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Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary. Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock. What are sediments?. Definition: Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc. Sizes of Sediments.

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rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary

Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock

what are sediments
What are sediments?
  • Definition:
    • Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc
there are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 1: EROSION (wash away)

Forces of running water, wind, or ice that loosen & carry away fragments of rock

Can you see the sediment moving in the water?

Have you ever seen sediments being moved during a hard rain?

there are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock1
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 2: DEPOSITION (drop down)

Sediments settle out of the water or wind carrying them & settle to the bottom of a lake or ocean.

Sediments move down the sloped land & settle at the bottom.

Over time these sediments layer up.

there are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock2
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 3:

COMPACTION

(smashed together)

Process that presses sediments together. Thick layers of sediment build up over time & weigh down the layers compacting them.

there are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock3
There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 4:

CEMENTATION

(glued together)

Dissolved minerals seep into spaces between particles (sediments) & then crystallize as they harden.

3 types of sedimentary rocks
3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Clastic Sedimentary Rock

Made from fragments that are squeezed together

comparing 2 clastic sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:

Shale

Forms from mud - tiny clay particles, quartz & calcite;

Sandstone

Forms from sand on beaches, ocean floor, river beds, etc

comparing 2 more
Comparing 2 more…

Conglomerate

From rounded sediments

Breccia

From larger, sharp fragments

3 types of sedimentary rocks1
3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks

2. Organic Sedimentary Rock

Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited in thick layers

comparing 2 organic sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Organic Sedimentary Rocks

Coal

From swamp plants buried in water for millions of years (plants  peat  coal)

Limestone

Forms from hard shells w/calcite from seashells, coral, clams, oysters or skeletons that pile up on the ocean floor for millions of years slowly changing the sediment to limestone

use for coal a location of limestone
Use for coal & a location of limestone…

Coal

Limestone

***

Plant Bowen is a power plant that uses coal. Has anyone seen this before? It’s not too far away!

Limestone in England where there was once H2O covering the land.

3 types of sedimentary rock
3 Types of Sedimentary Rock

3. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Forms when minerals that have been dissolved in a solution with water, crystallize

examples of chemical sedimentary rock
Examples of Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Limestone ***

Another form of limestone forms from calcite in seas, lakes & underground caves – forms caverns & sinkholes in the ground when it is eroded by ground water

Rock Salt

Forms from halite when evaporation leaves salt behind

comparing 2 chemical sedimentary rocks
Comparing 2 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Limestone

***

Rock Salt

600 million year old rock salt being mined in the Himalayan Crystal Rock Mine.

Ruby Falls cave is made of limestone! How did the cave form?

uses what things have been made from sedimentary rock
Uses: What things have been made from Sedimentary Rock?
  • Flint: Arrowheads
  • Sandstone: THE WHITE HOUSE
  • Limestone: Blocks & slabs for building, making cement & steel, flooring
possibly the coolest thing about sedimentary rock
Possibly the coolest thing about Sedimentary Rock…

FOSSILS are always found in Sedimentary Rock ONLY!

Why???

slide22

Fossils are the signs of the plants & animals that have lived on Earth for millions of years…sometimes we see the whole creature or actual parts of the plant…sometimes we see evidence that a creature lived…

slide25
“Law of Superposition”states that new sediment layers are added on top of older rock layers on the bottom
oldest f next e what happened with layer d then c b a what is happening over on top of layer a
Oldest: FNext: EWhat happened with layer D?Then: C, B, AWhat is happening over & on top of layer A?

Law of Superposition states that older rock layers are at the bottom.

If there is tectonic plate movement or if an Igneous rock intrusion breaks through the rock layers, then the order is disrupted.

slide29

Some great resources for Sedimentary Rocks & more:Additional resources can be found on my webpage. You can also use the internet to search the topic you are interest in. Lots of great stuff out there!

Geology

http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0027-sedimentary-rocks.php

More Geology

http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/howrocks.html

Science Articles

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/rocks-and-minerals-for-kids.html

Sedimentary Rocks

http://www.rocksforkids.com/R&M/sedimentary.htm

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