Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary
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Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary. Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock. What are sediments?. Definition: Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc. Sizes of Sediments.

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Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary

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Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks - Sedimentary

Sedimentary rocks are classified by the types of sediments that make up the rock


What are sediments

What are sediments?

  • Definition:

    • Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things like bones, leaves, stems, etc


Sizes of sediments

Sizes of Sediments


Sediments will layer up over time forming layered rocks

Sediments will layer up over time, forming layered rocks


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock

There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 1:EROSION (wash away)

Forces of running water, wind, or ice that loosen & carry away fragments of rock

Can you see the sediment moving in the water?

Have you ever seen sediments being moved during a hard rain?


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock1

There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 2:DEPOSITION (drop down)

Sediments settle out of the water or wind carrying them & settle to the bottom of a lake or ocean.

Sediments move down the sloped land & settle at the bottom.

Over time these sediments layer up.


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock2

There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 3:

COMPACTION

(smashed together)

Process that presses sediments together. Thick layers of sediment build up over time & weigh down the layers compacting them.


Those smashed sediments can form into layers like the ones shown above

Those smashed sediments can form into layers like the ones shown above.


There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock3

There are 4 main processes needed to form sedimentary rock:

Step 4:

CEMENTATION

(glued together)

Dissolved minerals seep into spaces between particles (sediments) & then crystallize as they harden.


Examples of cementation

Examples of cementation…


3 types of sedimentary rocks

3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks

  • Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    Made from fragments that are squeezed together


Comparing 2 clastic sedimentary rocks

Comparing 2 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:

Shale

Forms from mud - tiny clay particles, quartz & calcite;

Sandstone

Forms from sand on beaches, ocean floor, river beds, etc


Comparing 2 more

Comparing 2 more…

Conglomerate

From rounded sediments

Breccia

From larger, sharp fragments


3 types of sedimentary rocks1

3 Types of Sedimentary Rocks

2. Organic Sedimentary Rock

Forms where the remains of plants & animals are deposited in thick layers


Comparing 2 organic sedimentary rocks

Comparing 2 Organic Sedimentary Rocks

Coal

From swamp plants buried in water for millions of years (plants  peat  coal)

Limestone

Forms from hard shells w/calcite from seashells, coral, clams, oysters or skeletons that pile up on the ocean floor for millions of years slowly changing the sediment to limestone


Use for coal a location of limestone

Use for coal & a location of limestone…

Coal

Limestone

***

Plant Bowen is a power plant that uses coal. Has anyone seen this before? It’s not too far away!

Limestone in England where there was once H2O covering the land.


3 types of sedimentary rock

3 Types of Sedimentary Rock

3. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Forms when minerals that have been dissolved in a solution with water, crystallize


Examples of chemical sedimentary rock

Examples of Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Limestone ***

Another form of limestone forms from calcite in seas, lakes & underground caves – forms caverns & sinkholes in the ground when it is eroded by ground water

Rock Salt

Forms from halite when evaporation leaves salt behind


Comparing 2 chemical sedimentary rocks

Comparing 2 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Limestone

***

Rock Salt

600 million year old rock salt being mined in the Himalayan Crystal Rock Mine.

Ruby Falls cave is made of limestone! How did the cave form?


Uses what things have been made from sedimentary rock

Uses: What things have been made from Sedimentary Rock?

  • Flint: Arrowheads

  • Sandstone: THE WHITE HOUSE

  • Limestone: Blocks & slabs for building, making cement & steel, flooring


Possibly the coolest thing about sedimentary rock

Possibly the coolest thing about Sedimentary Rock…

FOSSILS are always found in Sedimentary Rock ONLY!

Why???


Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

Fossils are the signs of the plants & animals that have lived on Earth for millions of years…sometimes we see the whole creature or actual parts of the plant…sometimes we see evidence that a creature lived…


One type of fossil body fossil

One type of Fossil… Body Fossil


Another type of fossil trace fossil

Another type of Fossil…Trace Fossil…


Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

“Law of Superposition”states that new sediment layers are added on top of older rock layers on the bottom


What is the correct order of the layers from oldest to youngest

What is the correct order of the layers from OLDEST to YOUNGEST?


Oldest f next e what happened with layer d then c b a what is happening over on top of layer a

Oldest: FNext: EWhat happened with layer D?Then: C, B, AWhat is happening over & on top of layer A?

Law of Superposition states that older rock layers are at the bottom.

If there is tectonic plate movement or if an Igneous rock intrusion breaks through the rock layers, then the order is disrupted.


How can fossils help us determine the relative age of rocks

How can fossils help us determine the relative age of rocks?


Rocks rocks and more rocks sedimentary

Some great resources for Sedimentary Rocks & more:Additional resources can be found on my webpage. You can also use the internet to search the topic you are interest in. Lots of great stuff out there!

Geology

http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0027-sedimentary-rocks.php

More Geology

http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/howrocks.html

Science Articles

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/rocks-and-minerals-for-kids.html

Sedimentary Rocks

http://www.rocksforkids.com/R&M/sedimentary.htm


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