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A and W TECHNOLOGIES. COOLING SYSTEMS WATER TREATMENT TRAINING. Presented by. Plant Refrigeration Costs. Electricity. 20%. Equipment. Depreciation. 59%. Labor. Makeup Cost. Sewer Cost. 13%. 5%. Water Treatment. 2%. 1%. NUMBER 1 PRIORITY. SAFETY. THINK.

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Cooling systems water treatment training

A and W

TECHNOLOGIES

COOLING SYSTEMSWATER TREATMENTTRAINING

Presented by


Plant refrigeration costs
Plant Refrigeration Costs

Electricity

20%

Equipment

Depreciation

59%

Labor

Makeup Cost

Sewer Cost

13%

5%

Water Treatment

2%

1%


Number 1 priority
NUMBER 1 PRIORITY

SAFETY

THINK


Cooling water impurities
COOLING WATER IMPURITIES

  • TYPICAL IMPURITIES

    • Ions

      Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfate, Silica, chlorides

      All can react to form harmful deposits

    • pH

      Increasing pH - increased scale potential

      Decreasing pH - increased corrosion potential


Cooling water impurities1
COOLING WATER IMPURITIES

  • Characteristics City Water Well

    • pH 7.2 7.3

    • M alkalinity 0 ppm 71

    • Chorides 12 ppm 2.3

    • Hardness 17 ppm 68

    • Silica 4.2 ppm 23

    • Iron .05 to .5 ppm .5

    • Conductivity 60 mmhos 160 - 185

    • Copper .1 ppm .1


FORCED DRAFT TOWER

Condenser Water

EVAPORATION

HOT WELL

FAN

Fill

Solenoid valve

Blowdown line

to drain

MAKEUP water meter

WELL & CITY

3 Chillers

COLD WELL

Recirculation pumps


A and W

TECHNOLOGIES

Forced Draft Tower

Blowdown

MAKEUP

Water Meter

PROCESS

74*F

90*F


Natural draft tower
NATURAL DRAFT TOWER

500’

500,000 GPM

10* F Delta T - Approach

Power Generating Station


Water distribution

Evaporative

Condensor

Evaporation

Chillwater

in the tubes

or ammonia

?

Makeup water

To chemical

feed center

Recirculation pump

Hey

what the

heck is that?

  • BAC Evaporative condensor

  • Chicken plants and food manufacturers


Cooling water
COOLING WATER

  • OPERATIONAL FACTORS

    • Evaporation = (Recirc. Rate x Delta T x .001) = GPM

      Pure water leaves

      Solids concentrate

      Requires fresh water makeup to be added

    • Blowdown *Makeup =

      Equal to Evaporation Evap + BD

      Cycles - 1

    • Cycles

      Equal to Conductivity in Tower

      Conductivity in Makeup


Typical specifications
Typical Specifications

  • Evaporation

    • 5000 x 10 x 70% x 24 x .06 = 50,400 GPD

  • Blowdown

    • 50,400 / 5-1 = 12,600 GPD

  • Makeup = Evap + BD

    • 50,400 + 12,600= 63,000 GPD


  • Typical specifications1
    Typical Specifications

    • Evaporation Credits

      • 4220 x 10 x 60% x 24 x .06 = 36,461 GPD

  • At 365 days per year this is 13,308,265 GPY

  • Sewer charge is $2.75 per 1000 gallons

  • 13,308,265/1000 = 13,308 x $2.75 = $36,597


  • Optimizing cycles

    40

    35

    30

    25

    Blowdown

    Tower

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    Cycles

    Optimizing Cycles


    Saves water
    Saves Water

    40

    35

    30

    25

    Blowdown

    Tower

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    Cycles


    Cooling water problems
    COOLING WATER PROBLEMS

    • CORROSION

      • Tendency for metal to revert to its natural state

      • Electrochemical reaction

      • Anode, cathode, source of electron flow and an electrolyte

      • General thinning and/or pitting

      • Galvanic corrosion


    At the Anode

    • One end of the “battery”

    Fe++

    Anode

    e- e- e- e- e-

    Fe = Fe++ + 2e-


    At the cathode
    At the Cathode

    • The other end completes the circuit!

    H2O

    OH-

    O2

    Cathode

    e- e- e- e- e-

    1/2O2 + H2O + 2e- = 2OH-


    Result
    Result:

    Corrosion Products Form

    OH-

    Fe++

    OH-

    Cathode

    Fe(OH)2

    Anode

    Fe(OH)2

    Anode

    Fe++ + 2OH- = Fe(OH)2


    Cooling water treatment
    COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    • CORROSION CONTROL

      • Without it....

        Destruction of equipment

        Plant downtime due to equipment failure

        Decreased efficiency / decreased heat transfer


    Cooling water treatment1
    COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    • CORROSION CONTROL

      • Anodic inhibitors

      • Cathodic inhibitors

        Continuous feed must be maintained to keep the protective film in place !!

        Control of blowdown / pH critical to success!!


    A and W

    Cooling

    Products


    A and w technologies
    A and W Technologies

    • Three-Part Corrosion Protection

    • Deposit Protection

    • Molybdate Tracer

    • Medium to High pH


    A and w inhibitors
    A and W Inhibitors. . .

    • Passivates Anodic Sites

    • Protects Cathodic Sites

    • Shields Copper Surfaces

    • Reliable Corrosion Protection

    A and W

    To Protect

    and to Serve


    1 anodic protection
    1. Anodic Protection

    O2

    O2

    ------------------------ -iron oxide-----------------------

    e-

    e-

    A and W Inhibitors Passivate the Steel



    Cooling water problems1
    COOLING WATER PROBLEMS

    • SCALE

      • Crystalline structure

      • Combinations of cations and anions

      • Water analysis can provide scaling indices to determine scale forming potential

      • Inversely soluble

        • As temperature increases solubility decreases (scale can come out of solution)


    Cooling water problems2
    COOLING WATER PROBLEMS

    • FOULING

      • Accumulation of organic / inorganic material

      • Examples:

        Biological slimes

        Algae

        Corrosion products

        Airborne dirt and debris

      • Subject to flow velocities

      • Organic fouling can be found throughout


    A and w inhibitors1
    A and W Inhibitors . . .

    Technology

    Suspends Contaminants


    A and w inhibitors2
    A and W Inhibitors . . .

    Patented Technology

    Suspends Contaminants

    Inhibits Scale Formation


    A and w inhibitors3
    A and W Inhibitors . . .

    Patented Technology

    Suspends Contaminants

    Inhibits Scale Formation

    Allows High Cycles


    A and w inhibitors4
    A and W Inhibitors . . .

    Patented Technology

    Suspends Contaminants

    Inhibits Scale Formation

    Allows High Cycles

    Maintains Heat Transfer

    Efficiency


    A and W

    TECHNOLOGIES

    AWC

    CHEMICAL FEED

    CONDENSER WATER

    All pumps plug into controller. Blowdown solenoid also plugs into controller.

    Signal from water meter back to controller if used. Power needs to be supplied to

    the controller. 110VAC @ 10 amps.

    3/4 INCH SCH. 80 PVC

    Return to Tower

    USE SCREWED TEES AT INJECTIONS

    Supply line

    CONTROLLER

    A and W

    CORROSION COUPON RACK

    3/4 inch PVC pipe and screwed tees.

    Notice orientation, with flow. Can be

    constructed on site.

    *Presently No Coupon Studies!

    AWC

    AWC

    AWC

    Awc 310 M-1015 M-1202 CL-1 & M92


    Cooling water treatment2
    COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

      Cooling water systems provide an excellent environment for microbio activity

      Fouling and underdeposit corrosion

      Toxicant evaluations can determine the most effective biocide

    BUGS

    ALGAE


    Cooling water treatment3
    COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

      • Oxidizing biocides -

        “BURNS THE BUGS”

        Chlorine, bromine, sodium hypochlorite

        Provides quick kill

        Fed at a rate exceeding the chlorine demand plus 0.5 to 1 ppm free chlorine residual for one to four hours


    Cooling water treatment4
    COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

      • Nonoxidizing biocides –

        “POISONS OR STARVES ‘EM”

        Used where chlorine demand is high or...

        Supplemental biocide for chlorine

        Remain in the system longer than oxidizing biocides

        Provides longer contact time for kill


    Testing and control
    TESTING AND CONTROL

    • SYSTEM TESTS

      • Conductivity (All systems)

      • pH (City, Tower, All closed loops)

      • Molybdenum (Tower, All closed loops)

      • Cycles (Tower)

      • Microbiological (Tower)

        Data should be entered in log book or monitored with computer trending


    Troubleshooting
    TROUBLESHOOTING

    • Low levels

    • Algae in tower

    • Tower losing water

    • Closed loops losing water

    • High head pressure on chillers

    • Leaks on chemcials

    • Bugs in Chillwater


    Cooling Service Program

    • Lab Analysis

      • Water

      • Deposit

      • Metallurgical

    • Test HX

    • Equipment

    • Corrosion studies

    • Chiller efficiency studies

    • Micro-biological studies

    • Cooling tower wood analysis

    • LSI Calculations

    Quality Assurance


    AT&T

    A and W Technologies

    Thank you for the opportunity


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