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SNC2P. Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases. And neutralization reactions. Acids. Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed in water Physical Properties: Sour tasting Wet to the touch when in solution Water soluble Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes.

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snc2p

SNC2P

Acids and Bases

acids and bases

Acids and Bases

And neutralization reactions

acids
Acids
  • Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed in water
  • Physical Properties:
    • Sour tasting
    • Wet to the touch when in solution
    • Water soluble
    • Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes
acids1
Acids
  • Chemical Properties
    • React with metals to produce hydrogen gas
    • Corrosive
    • Make chemical indicators change colour
    • React with bases to produce a neutral solution
acids2
Acids
  • Examples:
bases
Bases
  • Substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-)when mixed in water. Also called alkaline
  • Physical Properties:
    • Bitter tasting
    • Slippery to the touch when in solution
    • Water soluble
    • Good conductors of electricity, therefore electrolytes
bases1
Bases
  • Chemical Properties
    • Corrosive
    • Make chemical indicators change colour
    • React with acids to produce a neutral solution
bases2
Bases
  • Examples:
chemical indicators
Chemical Indicators
  • Are solutions that change colour in acids and in bases
  • Can be either
    • natural or
    • synthetic
chemical indicators1
Chemical Indicators
  • Litmus paper:
    • Base turns it Blue!
    • Acid turns it Red!

Universal Indicator is a mixture of chemicals that changes colour through a wide range of pH values

the ph scale
The pH scale
  • A numerical scale used to show how acidic or basic a solution is
  • pH stands for “power of hydrogen”
the ph scale1
The pH scale
  • pH is a logarithmic scale which means that every unit on the scale represents a tenfold (10X) effect on the concentration of the solution
the ph scale logarithmic
The pH scale: Logarithmic
  • This means that pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than ph 4.
  • If the value changes by more than one number you must multiply
    • ex. From pH 5 to pH 8 = 10 x 10 x 10 (3 steps = 10 multiplied by itself 3 times)
naming acids
Naming Acids
  • A binary acid forms when an H+ bonds with a non-metal
  • HF (aq), HCl (aq), HBr (aq), HI (aq), H2S (aq), and H3P (aq) are some common binary acids
  • To name them, use the following structure:
    • “hydro + ______ ic acid”
naming acids1
Naming Acids
  • An oxyacid has a non-metal and an oxygen component
  • H3PO4, HClO3, HIO3, H2SO4, HBrO3, H2CO3, and HNO3 are some common oxyacids
  • To name them:
    • “_____________ ic acid”
naming bases
Naming Bases
  • Name the metal
  • Name the polyatomic (i.e. hydroxide)
  • Example
    • Mg(OH)2
    • magnesium hydroxide
neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions
  • A type of double displacement reaction
  • Acid + Base Water + Salt
  • A salt is an ionic compound. The pH of the products is around 7 (neutral)

Example

hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide 

water + sodium chloride

practise
Practise!!
  • Try the practise questions on your worksheet!