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A and W TECHNOLOGIES. COOLING SYSTEMS WATER TREATMENT TRAINING. Presented by. Plant Refrigeration Costs. Electricity. 20%. Equipment. Depreciation. 59%. Labor. Makeup Cost. Sewer Cost. 13%. 5%. Water Treatment. 2%. 1%. NUMBER 1 PRIORITY. SAFETY. THINK.

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plant refrigeration costs
Plant Refrigeration Costs

Electricity

20%

Equipment

Depreciation

59%

Labor

Makeup Cost

Sewer Cost

13%

5%

Water Treatment

2%

1%

cooling water impurities
COOLING WATER IMPURITIES
  • TYPICAL IMPURITIES
    • Ions

Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfate, Silica, chlorides

All can react to form harmful deposits

    • pH

Increasing pH - increased scale potential

Decreasing pH - increased corrosion potential

cooling water impurities1
COOLING WATER IMPURITIES
  • Characteristics City Water Well
    • pH 7.2 7.3
    • M alkalinity 0 ppm 71
    • Chorides 12 ppm 2.3
    • Hardness 17 ppm 68
    • Silica 4.2 ppm 23
    • Iron .05 to .5 ppm .5
    • Conductivity 60 mmhos 160 - 185
    • Copper .1 ppm .1
slide7

FORCED DRAFT TOWER

Condenser Water

EVAPORATION

HOT WELL

FAN

Fill

Solenoid valve

Blowdown line

to drain

MAKEUP water meter

WELL & CITY

3 Chillers

COLD WELL

Recirculation pumps

slide9

A and W

TECHNOLOGIES

Forced Draft Tower

Blowdown

MAKEUP

Water Meter

PROCESS

74*F

90*F

natural draft tower
NATURAL DRAFT TOWER

500’

500,000 GPM

10* F Delta T - Approach

Power Generating Station

slide11

Water distribution

Evaporative

Condensor

Evaporation

Chillwater

in the tubes

or ammonia

?

Makeup water

To chemical

feed center

Recirculation pump

Hey

what the

heck is that?

  • BAC Evaporative condensor
  • Chicken plants and food manufacturers
cooling water
COOLING WATER
  • OPERATIONAL FACTORS
    • Evaporation = (Recirc. Rate x Delta T x .001) = GPM

Pure water leaves

Solids concentrate

Requires fresh water makeup to be added

    • Blowdown *Makeup =

Equal to Evaporation Evap + BD

Cycles - 1

    • Cycles

Equal to Conductivity in Tower

Conductivity in Makeup

typical specifications
Typical Specifications
  • Evaporation
      • 5000 x 10 x 70% x 24 x .06 = 50,400 GPD
  • Blowdown
      • 50,400 / 5-1 = 12,600 GPD
  • Makeup = Evap + BD
      • 50,400 + 12,600= 63,000 GPD
typical specifications1
Typical Specifications
  • Evaporation Credits
      • 4220 x 10 x 60% x 24 x .06 = 36,461 GPD
  • At 365 days per year this is 13,308,265 GPY
  • Sewer charge is $2.75 per 1000 gallons
  • 13,308,265/1000 = 13,308 x $2.75 = $36,597
optimizing cycles

40

35

30

25

Blowdown

Tower

20

15

10

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cycles

Optimizing Cycles
saves water
Saves Water

40

35

30

25

Blowdown

Tower

20

15

10

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cycles

cooling water problems
COOLING WATER PROBLEMS
  • CORROSION
    • Tendency for metal to revert to its natural state
    • Electrochemical reaction
    • Anode, cathode, source of electron flow and an electrolyte
    • General thinning and/or pitting
    • Galvanic corrosion
slide27

At the Anode

  • One end of the “battery”

Fe++

Anode

e- e- e- e- e-

Fe = Fe++ + 2e-

at the cathode
At the Cathode
  • The other end completes the circuit!

H2O

OH-

O2

Cathode

e- e- e- e- e-

1/2O2 + H2O + 2e- = 2OH-

result
Result:

Corrosion Products Form

OH-

Fe++

OH-

Cathode

Fe(OH)2

Anode

Fe(OH)2

Anode

Fe++ + 2OH- = Fe(OH)2

cooling water treatment
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
  • CORROSION CONTROL
    • Without it....

Destruction of equipment

Plant downtime due to equipment failure

Decreased efficiency / decreased heat transfer

cooling water treatment1
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
  • CORROSION CONTROL
    • Anodic inhibitors
    • Cathodic inhibitors

Continuous feed must be maintained to keep the protective film in place !!

Control of blowdown / pH critical to success!!

slide34

A and W

Cooling

Products

a and w technologies
A and W Technologies
  • Three-Part Corrosion Protection
  • Deposit Protection
  • Molybdate Tracer
  • Medium to High pH
a and w inhibitors
A and W Inhibitors. . .
  • Passivates Anodic Sites
  • Protects Cathodic Sites
  • Shields Copper Surfaces
  • Reliable Corrosion Protection

A and W

To Protect

and to Serve

1 anodic protection
1. Anodic Protection

O2

O2

------------------------ -iron oxide-----------------------

e-

e-

A and W Inhibitors Passivate the Steel

cooling water problems1
COOLING WATER PROBLEMS
  • SCALE
    • Crystalline structure
    • Combinations of cations and anions
    • Water analysis can provide scaling indices to determine scale forming potential
    • Inversely soluble
      • As temperature increases solubility decreases (scale can come out of solution)
cooling water problems2
COOLING WATER PROBLEMS
  • FOULING
    • Accumulation of organic / inorganic material
    • Examples:

Biological slimes

Algae

Corrosion products

Airborne dirt and debris

    • Subject to flow velocities
    • Organic fouling can be found throughout
a and w inhibitors1
A and W Inhibitors . . .

Technology

Suspends Contaminants

a and w inhibitors2
A and W Inhibitors . . .

Patented Technology

Suspends Contaminants

Inhibits Scale Formation

a and w inhibitors3
A and W Inhibitors . . .

Patented Technology

Suspends Contaminants

Inhibits Scale Formation

Allows High Cycles

a and w inhibitors4
A and W Inhibitors . . .

Patented Technology

Suspends Contaminants

Inhibits Scale Formation

Allows High Cycles

Maintains Heat Transfer

Efficiency

slide45

A and W

TECHNOLOGIES

AWC

CHEMICAL FEED

CONDENSER WATER

All pumps plug into controller. Blowdown solenoid also plugs into controller.

Signal from water meter back to controller if used. Power needs to be supplied to

the controller. 110VAC @ 10 amps.

3/4 INCH SCH. 80 PVC

Return to Tower

USE SCREWED TEES AT INJECTIONS

Supply line

CONTROLLER

A and W

CORROSION COUPON RACK

3/4 inch PVC pipe and screwed tees.

Notice orientation, with flow. Can be

constructed on site.

*Presently No Coupon Studies!

AWC

AWC

AWC

Awc 310 M-1015 M-1202 CL-1 & M92

cooling water treatment2
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Cooling water systems provide an excellent environment for microbio activity

Fouling and underdeposit corrosion

Toxicant evaluations can determine the most effective biocide

BUGS

ALGAE

cooling water treatment3
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
    • Oxidizing biocides -

“BURNS THE BUGS”

Chlorine, bromine, sodium hypochlorite

Provides quick kill

Fed at a rate exceeding the chlorine demand plus 0.5 to 1 ppm free chlorine residual for one to four hours

cooling water treatment4
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
    • Nonoxidizing biocides –

“POISONS OR STARVES ‘EM”

Used where chlorine demand is high or...

Supplemental biocide for chlorine

Remain in the system longer than oxidizing biocides

Provides longer contact time for kill

testing and control
TESTING AND CONTROL
  • SYSTEM TESTS
    • Conductivity (All systems)
    • pH (City, Tower, All closed loops)
    • Molybdenum (Tower, All closed loops)
    • Cycles (Tower)
    • Microbiological (Tower)

Data should be entered in log book or monitored with computer trending

troubleshooting
TROUBLESHOOTING
  • Low levels
  • Algae in tower
  • Tower losing water
  • Closed loops losing water
  • High head pressure on chillers
  • Leaks on chemcials
  • Bugs in Chillwater
slide54

Cooling Service Program

  • Lab Analysis
    • Water
    • Deposit
    • Metallurgical
  • Test HX
  • Equipment
  • Corrosion studies
  • Chiller efficiency studies
  • Micro-biological studies
  • Cooling tower wood analysis
  • LSI Calculations

Quality Assurance

slide55
AT&T

A and W Technologies

Thank you for the opportunity

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