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1. 6. OBJECTIVE. & GOALS. ASSESSMENT. STRUCTURING OF CONTENT. 2. 5. SELECTION. OF CONTENT. IMPLEMENTATION. 4. 3. INSTRUCTION. The Curricular Process. Psychomotor. Affective. Cognitive. Students. Society. Disciplines. Goals & objectives. Domains. Goals and Objectives.

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The curricular process

1

6

OBJECTIVE

& GOALS

ASSESSMENT

STRUCTURING OF

CONTENT

2

5

SELECTION

OF CONTENT

IMPLEMENTATION

4

3

INSTRUCTION

The Curricular Process


The curricular process

Psychomotor

Affective

Cognitive

Students

Society

Disciplines

Goals

&

objectives

Domains

Goals and Objectives


The curricular process

Comprehension (understanding)

all the calculations in science

Application

applying scientific principles to other situations

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Cognitive Domain

Knowledge-Recall

knowledge of

information

Low

Level

Skills


The curricular process

Analyzing

break down material to its fundamentals. (identification of a compound in chemistry)

Synthesis

Formation of new understanding. Bringing together the parts into a new whole

Evaluation

making judgment based on evidence and external criteria

High

Level

Skills


The curricular process

Curiosity

In addition:

Joy, attitude, interest Classroom learning environment

Affective Domain

Receiving

Responding

Valuing


The curricular process

Psychomotor

  • Manipulation

  • Imitation

  • Articulation - Sequencing

  • Precision


The curricular process

Basic Goals of Science Education

1. Goals should be comprehensive enough to include

the generally accepted objectives of teaching science

2.Goals should be understandable for other teachers,

administrators and parents.

3.Goals should be neutral; that is, free of bias and

not oriented toward any particular view of science

teaching.

4.Goals should be few in number.

5.Goals should be differ in concepts and abilities

from each other.

6.Goals should be easily applicable to instructional

and learning objectives.


The curricular process

Content

Abilities

Science Content in National

Standards for the United States:

 Science as Inquiry

Science Subject Matter

Science and Technology

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

History and Nature of Science

Unifying Concepts and Processes


The curricular process

Content of Science

The High School Science

1960s’ and early 1970s’

Golden age of Science Curriculum


The curricular process

History of Science Curricula

Development and Implementation

The 60s’

Main Goal:

Preparing the next generation of:

 Scientists;

Medical Doctors; and

Engineers


The curricular process

Goals for Teaching Science in the 60 s’

AAAS 1962

1. Science Education should present to the learner

a real picture of Science to include theories and

models.

2.Science Education should present an authentic

picture of a scientist and his method of research.

3.Science Education should present the scientific

method, research method and its limitations.

4.Present Science as a “Structure of Discipline”.

As a result:


The curricular process

projects

a-b

The Structure of the Discipline

PSSC - Physical Science Study Committee

HPP - Harvard Project Physics

BSCS - Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

SMSG - School Mathematics Study Group

CBA - Chemical Bond Approach

CHEMS - Chemical Education Materials Study

SCIS - Science Curriculum Improvement Study

ESS - Elementary Science Study

Nuffield Projects - in the UK


The curricular process

Some Features

In Physics (PSSC) ~ 1960s’

 Fewer topics at greater depth,

Greater emphasis on laboratory work,

More emphasis on basic physics,

Less attention to technological applications,

Development approach showing origins of

basic ideas of physics, and

Increased difficulty and rigor of the course.


The curricular process

Harvard Project Physics ~ 1970s’

The philosophy of this course is emphasized in eight points.

1. Physics is for everyone.

2.A coherent selection within physics is possible.

3.Doing physics goes beyond physics.

4.Individuals require a flexible course.

5.A multimedia system simulates better learning.

6.The time has come to teach science as one of

the humanities.

7. A physics course should be rewarding to take

8.A physics course should be rewarding to teach.


The curricular process

Chemistry

Programs: CBA & CHEMSTUDY 1960s’

Schools: 10% 40% of schools

CHEMStudy: Highly based on Experimental

Work


The curricular process

If science is presented in a way it is known to scientists, it will be inherently interesting to all students.

1

2

Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.

ASSUMPTIONS 1950-1960


The curricular process

Common Elements of

the “Golden-age” Curricula

1. There was less emphasis on social and personal

applications of science and technology than in

the traditional courses.

2.There was more emphasis on abstractions, theory,

and basic science - the structure of scientific

disciplines.

3.There was increased emphasis on discovery -

the modes of inquiry used by scientists.

4.There was frequent use of quantitative techniques.

5.There were newer concepts in subject matter.


The curricular process

Common Elements of

the “Golden-age” Curricula

6.There was an upgrading of teacher competency in

both subject matter and pedagogical skills.

7. There were well integrated and designed teaching

aids to supplement the courses.

8.There was primarily an orientation toward

college-bound students.

9.There were similarities in emphasis and structure

in the high school and junior high school programs.


The curricular process

IAC:

Interdisciplinary Approach to Chemistry

Units (Modules)

 Reactions and Reason (Introductory),

Diversity and Periodicity (Inorganic),

Form and Function (Organic),

Molecules in Living Systems (Biochemistry),

The Heart of the Matter (Nuclear),

Earth and its Neighbors (Geochemistry),

The Delicate Balance (Environmental), and

Communities of Molecules (Physical).


The curricular process

Early 80s’: “A Nation at Risk”

300 different Reports were published raising a Concern about School Science:

 Content (Knowledge)

Practice (experiences provided)

Goals

Equity (minorities and Gender issues)


The curricular process

Yager and Harris in

“Project Synthesis” Call for:

Identifying new Goals for

Teaching and Learning Science

Science for:

 Personal needs

Societal issues

Career awareness

The preparation of Future Scientists


The curricular process

Historical Overview of Goals

for Science Teaching; The 80s’

Teaching Science for:

 Scientific Knowledge

Scientific Methods (Process)

Societal Issues

Personal Needs (Personal Development)

Career Awareness


The curricular process

The conceptual structure

Theprocess of chemistry e.g. Inquiry

of chemistry

The technological

manifestations of chemistry

Chemistry as a personally

relevant subject

The cultural aspects

The societal role and

of chemistry

implications of chemistry

UV

O2(g) O(g) + O(g)

O(g) + O2(g) O3(g)

O3(g) + O(g) 2O2(g)

Multidimensional approach to School Chemistry


The curricular process

It took more than 15 years for a new reform

Major differences between the 60s’ & 90s’

The 90s’: Scientific Literacy for All

One of the Key features STS

”Science and Technology are enterprises that shape, and are shaped by, Human thought and social actions”


The curricular process

National Standards and

Scientific Literacy

New Standards in:

 Content (K-12)

Pedagogy

Assessment

Professional Development

Organization of Teaching and

Learning Science


The curricular process

Standards for Science Education

Towards the 21st century

Less emphasis on:

 Knowledge of concepts just for the

presentation of; “Structure of a certain

discipline”.

Learning subject with out connections

(separation of chemistry and biology

chemistry and physics).

Separation of Knowledge from process

(inquiry).


The curricular process

More emphasis on:

Learning concepts in the context of:

 STS (Science -Technology - Society)

Integration of key scientific concepts

(e.g. Energy, Food, Natural Resources)

Learning Science using inquiry

(asking questions, hypothesizing)

Science as personal and societal issues

History and nature of science


The curricular process

Global Science

1.The Grand Oasis in Space

Students build an understanding of ecosystems.

2.Basic Energy/Resource Concepts

Students develop an understanding of the laws

governing energy and mineral resource use.

3.Mineral Resources

Students learn how mineral deposits are formed,

where they are located, and how they are mined.

4.Growth and Population

Students learn about exponential growth and

population issues.

5.Food, Agriculture and Population Interactions

Students examine nutrition and the fundamentals

of food production, modern agricultural practices,

and the world food situation.

6.Energy Today

Students build understandings of the energy

sources for modern societies.


The curricular process

Recommendations : 2061

The National Council’s recommendations address the basic dimensions of science literacy, which, in the most general terms are:

Being familiar with the natural world and recognizing both its diversity and its unity

Understanding key concepts and principles of science

Being aware of some of the important ways in which science, mathematics and technology depend upon one another

Knowing that science, mathematics, and technology are human enterprises and knowing what that implies about their strengths and limitations.

Having a capacity for scientific ways of thinking

Using scientific knowledge and ways of thinking for individual and social purposes


The curricular process

Content

Scientific Inquiry

Abilities


The curricular process

Discovery

Discovery vs. Inquiry

Discovery is included in the inquiry

  • Observing

  • measuring

  • Predicting

    • Inferring

  • classifying

    • Formulating a problem

    • Hypothesizing

    • Design an experiment

    • Synthesizing knowledge

    • Demonstrating attitudes (curiosity)

    Inquiry


    The curricular process

    Welch: “A general process by which human beings seek information or understanding. Broadly conceived, inquiry is a way of thought”.

    Inquiry teaching is a way of developing the mental process of curiosity and investigation


    The curricular process

    Content

     Unifying Concepts and Processes

    Science as Inquiry

    Physical Science

     Life Science

    Earth and Space Science

    Science and Technology

    Science in Personal and Social

    Perspectives

    History and Nature of Science


    The curricular process

    Disciplines and tools of forensic science

    FORENSIC

    SCIENCE


    The curricular process

    Decision making on:

    • Health

    • Population

    • Resources

    • Environment


    The curricular process

    Changes of ideas

    • Evidence

    • Scientific arguments

    • Criticism

    • Endeavor


    The curricular process

    Personal

    STSP

    Science

    Personal

    Technology

    Society


    The curricular process

    Questions

    Science: What do I want to discover?

    Technology: What will I do with it?

    Society: How would we use it?

    Personal: How would it affect me?


    The curricular process

    Science for all Americans: Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy – Project 2061

    - More emphasis on the content

    - Covers an array of topics

    - “The more is less”


    The curricular process

    - Energy (in chemistry, biology, physics,

    technology)

    The treatment of topics (cell, structure of matter, communication) differs from traditional approach by:

    Softening boundaries

     Connections are emphasized through the use

    of important conceptual themes:

    - Systems

    • - Evolution


    The curricular process

    More specifically it includes: - Benchmarks

    The nature of science

    The nature of mathematics

    The nature of technology

    The physical science

    The living environment

    The human organism

    Human Society

    The designed world

    The mathematical world

    Historical perspectives

    Habits of mind


    The curricular process

    Recommendations : 2061

    The National Council’s recommendations address the basic dimensions of science literacy, which, in the most general terms are:

    Being familiar with the natural world and recognizing both its diversity and its unity

    Understanding key concepts and principles of science

    Being aware of some of the important ways in which science, mathematics and technology depend upon one another

    Knowing that science, mathematics, and technology are human enterprises and knowing what that implies about their strengths and limitations.

    Having a capacity for scientific ways of thinking

    Using scientific knowledge and ways of thinking for individual and social purposes


    The curricular process

    Integrated vs Disciplinary Science

    Why integrate?

    - DNA what is it? A concept in Biology? Chemistry? Forensic science?

    - Energy, is it a different concept in Chemistry, Biology, Physics?

    - Are we refering to nature of Biology, Physics, Chemistry or Nature of Science?

    - How can we teach Photosynthesis without Physics and Chemistry?

    - Making science more relevant for our students – working with meaningful problems and issues in the real world or in the lab setting.


    The curricular process

    The U.S National Science Education Standards emphasize:

    Problem solving

    reasoning

    Making connections with other disciplines and prior learning

    The need for effective communication of ideas and results.

    The need for integration of various areas.


    The curricular process

    The integrated approach

    Disciplinary Approach

    vs


    The curricular process

    Questions asked

    Which one is more interesting for students? (close to their personal life?)

    Which one is more difficult for the teacher? (difficult to implement and organize in a coherent manner)

    Which one presents a more valid picture of science? (nature of science)

    Which one provides us with more opportunities to vary the classroom learning environment?

    What are the difficulties in teaching science by the integrated approach?


    The curricular process

    First Option

    Applications

    _______________________________________

    disciplines in science (concepts) _______________________________________


    The curricular process

    Second option

    Concepts

    __________________________________________

    Application – issues

    __________________________________________


    The curricular process

    Disciplines and tools of forensic science

    FORENSIC

    SCIENCE


    The curricular process

    Questions

    Science: What do I want to discover?

    Technology: What will I do with it?

    Society: How would we use it?

    Personal: How would it affect me?


    The curricular process

    concrete

    formal

    Reasons (Sources) for Misconceptions – Learning Difficulties

    Microscopic nature of phenomenon. (as opposed to macroscopic).

    Prior-knowledge (indigenous)

    Overload of information on memory

    Developmental stage

    vs

    Models and simulations (abstraction, nature of models- it’s limitations)

    Misconceptions transferred from books or teachers

    Laboratory (practical work)


    The curricular process

    Typical Misconceptions

    - Structure of matter (particulate nature)

    - Optics

    - Galaxy

    - Structure of molecules

    - Bonding

    - Cell and its structure


    The curricular process

    macro

    micro

    symbolic

    A model for learning

    Matter can be represented in three levels (Johnston,1991)

    Macroscopic (physical phenomena)

    Microscopic (particles)

    Symbolic (scientific language)


    The curricular process

    Learning Models

    1. 1960s’ and 1970s’, Piaget. Learning occurs when the individual:

    - Interacts with the environment

    - Passes through different stages of development – each characterized by the ability to perform a cognitive task (concrete Vs formal)

    In middle school many students are operating at the concrete level

    2 Constructivism: Students construct knowledge by interpreting new experiences in the context of their prior knowledge.

    Teachers and students might have different interpretations regarding words and concepts


    The curricular process

    Instructional techniques in Science education

    In teaching science:

    Students obtain opportunities to interact physically with learning materials

    Teachers provide materials for instruction (concreteness)

    Teachers vary instructional techniques with the goal in mind to increase effectiveness of teaching


    The curricular process

    Instructional strategy refers to the way in which a science teacher uses:

    Materials

    Media

    Settings

    Behaviors

    To

    Create a learning environment that fosters desirable outcomes


    The curricular process

    I

    I

    Studentcentered

    Teacher centered

    Instructional techniques

    Laboratory work (activities)

    Teacher’s demonstration

    PBL

    Whole class discussions (lectures)

    Small group activities

    Inquiry learning

    Computer simulations

    Questions – answers - sessions

    Field - trips


    The curricular process

    Teacher’s role in different instructional techniques


    The curricular process

    Causal Influences of Student Learning

    (Walberg)

    APTITUDE

    1. Ability

    2. Development

    3. Motivation

    x

    b

    LEARNING

    Affective

    Behavioral

    Cognitive

    INSTRUCTION

    4. Amount

    5. Quality

    y

    a

    z

    c

    ENVIRONMENT

    6. Home

    7. Classroom

    8. Peers

    9. Television


    The curricular process

    Literature contains suggestions about how, in the context of school science education student’s motivation to learn can be enhanced:

    Suggestions relating to the nature, structuring and presentation of subject matter

    Suggestions concerning the nature of pedagogical procedures and techniques and of the classroom learning environment


    The curricular process

    Motivational pattern

    • Achiever

  • Curious

  • Conscientious

  • Social


  • The curricular process

    Type of

    MotivationMotivation

    The need to satisfy one’s

    curiosity: “the curious”

    The need to affiliate with

    other people“the social”

    The need to achieve: “the achiever”

    The need to discharge duty: “the conscientious”


    The curricular process

    This is a call for varying Instruction

    Most of the teaching of science is conducted in heterogeneous classes

    We must cater for a variety of students of different needs and different motivations

    This calls for use of a variety of instructional procedures and techniques


    Relating instructional features to students motivational characteristics

    Type of Activity

    Examples

    Comment on Suitability/Unsuitability

    Discovery/inquiry – oriented learning methods and

    Problem-solving

    Advocated in many science programs developed in the USA and UK during the 1960s and by NSES

    Suitable mainly for students with ‘curiosity’-type motivational pattern

    Open-ended learning activities (student-centered)

    Learning activities without clearly specifiable objectives

    Strongly preferred by the ‘curious’, but not other motivational groups which prefer clear teacher direction regarding educational goals

    Formal teaching with emphasis on information and skill transfer

    Conventional ‘traditional’ instructional procedures, involving frontal teaching (e.g. with clearly defined goals and objectives

    Preferred by ‘achievers’ andconscientious’ students because only low level of risk-taking is needed

    Collaborative learning activities

    Games, simulations, PBL

    Suitable for learners with a strong social motivation pattern. However, ’achievers’ are likely to be opposed to an involvement in this type of learning activity

    Relating Instructional Features to Students’ Motivational Characteristics


    The curricular process

    Questioning Techniques in Science Education

    Questioning , like hitting a baseball, is both an art and a craft.

    Questioning could transfer classroom

    from

    Traditional lecture setting

    Into

    Live student – centered community


    The curricular process

    History

    Explanation

    Relationships

    Speculation

    Applications

    Compare ideas, activities, findings

    Finding evidence, critical thinking, control over variables

    Based on students’ experiences (e.g. experience in the lab)

    Nature of phenomena: “how” does it work?

    Apply knowledge to new situation

    Teachers’ Questioning behavior Technique

    Taxonomies of questioning.

    Penick, et. al., suggested a practical approach.

    HRASE


    The curricular process

    Classification

    Sample Question

    Knowledge

    1. How many legs has an insect

    Synthesis

    2. What hypotheses would you make about this problem?

    Application

    3. Knowing what you do about heat, how would you get a tightly fitted lid off a jar?

    Analysis

    4. What things do birds and lizards have in common?

    Comprehension

    5. Operationally define a magnet

    Theoretical Approach

    Using Bloom’s and Krathwohl’s Taxonomies To Classify Questions


    The curricular process

    Evaluation

    6. If you were going to repeat the experiment, how could you do it better?

    Receiving

    7. Do you watch science shows on television?

    Responding

    8. Do you talk to your friends about science?

    Valuing

    9. What is your interest in earth science now compared to when you began the course?

    Valuing

    10. What do you value about this film?

    Organizing

    11. Can you argue using scientific facts, evidence, and data?

    Characterizing

    12. Do you use problem solving techniques for solving problems at school or at work?


    The curricular process

    Usually the

    Ratio is:

    2 : 1

    Allowing for a number of responses (e.g. in inquiry)

    Allowing for a limited number of responses “yes” or “no”

    Allows wrong answers

    Provide enough time to answer

    WAIT - TIME

    Convergent vs Divergent Questions


    The curricular process

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Student

    Low Level vs High Level Techniques

    Low – Level Student Inquiry

    Teacher

    Higher Level Student Inquiry

    Teacher

    Allows collaboration


    The curricular process

    Where We Were

    Where We Should Be

    • Telling the facts

    • Listening and questioning

    • Stating the theories

    • Conceptual understanding

    • Laboratories as self- fulfilling exercises

    • Laboratories as open-ended investigations

    • Teacher as sage on stage

    • Teacher as facilitator

    • Fact validation

    • Inferences

    • Classical lectures

    • Inquiry and investigation

    • Group indoctrination

    • Individual instruction

    • Boot camp-like, threatening atmosphere

    • Positive setting; risk-free atmosphere

    Comparison of Traditional Classroom with Students’ – Central Classroom

    Comparison of a traditional Lecture Classroom with a Student-Centered Classroom


    The curricular process

    Critical reading of an article

    Secondary newspaper poster media

    Primary work of a scientist


    The curricular process

    Guidelines

    The materials should be appropriate to students’ abilities and interests.

    Use materials aligned with your goals for teaching.

    Assign a variety of reading sources:

    - Text books

    - Magazines

    - Articles (historical and societal significance)

    - Newspapers (scientific articles)


    The curricular process

    control

    - Develop metacognition

    awareness

    Research Findings: Reading Scientific articles

    - Enhance critical thinking

    - Enhance ability to solve a problem

    - Develop creativity

    - Students who were involved in inquiry-type laboratories developed the ability to ask more and better questions resulting from reading a scientific article.


    The curricular process

    Assessment of Student Learning

    - Measuring the quality of the experiences provided for the students

    - Assessment should have purpose in mind

    -Focused on data and content which is most important to the student

    - Assessment task should be authentic

    - Assessment should be fair

    - All the students experiences should be assessed

    - Students should understand (and be involved in) the assessment

    - Students should be aware of the criteria for assessment (weighting)

    - Assessment should be part of the development of P.C.K. (Pedagogical Content Knowledge)


    The curricular process

    Evaluation involves the total assessment of Students’ learning to include:

    - Understanding of NOS

    - Subject matter (knowledge & understanding)

    - Multiple talent

    - Attitudes & interests

    - Skills and abilities (e.g. laboratory)

    - Motivation


    The curricular process

    Assessment as a tool for

    improving instruction –

    e.g. Action Research


    The curricular process

    Learning difficulties

    Placing students

    Advise

    Prior knowledge

    How well the material is taught

    Improve Methods of Instruction

    Modification of techniques

    Were the goals attained?

    Grading (final)

    Decision making

    Purpose of assessment:

    Diagnostic

    Formative

    Summative


    The curricular process

    Decision making on:

    Programs (laboratory, etc.)

    Instructional technique

    A book to be selected


    The curricular process

    Assessment methods used:

    Paper and pencil test (objective testing)

    Oral tests

    Essay-type tests

    Practical tests


    The curricular process

    Interest and

    curiosity

    Cooperation

    in groups

    Communication

    skills

    Criticism and

    Summary

    Conclusions

    Presenting

    results

    Planning

    Hypothesizing

    Questioning

    Inquiry

    stage

    Pre-inquiry

    stage

    Handle

    dexterity

    Following

    Instructions

    Experiment

    Social Skills Conclusions Inquiry Observing Conducting Experiment

    10% 10% 20% 35% 10% 15%

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Assessment of practical skills

    Continuous Assessment of Students Inquiry Laboratory

    in Chemistry Observations and“Hot reports”


    The curricular process

    Very low

    Very low

    no

    High if definedclearly

    • Easy to administer

    • Difficult to assess

    Low

    -Difficult to prepare

    -Easy to answer

    -Easy to grade

    High

    Very high

    A good test:

    -Difficult to prepare

    -Easy to answer

    -Good for diagnostics

    - Guessing factor

    High

    Very high

    Different Tests

    Type

    Validity

    Reliability

    Usability

    Oral

    Essay

    Completion test

    Multiple choice (American)


    The curricular process

    Other assessment techniques: not tests

    Alternative assessment techniques:

    - Concept mapping: Organize ideas to find relations between concepts

    - Reading a journal (Method discussed in previous lesson)

    • Portfolio: Port – to carry or move

    • Folio – paper

    • The portfolio includes all the student’s documents, tests, concept- maps, and lab assignments.


    The curricular process

    It is:

    Very comprehensive

    Highly individualized

    Includes all the student’s achievements

    Continuous

    Dynamic (regarding teacher-student interactions)

    Helps the student to identify weaknesses

    Increases the student’s responsibility and awareness

    Students can be involved in building the content and criteria

    Can include personal reflection


    The curricular process

    Problems with the portfolio:

    A lot of work for the teacher

    The bigger the class the more the work


    The curricular process

    differentiate

    valid

    reliable

    motivating

    objective

    fair

    usable

    Characteristics of a good assessment method


    The curricular process

    Learning Environment as an

    Assessment Tool


    The curricular process

    Receiving

    Responding

    valuing

    Central Question in the Affective Domain

     Do students like what they do?

     Are their feelings affecting their learning?

     How do we develop curiosity?


    The curricular process

    Curriculum

    Learning

    Environment

    Aptitude

    Students

    Learning


    The curricular process

    Learning Environment is constructed from the following three interceptions

     Teacher - student

     Student - student

     Student – learning materials


    The curricular process

    Research on Classroom Learning Environment

    What does research say about classroom learning environment?

    It influences:

    Achievement

    Attitude and interest

    Students’ behavior.


    The curricular process

    Measures ofclassroom

    learning environment

    Provide “eyes behind the classroom”


    The curricular process

    Are sensitive to:

    Different instructional techniques:

    Inquiry VS non-inquiry approach

    Student-centered VS teacher-centered classroom

    Big and small classes


    The curricular process

    LEI

    Assesses the classroom learning environment using

    Student’s Perception

    Scales

     Cohesiveness

     Diversity

     Formality

     Speed

    Goal-direction

    Satisfaction

    Organization

    Competitiveness


    The curricular process

    Science classroom

    LEI

    Learning environment in science

    Science laboratory

    SLEI

    Outdoors

    SOLEI

    Instruments


    The curricular process

    The Use of L.E. Measures by the Science Teacher

    My Class Inventory – includes:

     Satisfaction

     Friction

    Competitiveness

     Difficulty

     Cohesiveness


    The curricular process

    Features of my Class Instrument

    Easy to administer and respond (yes/no)

    Actual VS preferred L.E

    The Δ measures students’ satisfaction with current L.E


    The curricular process

    1

    Second evaluation

    Identification of problem

    Making changes

    Planning

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Collecting evidence II

    Collecting evidence I

    Stages in Action-Research


    The curricular process

    Learning environment

    Student ability

    Teacher

    Achievement


    The curricular process

    Learning environment

    Student ability

    Teacher

    Achievement


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