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Metabolic Biochemistry Lecture 9 August 19, 2005 Oxidative phosphorylation Other Pathways of Carbohydrate Metabolism Photosynthesis. Import of NADH into mitochondria. Example of a shuttle for oxidizing NADH from the cytosol. LNC 19-27. LNC 19-26. Getting ATP and ADP

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Metabolic Biochemistry

Lecture 9

August 19, 2005

Oxidative phosphorylation

Other Pathways of

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Photosynthesis


Import of

NADH

into mitochondria




Getting ATP and ADP

in and out of

mitochondria


Biological work

LNC 19-25


for NADH: P/O ratio ~ 2.5

for succinate: P/O ratio ~ 1.5


SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION

GAP + Pi + NAD+ NADH + 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate

1,3 bisphosphoglycerate + ADP ATP + 3 phosphoglycerate

1 ATP produced

per NAD+ reduced

per GAP used up

per 3-PG produced

There is a precise stoichiometry


OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

NADH + 1/2 O2 + H+ NAD+ + H2O

~ 3 ADP + ~ 3 Pi ~ 3ATP

<3 ATP produced per NADH oxidized

per H2O produced

per 1/2 O2 consumed

(P/O ratio ~ 2.5)

There is no precise stoichiometry,

because protons can find other paths

to return to the matrix


When succinate is the substrate, the P/O ratio is ~1.5,

because only two pumps are used (only 6 protons are pumped per succinate)



Mitochondria contain DNA (~16.5 kb)

mtDNA encodes

2 rRNAs

22 tRNAs

13 proteins (in animals)

mtDNA can have mutations causing

mitochondrial diseases


GLUCONEOGENESIS

LNC Chapter 14, Section 14.4

PENTOSE PHOSPHATE SHUNT

LNC Chapter 14, Section 14.5



phosphatase

third bypass

phosphatase

second bypass

fructose-1,6 bisphosphate

Phosphoenolpyruvate

PEP

first bypass

pyruvate

LNC Fig. 14-16


BIOTIN is a co-factor utilized for

CARBOXYLATION REACTIONS

THIAMINE PYROPHOSPHATE (TPP)

is a co-factor utilized for

DECARBOXYLATION REACTIONS

LNC Fig. 14-18


first bypass

in liver

in muscle

LNC Fig. 14-19


Chapter 15, Section 15.3 (pp.575)

Coordinated Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

emphasis on regulation of

phosphofructokinase-1

and

fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase



Phosphofructokinase-1

4 identical subunits (two shown)

1 active site per subunit

1 site for allosteric regulator (ADP/ATP)

LNC Fig. 15.18


Phosphofructokinase-1

PFK-1

Fructose bis-phosphatase

FBPase

LNC Fig. 15-22



THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY

Section 14.5

two significant products: ribose-phosphate

NADPH


End of Lecture 9

August 19, 2005


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