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1. 6. OBJECTIVE. & GOALS. ASSESSMENT. STRUCTURING OF CONTENT. 2. 5. SELECTION. OF CONTENT. IMPLEMENTATION. 4. 3. INSTRUCTION. The Curricular Process. Psychomotor. Affective. Cognitive. Students. Society. Disciplines. Goals & objectives. Domains. Goals and Objectives.

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1

6

OBJECTIVE

& GOALS

ASSESSMENT

STRUCTURING OF

CONTENT

2

5

SELECTION

OF CONTENT

IMPLEMENTATION

4

3

INSTRUCTION

The Curricular Process


Psychomotor

Affective

Cognitive

Students

Society

Disciplines

Goals

&

objectives

Domains

Goals and Objectives


Comprehension (understanding)

all the calculations in science

Application

applying scientific principles to other situations

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Cognitive Domain

Knowledge-Recall

knowledge of

information

Low

Level

Skills


Analyzing

break down material to its fundamentals. (identification of a compound in chemistry)

Synthesis

Formation of new understanding. Bringing together the parts into a new whole

Evaluation

making judgment based on evidence and external criteria

High

Level

Skills


Curiosity

In addition:

Joy, attitude, interest Classroom learning environment

Affective Domain

Receiving

Responding

Valuing


Psychomotor

  • Manipulation

  • Imitation

  • Articulation - Sequencing

  • Precision


Basic Goals of Science Education

1. Goals should be comprehensive enough to include

the generally accepted objectives of teaching science

2.Goals should be understandable for other teachers,

administrators and parents.

3.Goals should be neutral; that is, free of bias and

not oriented toward any particular view of science

teaching.

4.Goals should be few in number.

5.Goals should be differ in concepts and abilities

from each other.

6.Goals should be easily applicable to instructional

and learning objectives.


Content

Abilities

Science Content in National

Standards for the United States:

 Science as Inquiry

Science Subject Matter

Science and Technology

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

History and Nature of Science

Unifying Concepts and Processes


Content of Science

The High School Science

1960s’ and early 1970s’

Golden age of Science Curriculum


History of Science Curricula

Development and Implementation

The 60s’

Main Goal:

Preparing the next generation of:

 Scientists;

Medical Doctors; and

Engineers


Goals for Teaching Science in the 60 s’

AAAS 1962

1. Science Education should present to the learner

a real picture of Science to include theories and

models.

2.Science Education should present an authentic

picture of a scientist and his method of research.

3.Science Education should present the scientific

method, research method and its limitations.

4.Present Science as a “Structure of Discipline”.

As a result:


projects

a-b

The Structure of the Discipline

PSSC - Physical Science Study Committee

HPP - Harvard Project Physics

BSCS - Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

SMSG - School Mathematics Study Group

CBA - Chemical Bond Approach

CHEMS - Chemical Education Materials Study

SCIS - Science Curriculum Improvement Study

ESS - Elementary Science Study

Nuffield Projects - in the UK


Some Features

In Physics (PSSC) ~ 1960s’

 Fewer topics at greater depth,

Greater emphasis on laboratory work,

More emphasis on basic physics,

Less attention to technological applications,

Development approach showing origins of

basic ideas of physics, and

Increased difficulty and rigor of the course.


Harvard Project Physics ~ 1970s’

The philosophy of this course is emphasized in eight points.

1. Physics is for everyone.

2.A coherent selection within physics is possible.

3.Doing physics goes beyond physics.

4.Individuals require a flexible course.

5.A multimedia system simulates better learning.

6.The time has come to teach science as one of

the humanities.

7. A physics course should be rewarding to take

8.A physics course should be rewarding to teach.


Chemistry

Programs: CBA & CHEMSTUDY 1960s’

Schools: 10% 40% of schools

CHEMStudy: Highly based on Experimental

Work


If science is presented in a way it is known to scientists, it will be inherently interesting to all students.

1

2

Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.

ASSUMPTIONS 1950-1960


Common Elements of it will be inherently interesting to all students.

the “Golden-age” Curricula

1. There was less emphasis on social and personal

applications of science and technology than in

the traditional courses.

2.There was more emphasis on abstractions, theory,

and basic science - the structure of scientific

disciplines.

3.There was increased emphasis on discovery -

the modes of inquiry used by scientists.

4.There was frequent use of quantitative techniques.

5.There were newer concepts in subject matter.


Common Elements of it will be inherently interesting to all students.

the “Golden-age” Curricula

6.There was an upgrading of teacher competency in

both subject matter and pedagogical skills.

7. There were well integrated and designed teaching

aids to supplement the courses.

8.There was primarily an orientation toward

college-bound students.

9.There were similarities in emphasis and structure

in the high school and junior high school programs.


IAC: it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Interdisciplinary Approach to Chemistry

Units (Modules)

 Reactions and Reason (Introductory),

Diversity and Periodicity (Inorganic),

Form and Function (Organic),

Molecules in Living Systems (Biochemistry),

The Heart of the Matter (Nuclear),

Earth and its Neighbors (Geochemistry),

The Delicate Balance (Environmental), and

Communities of Molecules (Physical).


Early 80s’: “A Nation at Risk” it will be inherently interesting to all students.

300 different Reports were published raising a Concern about School Science:

 Content (Knowledge)

Practice (experiences provided)

Goals

Equity (minorities and Gender issues)


Yager and Harris in it will be inherently interesting to all students.

“Project Synthesis” Call for:

Identifying new Goals for

Teaching and Learning Science

Science for:

 Personal needs

Societal issues

Career awareness

The preparation of Future Scientists


Historical Overview of Goals it will be inherently interesting to all students.

for Science Teaching; The 80s’

Teaching Science for:

 Scientific Knowledge

Scientific Methods (Process)

Societal Issues

Personal Needs (Personal Development)

Career Awareness


The conceptual structure it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Theprocess of chemistry e.g. Inquiry

of chemistry

The technological

manifestations of chemistry

Chemistry as a personally

relevant subject

The cultural aspects

The societal role and

of chemistry

implications of chemistry

UV

O2(g) O(g) + O(g)

O(g) + O2(g) O3(g)

O3(g) + O(g) 2O2(g)

Multidimensional approach to School Chemistry


It took more than 15 years for a new reform it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Major differences between the 60s’ & 90s’

The 90s’: Scientific Literacy for All

One of the Key features STS

”Science and Technology are enterprises that shape, and are shaped by, Human thought and social actions”


National Standards and it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Scientific Literacy

New Standards in:

 Content (K-12)

Pedagogy

Assessment

Professional Development

Organization of Teaching and

Learning Science


Standards for Science Education it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Towards the 21st century

Less emphasis on:

 Knowledge of concepts just for the

presentation of; “Structure of a certain

discipline”.

Learning subject with out connections

(separation of chemistry and biology

chemistry and physics).

Separation of Knowledge from process

(inquiry).


More emphasis on: it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Learning concepts in the context of:

 STS (Science -Technology - Society)

Integration of key scientific concepts

(e.g. Energy, Food, Natural Resources)

Learning Science using inquiry

(asking questions, hypothesizing)

Science as personal and societal issues

History and nature of science


Global Science it will be inherently interesting to all students.

1.The Grand Oasis in Space

Students build an understanding of ecosystems.

2.Basic Energy/Resource Concepts

Students develop an understanding of the laws

governing energy and mineral resource use.

3.Mineral Resources

Students learn how mineral deposits are formed,

where they are located, and how they are mined.

4.Growth and Population

Students learn about exponential growth and

population issues.

5.Food, Agriculture and Population Interactions

Students examine nutrition and the fundamentals

of food production, modern agricultural practices,

and the world food situation.

6.Energy Today

Students build understandings of the energy

sources for modern societies.


Recommendations : 2061 it will be inherently interesting to all students.

The National Council’s recommendations address the basic dimensions of science literacy, which, in the most general terms are:

Being familiar with the natural world and recognizing both its diversity and its unity

Understanding key concepts and principles of science

Being aware of some of the important ways in which science, mathematics and technology depend upon one another

Knowing that science, mathematics, and technology are human enterprises and knowing what that implies about their strengths and limitations.

Having a capacity for scientific ways of thinking

Using scientific knowledge and ways of thinking for individual and social purposes


Content it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Scientific Inquiry

Abilities


Discovery it will be inherently interesting to all students.

Discovery vs. Inquiry

Discovery is included in the inquiry

  • Observing

  • measuring

  • Predicting

    • Inferring

  • classifying

    • Formulating a problem

    • Hypothesizing

    • Design an experiment

    • Synthesizing knowledge

    • Demonstrating attitudes (curiosity)

    Inquiry


    Welch: “A general process by which human beings seek information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    Inquiry teaching is a way of developing the mental process of curiosity and investigation


    Content information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

     Unifying Concepts and Processes

    Science as Inquiry

    Physical Science

     Life Science

    Earth and Space Science

    Science and Technology

    Science in Personal and Social

    Perspectives

    History and Nature of Science


    Disciplines and tools of forensic science information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    FORENSIC

    SCIENCE


    Decision making on: information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    • Health

    • Population

    • Resources

    • Environment


    Changes of ideas information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    • Evidence

    • Scientific arguments

    • Criticism

    • Endeavor


    Personal information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    STSP

    Science

    Personal

    Technology

    Society


    Questions information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    Science: What do I want to discover?

    Technology: What will I do with it?

    Society: How would we use it?

    Personal: How would it affect me?


    Science for all Americans: Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy – Project 2061

    - More emphasis on the content

    - Covers an array of topics

    - “The more is less”


    - Energy (in chemistry, biology, physics, Literacy – Project 2061

    technology)

    The treatment of topics (cell, structure of matter, communication) differs from traditional approach by:

    Softening boundaries

     Connections are emphasized through the use

    of important conceptual themes:

    - Systems

    • - Evolution


    More specifically it includes: Literacy – Project 2061 - Benchmarks

    The nature of science

    The nature of mathematics

    The nature of technology

    The physical science

    The living environment

    The human organism

    Human Society

    The designed world

    The mathematical world

    Historical perspectives

    Habits of mind


    Recommendations : 2061 Literacy – Project 2061

    The National Council’s recommendations address the basic dimensions of science literacy, which, in the most general terms are:

    Being familiar with the natural world and recognizing both its diversity and its unity

    Understanding key concepts and principles of science

    Being aware of some of the important ways in which science, mathematics and technology depend upon one another

    Knowing that science, mathematics, and technology are human enterprises and knowing what that implies about their strengths and limitations.

    Having a capacity for scientific ways of thinking

    Using scientific knowledge and ways of thinking for individual and social purposes


    Integrated vs Disciplinary Science Literacy – Project 2061

    Why integrate?

    - DNA what is it? A concept in Biology? Chemistry? Forensic science?

    - Energy, is it a different concept in Chemistry, Biology, Physics?

    - Are we refering to nature of Biology, Physics, Chemistry or Nature of Science?

    - How can we teach Photosynthesis without Physics and Chemistry?

    - Making science more relevant for our students – working with meaningful problems and issues in the real world or in the lab setting.


    The U.S National Science Education Standards emphasize: Literacy – Project 2061

    Problem solving

    reasoning

    Making connections with other disciplines and prior learning

    The need for effective communication of ideas and results.

    The need for integration of various areas.


    The integrated approach Literacy – Project 2061

    Disciplinary Approach

    vs


    Questions asked Literacy – Project 2061

    Which one is more interesting for students? (close to their personal life?)

    Which one is more difficult for the teacher? (difficult to implement and organize in a coherent manner)

    Which one presents a more valid picture of science? (nature of science)

    Which one provides us with more opportunities to vary the classroom learning environment?

    What are the difficulties in teaching science by the integrated approach?


    First Option Literacy – Project 2061

    Applications

    _______________________________________

    disciplines in science (concepts) _______________________________________


    Second option Literacy – Project 2061

    Concepts

    __________________________________________

    Application – issues

    __________________________________________


    Disciplines and tools of forensic science Literacy – Project 2061

    FORENSIC

    SCIENCE


    Questions Literacy – Project 2061

    Science: What do I want to discover?

    Technology: What will I do with it?

    Society: How would we use it?

    Personal: How would it affect me?


    concrete Literacy – Project 2061

    formal

    Reasons (Sources) for Misconceptions – Learning Difficulties

    Microscopic nature of phenomenon. (as opposed to macroscopic).

    Prior-knowledge (indigenous)

    Overload of information on memory

    Developmental stage

    vs

    Models and simulations (abstraction, nature of models- it’s limitations)

    Misconceptions transferred from books or teachers

    Laboratory (practical work)


    Typical Misconceptions Literacy – Project 2061

    - Structure of matter (particulate nature)

    - Optics

    - Galaxy

    - Structure of molecules

    - Bonding

    - Cell and its structure


    macro Literacy – Project 2061

    micro

    symbolic

    A model for learning

    Matter can be represented in three levels (Johnston,1991)

    Macroscopic (physical phenomena)

    Microscopic (particles)

    Symbolic (scientific language)


    Learning Models Literacy – Project 2061

    1. 1960s’ and 1970s’, Piaget. Learning occurs when the individual:

    - Interacts with the environment

    - Passes through different stages of development – each characterized by the ability to perform a cognitive task (concrete Vs formal)

    In middle school many students are operating at the concrete level

    2 Constructivism: Students construct knowledge by interpreting new experiences in the context of their prior knowledge.

    Teachers and students might have different interpretations regarding words and concepts


    Instructional techniques in Science education Literacy – Project 2061

    In teaching science:

    Students obtain opportunities to interact physically with learning materials

    Teachers provide materials for instruction (concreteness)

    Teachers vary instructional techniques with the goal in mind to increase effectiveness of teaching


    Instructional strategy refers to the way in which a science teacher uses:

    Materials

    Media

    Settings

    Behaviors

    To

    Create a learning environment that fosters desirable outcomes


    I teacher uses:

    I

    Studentcentered

    Teacher centered

    Instructional techniques

    Laboratory work (activities)

    Teacher’s demonstration

    PBL

    Whole class discussions (lectures)

    Small group activities

    Inquiry learning

    Computer simulations

    Questions – answers - sessions

    Field - trips



    Causal Influences of Student Learning teacher uses:

    (Walberg)

    APTITUDE

    1. Ability

    2. Development

    3. Motivation

    x

    b

    LEARNING

    Affective

    Behavioral

    Cognitive

    INSTRUCTION

    4. Amount

    5. Quality

    y

    a

    z

    c

    ENVIRONMENT

    6. Home

    7. Classroom

    8. Peers

    9. Television


    Literature contains suggestions about how, in the context of school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Suggestions relating to the nature, structuring and presentation of subject matter

    Suggestions concerning the nature of pedagogical procedures and techniques and of the classroom learning environment


    Motivational pattern school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    • Achiever

  • Curious

  • Conscientious

  • Social


  • Type of school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Motivation Motivation

    The need to satisfy one’s

    curiosity: “the curious”

    The need to affiliate with

    other people“the social”

    The need to achieve: “the achiever”

    The need to discharge duty: “the conscientious”


    This is a call for varying Instruction school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Most of the teaching of science is conducted in heterogeneous classes

    We must cater for a variety of students of different needs and different motivations

    This calls for use of a variety of instructional procedures and techniques


    Relating instructional features to students motivational characteristics

    Type of Activity school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Examples

    Comment on Suitability/Unsuitability

    Discovery/inquiry – oriented learning methods and

    Problem-solving

    Advocated in many science programs developed in the USA and UK during the 1960s and by NSES

    Suitable mainly for students with ‘curiosity’-type motivational pattern

    Open-ended learning activities (student-centered)

    Learning activities without clearly specifiable objectives

    Strongly preferred by the ‘curious’, but not other motivational groups which prefer clear teacher direction regarding educational goals

    Formal teaching with emphasis on information and skill transfer

    Conventional ‘traditional’ instructional procedures, involving frontal teaching (e.g. with clearly defined goals and objectives

    Preferred by ‘achievers’ andconscientious’ students because only low level of risk-taking is needed

    Collaborative learning activities

    Games, simulations, PBL

    Suitable for learners with a strong social motivation pattern. However, ’achievers’ are likely to be opposed to an involvement in this type of learning activity

    Relating Instructional Features to Students’ Motivational Characteristics


    Questioning Techniques in Science Education school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Questioning , like hitting a baseball, is both an art and a craft.

    Questioning could transfer classroom

    from

    Traditional lecture setting

    Into

    Live student – centered community


    History school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Explanation

    Relationships

    Speculation

    Applications

    Compare ideas, activities, findings

    Finding evidence, critical thinking, control over variables

    Based on students’ experiences (e.g. experience in the lab)

    Nature of phenomena: “how” does it work?

    Apply knowledge to new situation

    Teachers’ Questioning behavior Technique

    Taxonomies of questioning.

    Penick, et. al., suggested a practical approach.

    HRASE


    Classification school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Sample Question

    Knowledge

    1. How many legs has an insect

    Synthesis

    2. What hypotheses would you make about this problem?

    Application

    3. Knowing what you do about heat, how would you get a tightly fitted lid off a jar?

    Analysis

    4. What things do birds and lizards have in common?

    Comprehension

    5. Operationally define a magnet

    Theoretical Approach

    Using Bloom’s and Krathwohl’s Taxonomies To Classify Questions


    Evaluation school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    6. If you were going to repeat the experiment, how could you do it better?

    Receiving

    7. Do you watch science shows on television?

    Responding

    8. Do you talk to your friends about science?

    Valuing

    9. What is your interest in earth science now compared to when you began the course?

    Valuing

    10. What do you value about this film?

    Organizing

    11. Can you argue using scientific facts, evidence, and data?

    Characterizing

    12. Do you use problem solving techniques for solving problems at school or at work?


    Usually the school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Ratio is:

    2 : 1

    Allowing for a number of responses (e.g. in inquiry)

    Allowing for a limited number of responses “yes” or “no”

    Allows wrong answers

    Provide enough time to answer

    WAIT - TIME

    Convergent vs Divergent Questions


    Student school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Low Level vs High Level Techniques

    Low – Level Student Inquiry

    Teacher

    Higher Level Student Inquiry

    Teacher

    Allows collaboration


    Where We school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced: Were

    Where We Should Be

    • Telling the facts

    • Listening and questioning

    • Stating the theories

    • Conceptual understanding

    • Laboratories as self- fulfilling exercises

    • Laboratories as open-ended investigations

    • Teacher as sage on stage

    • Teacher as facilitator

    • Fact validation

    • Inferences

    • Classical lectures

    • Inquiry and investigation

    • Group indoctrination

    • Individual instruction

    • Boot camp-like, threatening atmosphere

    • Positive setting; risk-free atmosphere

    Comparison of Traditional Classroom with Students’ – Central Classroom

    Comparison of a traditional Lecture Classroom with a Student-Centered Classroom


    Critical reading of an article school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Secondary newspaper poster media

    Primary work of a scientist


    Guidelines school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    The materials should be appropriate to students’ abilities and interests.

    Use materials aligned with your goals for teaching.

    Assign a variety of reading sources:

    - Text books

    - Magazines

    - Articles (historical and societal significance)

    - Newspapers (scientific articles)


    control school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    - Develop metacognition

    awareness

    Research Findings: Reading Scientific articles

    - Enhance critical thinking

    - Enhance ability to solve a problem

    - Develop creativity

    - Students who were involved in inquiry-type laboratories developed the ability to ask more and better questions resulting from reading a scientific article.


    Assessment of Student Learning school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    - Measuring the quality of the experiences provided for the students

    - Assessment should have purpose in mind

    -Focused on data and content which is most important to the student

    - Assessment task should be authentic

    - Assessment should be fair

    - All the students experiences should be assessed

    - Students should understand (and be involved in) the assessment

    - Students should be aware of the criteria for assessment (weighting)

    - Assessment should be part of the development of P.C.K. (Pedagogical Content Knowledge)


    Evaluation involves the total assessment of Students’ learning to include:

    - Understanding of NOS

    - Subject matter (knowledge & understanding)

    - Multiple talent

    - Attitudes & interests

    - Skills and abilities (e.g. laboratory)

    - Motivation


    Assessment as a tool for learning to include:

    improving instruction –

    e.g. Action Research


    Learning difficulties learning to include:

    Placing students

    Advise

    Prior knowledge

    How well the material is taught

    Improve Methods of Instruction

    Modification of techniques

    Were the goals attained?

    Grading (final)

    Decision making

    Purpose of assessment:

    Diagnostic

    Formative

    Summative


    Decision making on: learning to include:

    Programs (laboratory, etc.)

    Instructional technique

    A book to be selected


    Assessment methods used: learning to include:

    Paper and pencil test (objective testing)

    Oral tests

    Essay-type tests

    Practical tests


    Interest and learning to include:

    curiosity

    Cooperation

    in groups

    Communication

    skills

    Criticism and

    Summary

    Conclusions

    Presenting

    results

    Planning

    Hypothesizing

    Questioning

    Inquiry

    stage

    Pre-inquiry

    stage

    Handle

    dexterity

    Following

    Instructions

    Experiment

    Social Skills Conclusions Inquiry Observing Conducting Experiment

    10% 10% 20% 35% 10% 15%

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Assessment of practical skills

    Continuous Assessment of Students Inquiry Laboratory

    in Chemistry Observations and“Hot reports”


    Very low learning to include:

    Very low

    no

    High if definedclearly

    • Easy to administer

    • Difficult to assess

    Low

    -Difficult to prepare

    -Easy to answer

    -Easy to grade

    High

    Very high

    A good test:

    -Difficult to prepare

    -Easy to answer

    -Good for diagnostics

    - Guessing factor

    High

    Very high

    Different Tests

    Type

    Validity

    Reliability

    Usability

    Oral

    Essay

    Completion test

    Multiple choice (American)


    Other assessment techniques: not tests learning to include:

    Alternative assessment techniques:

    - Concept mapping: Organize ideas to find relations between concepts

    - Reading a journal (Method discussed in previous lesson)

    • Portfolio: Port – to carry or move

    • Folio – paper

    • The portfolio includes all the student’s documents, tests, concept- maps, and lab assignments.


    It is: learning to include:

    Very comprehensive

    Highly individualized

    Includes all the student’s achievements

    Continuous

    Dynamic (regarding teacher-student interactions)

    Helps the student to identify weaknesses

    Increases the student’s responsibility and awareness

    Students can be involved in building the content and criteria

    Can include personal reflection


    Problems with the portfolio: learning to include:

    A lot of work for the teacher

    The bigger the class the more the work


    differentiate learning to include:

    valid

    reliable

    motivating

    objective

    fair

    usable

    Characteristics of a good assessment method


    Learning Environment as an learning to include:

    Assessment Tool


    Receiving learning to include:

    Responding

    valuing

    Central Question in the Affective Domain

     Do students like what they do?

     Are their feelings affecting their learning?

     How do we develop curiosity?


    Curriculum learning to include:

    Learning

    Environment

    Aptitude

    Students

    Learning


    Learning Environment is constructed from the following three interceptions

     Teacher - student

     Student - student

     Student – learning materials


    Research on Classroom Learning Environment interceptions

    What does research say about classroom learning environment?

    It influences:

    Achievement

    Attitude and interest

    Students’ behavior.


    Measures of interceptionsclassroom

    learning environment

    Provide “eyes behind the classroom”


    Are sensitive to: interceptions

    Different instructional techniques:

    Inquiry VS non-inquiry approach

    Student-centered VS teacher-centered classroom

    Big and small classes


    LEI interceptions

    Assesses the classroom learning environment using

    Student’s Perception

    Scales

     Cohesiveness

     Diversity

     Formality

     Speed

    Goal-direction

    Satisfaction

    Organization

    Competitiveness


    Science classroom interceptions

    LEI

    Learning environment in science

    Science laboratory

    SLEI

    Outdoors

    SOLEI

    Instruments


    The Use of L.E. Measures by the Science Teacher interceptions

    My Class Inventory – includes:

     Satisfaction

     Friction

    Competitiveness

     Difficulty

     Cohesiveness


    Features of my Class Instrument interceptions

    Easy to administer and respond (yes/no)

    Actual VS preferred L.E

    The Δ measures students’ satisfaction with current L.E


    1 interceptions

    Second evaluation

    Identification of problem

    Making changes

    Planning

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Collecting evidence II

    Collecting evidence I

    Stages in Action-Research


    Learning environment interceptions

    Student ability

    Teacher

    Achievement


    Learning environment interceptions

    Student ability

    Teacher

    Achievement


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