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Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary. Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock. What are sediments?. Definition: Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc. Sizes of Sediments.

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Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary

Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock


What are sediments
What are sediments?

  • Definition:

    • Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc




There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 1: EROSION (wash away)

Forces of running water, wind, or ice that loosen & carry away fragments of rock

Can you see the sediment moving in the water?

Have you ever seen sediments being moved during a hard rain?


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock1
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 2: DEPOSITION (drop down)

Sediments settle out of the water or wind carrying them & settle to the bottom of a lake or ocean.

Sediments move down the sloped land & settle at the bottom.

Over time these sediments layer up.


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock2
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 3:

COMPACTION

(smashed together)

Process that presses sediments together. Thick layers of sediment build up over time & weigh down the layers compacting them.



There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock3
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock: shown above.

Step 4:

CEMENTATION

(glued together)

Dissolved minerals seep into spaces between particles (sediments) & then crystallize as they harden.



3 types of sedimentary rocks
3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks shown above.

  • Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    Made from fragments that are squeezed together


Comparing 2 clastic sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks: shown above.

Shale

Forms from mud - tiny clay particles, quartz & calcite;

Sandstone

Forms from sand on beaches, ocean floor, river beds, etc


Comparing 2 more
Comparing 2 more… shown above.

Conglomerate

From rounded sediments

Breccia

From larger, sharp fragments


3 types of sedimentary rocks1
3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks shown above.

2. Organic Sedimentary Rock

Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited in thick layers


Comparing 2 organic sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Organic Sedimentary Rocks shown above.

Coal

From swamp plants buried in water for millions of years (plants  peat  coal)

Limestone

Forms from hard shells w/calcite from seashells, coral, clams, oysters or skeletons that pile up on the ocean floor for millions of years slowly changing the sediment to limestone


Use for coal a location of limestone
Use for coal & a location of limestone… shown above.

Coal

Limestone

***

Plant Bowen is a power plant that uses coal. Has anyone seen this before? It’s not too far away!

Limestone in England where there was once H2O covering the land.


3 types of sedimentary rock
3 Types of Sedimentary Rock shown above.

3. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Forms when minerals that have been dissolved in a solution with water, crystallize


Examples of chemical sedimentary rock
Examples of Chemical Sedimentary Rock shown above.

Limestone ***

Another form of limestone forms from calcite in seas, lakes & underground caves – forms caverns & sinkholes in the ground when it is eroded by ground water

Rock Salt

Forms from halite when evaporation leaves salt behind


Comparing 2 chemical sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks shown above.

Limestone

***

Rock Salt

600 million year old rock salt being mined in the Himalayan Crystal Rock Mine.

Ruby Falls cave is made of limestone! How did the cave form?


Uses what things have been made from sedimentary rock
Uses: shown above. What things have been made from Sedimentary Rock?

  • Flint: Arrowheads

  • Sandstone: THE WHITE HOUSE

  • Limestone: Blocks & slabs for building, making cement & steel, flooring


Possibly the coolest thing about sedimentary rock
Possibly the coolest thing about Sedimentary Rock… shown above.

FOSSILS are always found in Sedimentary Rock ONLY!

Why???


Fossils are the signs of the plants & animals that have lived on Earth for millions of years…sometimes we see the whole creature or actual parts of the plant…sometimes we see evidence that a creature lived…


One type of fossil body fossil
One type of Fossil… Body Fossil lived on Earth for millions of years…


Another type of fossil trace fossil
Another type of Fossil…Trace Fossil… lived on Earth for millions of years…


“Law of Superposition” lived on Earth for millions of years…states that new sediment layers are added on top of older rock layers on the bottom


What is the correct order of the layers from oldest to youngest
What is the correct order of the layers from lived on Earth for millions of years…OLDEST to YOUNGEST?


Oldest f next e what happened with layer d then c b a what is happening over on top of layer a
Oldest: F lived on Earth for millions of years…Next: EWhat happened with layer D?Then: C, B, AWhat is happening over & on top of layer A?

Law of Superposition states that older rock layers are at the bottom.

If there is tectonic plate movement or if an Igneous rock intrusion breaks through the rock layers, then the order is disrupted.


How can fossils help us determine the relative age of rocks
How can fossils help us determine the relative age of rocks? lived on Earth for millions of years…


Some great resources for Sedimentary Rocks & more: lived on Earth for millions of years…Additional resources can be found on my webpage. You can also use the internet to search the topic you are interest in. Lots of great stuff out there!

Geology

http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0027-sedimentary-rocks.php

More Geology

http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/howrocks.html

Science Articles

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/rocks-and-minerals-for-kids.html

Sedimentary Rocks

http://www.rocksforkids.com/R&M/sedimentary.htm


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