Mrs jackson s absolute bare minimum module 1 review
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Mrs. Jackson’s Absolute Bare Minimum Module 1 Review. Quarterly Assessment 1 Review. An organism is any individual living thing. Living things share some common characteristics:. All need energy for metabolism. Metabolism: All of the chemical processes in

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  • All need energy for metabolism.

    • Metabolism: All of the chemical processes in

      an organism that build up or break down materials.

  • All are made of one or more cells.

  • All respond to their environment.

    • Stimuli, or physical factors, include light, temperature, and touch.

  • All have genetic material (DNA) that they pass on to offspring.


Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water

_

O

H

H

+

+

Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water.

  • Water is a polar molecule.

    • Polar molecules have slightly charged regions.

Atom: Oxygen

Charge: Slightly negative

  • Hydrogen bonds

  • form between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms. (oxygen)

Atom: Hydrogen

Charge: Slightly positive

  • Nonpolar molecules do not have charged regions.


  • High Specific Heat: water resists changes in temp.

    • Provides stability of temperature for land masses surrounded by water & for the temperature of the human body, & makes it an effective cooling agent.

  • Cohesion: water molecules stick to each other. We saw this in the water lab when water built up on the penny & rolled around on the wax paper.

  • Adhesion: water molecules stick to other things.

  • Ice floats on water: one of the only solids to float on its liquid form – due to arrangement of water molecules due to charged regions.

  • Hydrogen bonds are responsible for important properties of water.


Many compounds dissolve in water

solution

Many compounds dissolve in water.

  • A solution is formed when one substance dissolves in another. A solution is a homogeneous mixture.

    • Solvents dissolve other substances. (i.e. water)

    • Solutes dissolve in a solvent. (i.e. Koolaid powder)


  • Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes.

  • Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.

  • Polar substances and nonpolar substances generally remain separate.

    • Example: Oil (non-polar) and water (polar)

  • “Like dissolves like.”


pH

<7=Acid (more H+, less OH-)

7=Neutral

>7=Base (less H+, more OH-)

Maintaining homeostasis

*Buffer: Helps to maintain pH.


Speaking of homeostasis
Speaking of homeostasis…

  • Homeostasis refers to your body maintaining stable, constant internal conditions.

  • This may include:

    • Regulation of temperature (thermoregulation) Ex.: sweating during exercise

    • Regulation of pH

    • Regulation of oxygen delivery (for cellular respiration!). Ex: heart beating faster during exercise


Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties.

1. Carbon forms covalent bonds (strong bonds) with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms

2. They can form large, complex, diverse molecules


Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties slide 2
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties – Slide 2

3. Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds

4. Carbon forms isomers

  • Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas

    • Example: C4H10

  • Only carbon has these 4 characteristics


  • Many carbon based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together
    Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together.

    • Monomers are the individual subunits.

    • Polymers are made of many monomers.

    • When organisms break down large organic compounds (macromolecules), they can obtain energy and/or put the monomers back together to form different compounds.


    Carbohydrates
    Carbohydrates bonded together.


    Lipids
    Lipids bonded together.

    LIPIDS


    Proteins
    Proteins bonded together.


    Nucleic acids
    Nucleic acids bonded together.


    Chemical reactions release or absorb energy
    Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. bonded together.

    Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed to start a chemical reaction


    A catalyst lowers activation energy
    A catalyst lowers activation energy. bonded together.

    • Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions

      • Decrease activation energy

      • Increase reaction rate


    Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions
    Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions.

    • Enzymes are catalysts in living things.

      • Enzymes are needed for almost all processes.

      • Most enzymes are proteins.

      • Enzymes speed up reactions without being consumed by increasing the reaction rate.


    Disruptions in homeostasis can prevent enzymes from functioning
    Disruptions in homeostasis can prevent enzymes from functioning.

    • Enzymes function best in a small range of conditions.

      • Changes in temperature or pH can break hydrogen bonds.

        • An enzyme’s function depends on its structure.


    An enzyme s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme
    An enzyme’s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme.

    Substrates: reactants that bind to an enzyme

    Active site: area on the enzyme where substrates bind


    • The Cell Theory: bind to the enzyme.

      • All organisms are made of cells.

      • All cells come from other cells.

      • The cell is the basic unit of structure & function in living things.


    All cells share certain characteristics
    All cells share certain characteristics. bind to the enzyme.

    • Cells tend to be microscopic.

    • All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane.

    • All cells are filled with cytoplasm.

    • All cells have ribosomes.

    • All cells have hereditary material (DNA)


    There are 2 cell types
    There are 2 cell types bind to the enzyme.

    Eukaryotes

    Prokaryotes

    No nucleus (still have DNA/hereditary material)

    No membrane-bound organelles

    Smaller size because of lack of organelles

    Less complex

    Unicellular

    • Have nucleus (DNA/hereditary material)

    • Have membrane-bound organelles

    • Larger size because of organelles

    • More complex

    • Unicellular or multicellular


    Organelles and functions
    Organelles and Functions bind to the enzyme.

    See 3.2 notes!!!

    How does the rough ER work with the Golgi?

    • Rough ER packages the proteins its ribosomes synthesize (including membrane and secretory proteins) in vesicles to ship to the Golgi Apparatus/Body for further processing, sorting and packaging.


    Levels of organization
    Levels of Organization bind to the enzyme.

    • OrganellesCellsTissuesOrgans  Organ SystemsOrganisms


    Cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers
    Cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers. bind to the enzyme.

    • The cell membrane has two major functions

      • Forms a boundary between inside and outside of the cell

      • Controls passage of materials in & out of cell


    Phospholipid bilayer
    Phospholipid Bilayer bind to the enzyme.

    • Forms a double layer surrounding a cell

    • Head is polar (attracted to water) and forms hydrogen bonds with water

    • Tails are nonpolar

      (repelled by water)


    Passive transport does not require energy atp input from a cell
    Passive transport bind to the enzyme.does not require energy (ATP) input from a cell.

    • Molecules can move across the cell membrane through passive transport.

    • Movement is determined by concentration gradient.

    • Two types of passive transport (DOWN concentration gradient):

      • Diffusion: movement of molecules from high to low concentration

      • Osmosis: diffusion of water from high to low concentration


    Cell membrane dialysis tubing diffusion lab moved without energy
    Cell Membrane Dialysis Tubing – Diffusion Lab (moved without energy)

    WHY? Starch stays in bag – too big. Iodine goes through bag - small


    How do different solutions affect cells
    How do different solutions affect cells? without energy)

    • There are 3 types of solutions:

      • Isotonic: solution has the same concentration of solutes as the cell.

        • Water moves in and out evenly

        • Cell size stays constant


    How do different solutions affect cells1
    How do different solutions affect cells? without energy)

    • Hypertonic: solution has more solutes than a cell

      • More water exits the cell than enters

      • Cell shrivels or dies


    How do different solutions affect cells2
    How do different solutions affect cells? without energy)

    • Hypotonic: solution has fewer solutes than a cell

      • More water enters the cell than exits

      • Cell expands or bursts


    Some molecules can only diffuse through transport proteins
    Some molecules can only diffuse through transport proteins without energy)

    • Some molecules cannot easily diffuse across the membrane

      • Ex: glucose (needed by cell to make energy)

    • Facilitated diffusion is diffusion through transport proteins

    • DOES NOT USE ENERGY

    Video 


    Active transport
    Active Transport without energy)

    • Drives molecules across a membrane from lower to higher concentration

      • Goes against the concentration gradient

      • Uses energy (ATP)


    Types of active transport
    TYPES OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT without energy)

    • Endocytosis: Brings materials into cell (Endo=into)

    • Exocytosis: Releases materials out of cell (Exo=Exit)


    Sodium potassium pump
    Sodium-Potassium Pump without energy)

    • Uses a membrane protein to pump three Na+ (sodium ions) across the membrane in exchange for two K+ (potassium ions)

      • ATP (energy) is needed to make the protein change its shape so that Na+ and K+ can move through it and cross the membrane

    • Helps the heart contract, helps regulate blood pressure, allows neurons to respond to stimuli and send signals


    4 1 how do living things get atp

    Starch molecule without energy)

    Glucose molecule

    4.1 How do living things get ATP?

    • ATP is the energy carrier in living things – it is usable energy for the cell.

    • ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate.

    • Living things get ATP from breaking down carbon based molecules. (carbohydrates & lipids)


    This is how it works

    phosphate removed without energy)

    This is how it works


    4 2 4 3 photosynthesis
    4.2 & 4.3 Photosynthesis without energy)

    • The process of photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight and converts it into sugar (glucose).

    • This process happens in organisms called autotrophs or producers. (Need to make their own food)

    • This process takes place in and organelle called the chloroplast.

    • The chloroplast has a green pigment in it called chlorophyll that is responsible for capturing the light energy.


    So how does photosynthesis work
    So how does photosynthesis work? without energy)

    The first stage of photosynthesis is called the Light Dependent Stage.

    • Light is captured by the chlorophyll in the thylakoid.


    So how does photosynthesis work1
    So how does photosynthesis work? without energy)

    The second stage of photosynthesis is called the Light Independent Stage/ Calvin Cycle/ Dark Cycle.

    • This process takes place in the stroma.


    The chemical formula for photosynthesis
    The chemical formula for photosynthesis without energy)

    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light C6H12O6 + 6O2

      (reactants)(products)

    yields

    Glucose and oxygen

    Carbon dioxide plus water plus light


    Purpose of cellular respiration
    Purpose of Cellular Respiration without energy)

    • To make ATP from the energy stored in glucose

      • Glucose comes from an organism doing photosynthesis themselves or from eating foods containing glucose

        • Remember: the purpose of photosynthesis was just to get glucose

        • Cellular respiration is aerobic – it requires oxygen


    Equation for cellular respiration
    Equation for Cellular Respiration without energy)

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP

    • Like the reverse of photosynthesis

      Energy transfers:

      Photo: LightCPE CR: CPECPE


    What happens when there s no not enough oxygen or there are no mitochondria
    What happens when there’s no/not enough oxygen or there are no mitochondria?

    • Answer: Fermentation

      • Two Kinds:

        • Lactic Acid Fermentation

        • Alcoholic Fermentation

        • Allows glycolysis to continue making ATP without oxygen


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