responsibility

Power of attorney


Mental Handicap/learning disability

The mind of a young child in the body of an adult


Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased,

Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow,

Raze out the written troubles of the brain,

And with some sweet oblivious antidote

Cleanse the stuff’d bosom of that perilous stuff

Which weighs upon the heart?

Macbeth


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