Introduction to nanomaterials and occupational health kristen m kulinowski ph d
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8-Hour Training Course. Introduction to Nanomaterials and Occupational Health Kristen M. Kulinowski, Ph.D.

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Introduction to nanomaterials and occupational health kristen m kulinowski ph d

8-Hour Training Course

Introduction to Nanomaterials and Occupational HealthKristen M. Kulinowski, Ph.D.


Introduction to nanomaterials and occupational health kristen m kulinowski ph d

This material was produced under grant number SH-21008-10-60-F-48 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Eight hour training course

Eight-Hour Training Course


Lesson overview

Lesson Overview

Purpose

To provide workers with introductory information about nanotechnology and nanomaterials

Topics

  • How small is a nanometer?

  • Definitions and commonly used terms

  • How is the nanoscale different from the macroscale or the atomic scale?

  • Major classes of nanomaterials and their benefits


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

At the end of this module you should be able to

Contrast objects at the nanoscale with larger and smaller forms of matter

Define key terms in nanotechnology

Explain some of the ways nanomaterial properties differ from molecules and microscale particles

Describe some of the physical and chemical characteristics that can change at the nanoscale

Describe some of the major classes of nanomaterials produced today and their properties and potential benefits


How small is a nanometer

Topic 1

How small is a nanometer?


Topic 1 how small is a nanometer

Topic 1: How small is a nanometer?

http://www.sniffcode.com/view.php?id=8

1 nm = 0.000000001 m

= 10-9 m

= one billionth meter


Handout 1

Handout 1

VIRUS

Courtesy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. DOE


Where does each of these fit

Bacterium

Ant

Molecule

Buckyball (C60)

Virus

Human hair

Atom

Where does each of these fit?

Place the following objects on the ruler according to their approximate size. (Use diameter unless otherwise specified.)


Definitions and commonly used terms

Topic 2

Definitions and commonly used terms


Topic 2 definitions and commonly used terms

Topic 2: Definitions and Commonly Used Terms

  • GROUP ACTIVITY (See Handout 2)

  • In groups of 3-5, find similarities and differences among the definitions of nanotechnology, nanoparticle and nanomaterial published by ASTM, BSI and OSHA.

Key terms: nanotechnology, nanoscale, nanomaterial, nanoparticle, nanofiber

There are several standard definitions for each of these


What is it

What is it?

Nanofiber OR Nanomaterial

1.5 nm x 1.5 nm x 10 m

Nanoparticle OR Nanomaterial

60 nm diameter(57 nm core: 3 nm shell)

Nanostructured material

Large voids: >200 nm diameter

Small inner pores: ~60 nm diameter


Different types of nanomaterials

Nanotechnology

Different Types of Nanomaterials


How is the nanoscale different from the macroscale or the atomic scale

Topic 3

How is the nanoscale different from the macroscale or the atomic scale?


Topic 3 how is the nanoscale different from the macroscale or the atomic scale

Topic 3: How is the nanoscale different from the macroscale or the atomic scale?

Baseball: ~2.8 inches in diameter

Softball: ~3.8 inches in diameter


Nanomaterial properties can change with size

Nanomaterial Properties Can Change with Size

The nanoworld

At the nanometer scale, fundamental physical and chemical properties depend on the size of the object.


Early nanotechnologists

Early Nanotechnologists

Lycurgus Cup

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/pe_mla/t/the_lycurgus_cup.aspx


Would you buy this gold

Gold (~ 10 nm)

Bulk Gold (Au) = Yellow

Conductive

Nonmagnetic

Chemically inert

Nano Gold = Red

Loses conductivity at ~ 1-3 nm

Becomes magnetic ~ 3 nm

Explosive and catalytic!

Would you buy this gold?


Physical and chemical properties that can change at the nanoscale

Physical and Chemical Properties that can Change at the Nanoscale

Color

Melting temperature

Crystal structure

Chemical reactivity

Electrical conductivity

Magnetism

Mechanical strength


Nanomaterials exhibit diversity in

Nanomaterials Exhibit Diversity in…

Form or shape

Chemical composition

Surface treatments


Surface area is a big factor

Surface Area is a Big Factor

Each side =1/4 m

Mass ≈ 43,000 lb

SA = 24 m2

Each side =1 nm

Mass ≈ 43,000 lb

SA = 6 billion m2≈ 2500 miles2

State of Delaware = 2490 miles2

Each side =1 m

Mass ≈ 43,000 lb

Surface Area (SA) = 6 m2

≈ 8 ft x 8 ft room


Major classes of nanomaterials and their benefits

Topic 4

Major classes of nanomaterials and their benefits


Major classes of nanomaterials and sample applications

Major Classes of Nanomaterials and Sample Applications


Detecting cancer cells

Detecting Cancer Cells

What is it?

  • Small SiO2 (silica) sphere with thin gold coating

    Advantages

  • Enhances the detection of cancer cells in real time

    Why Nano?

  • Particle size affects its response to light


Self cleaning glass

Self-Cleaning Glass

Self-cleaning glass

PPG Industries

  • Reduces cost and effort of cleaning glass

  • Why Nano?

  • Film doesn’t change glass color

  • Nano-size enhances the photocatalytic effect

What is it?

  • Thin film of titanium dioxide bonded to glass

    Advantages

  • Reduces energy usage


Small change big savings

Small Change, Big Savings

What is it?

  • Thin film of polymer bonded to paint

    Advantages

  • Reduces friction-causing debris build-up on plane surface

  • Reduces fuel consumption 1-2%  ~$22 million

  • Why Nano?

  • Film adds a mere 4 oz to weight of the jet (compared to 176 pounds of paint)


Balancing the benefits and risks

Balancing the Benefits and Risks

Nanomaterials’ special physical and chemical properties may lead to unexpected interactions with biological and environmental systems.


Eight hour training course1

Eight-Hour Training Course


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

At the end of this module you should be able to

Contrast objects at the nanoscale with larger and smaller forms of matter

Define key terms in nanotechnology

Explain some of the ways nanomaterial properties differ from molecules and microscale particles

Describe some of the physical and chemical characteristics that can change at the nanoscale

Describe some of the major classes of nanomaterials produced today and their properties and potential benefits


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