Global and Regional Overview of the HIV

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5/2/2012. 2. Outline. Global SituationRegional SituationAchievements and Challenges . 5/2/2012. 3. Since 1981, 25 million lives have been lost and more than 14 million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS.In 2003, 3 million people died of AIDS of whom 500,000 are children under the age

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Global and Regional Overview of the HIV

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1. Oussama Tawil Inter-Country Team, Middle East and North Africa, UNAIDS Multi-sectoral Workshop on Leadership for an Early Response to HIV/AIDS in the Gulf Countries Manama, Bahrain, 26-27 June 2004 Global and Regional Overview of the HIV/AIDS Situation

2. 5/3/2012 2 Outline Global Situation Regional Situation Achievements and Challenges

3. 5/3/2012 3 Since 1981, 25 million lives have been lost and more than 14 million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS. In 2003, 3 million people died of AIDS of whom 500,000 are children under the age 15 years. 5 million people acquired HIV in 2003. Almost 50% of newly infected adults were women and 50% were young adults in the 15-24 years age group. Global Situation The key message here is that “The window of opportunity for bringing the HIV/AIDS epidemic under control is narrowing rapidly in Asia” Almost 1 million people newly infected in 2002 An estimated 7.2 million now living with the virus – a 10% increase since 2001 A further 490 000 people died of AIDS in the past year About 2.1 million young people (aged 15-24) are living with HIV The key message here is that “The window of opportunity for bringing the HIV/AIDS epidemic under control is narrowing rapidly in Asia” Almost 1 million people newly infected in 2002 An estimated 7.2 million now living with the virus – a 10% increase since 2001 A further 490 000 people died of AIDS in the past year About 2.1 million young people (aged 15-24) are living with HIV

4. 5/3/2012 4 People living with HIV/AIDS New HIV infections in 2003 Deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003 95% of those with HIV do not know they are infected More than 95% in low and middle income countries Global estimates by end of 2003 Very briefly before we go to the Asia-Pacific information as the AIDS Epidemic report was released just 3 days ago I thought I would quickly highlight for you a snapshot the new global figures. As of the end of this year UNAIDS and WHO estimate that there will be globally 42 million adults and children living with HIV/AIDS By the end of this year 5 million new infections will have occurred And 3.1 million people will have died this year from the disease To add to this - Current projections suggest that an additional 45 million people will become infected with HIV between 2002-2010 More than 40% of these new infections will occur in Asia and the Pacific (currently accounts for 20%)Very briefly before we go to the Asia-Pacific information as the AIDS Epidemic report was released just 3 days ago I thought I would quickly highlight for you a snapshot the new global figures. As of the end of this year UNAIDS and WHO estimate that there will be globally 42 million adults and children living with HIV/AIDS By the end of this year 5 million new infections will have occurred And 3.1 million people will have died this year from the disease To add to this - Current projections suggest that an additional 45 million people will become infected with HIV between 2002-2010 More than 40% of these new infections will occur in Asia and the Pacific (currently accounts for 20%)

5. 5/3/2012 5

6. 5/3/2012 6 Modes of Transmission Sexual transmission Injecting drug use Transfusion of blood, blood products Vertical transmission

7. 5/3/2012 7 Globally and regionally estimates are provided by a range. These estimates are based on both surveillance data and an estimation model. 0.2 to 0.4 as compared to 7.5 to 8.5 Globally and regionally estimates are provided by a range. These estimates are based on both surveillance data and an estimation model. 0.2 to 0.4 as compared to 7.5 to 8.5

8. 5/3/2012 8 Global Situation – Main findings No region is spared Rates of infections continue to rise in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, more recent epidemics have emerged in Eastern Europe and Asia General prevalence remains relatively low in some regions, but there are increasing infections in certain countries and in specific populations A difference can be made through preventing new infections and improving quality of care In the absence of cure, the mobilization of diverse sectors of the society remains one of the key strategies

9. 5/3/2012 9 600,000 (470,000 - 730,000) people living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2003 55,000 (43,000 - 67,000) people newly-infected in 2003 42,500 (35,000 - 45,000) people died of AIDS in 2003 Situation in the Middle East and North Africa

10. 5/3/2012 10 Relatively low prevalence in the general population (0.3%), but trend is on the increase Diversity across the region (range from 0.0l% to 2.9%) “Low-level”, “concentrated” and “generalized” epidemics Predominance of sexual transmission, but increasing drug injecting related transmission Trends towards increasing proportion of infections among young people and women

11. 5/3/2012 11 Low-level epidemic Many of the countries are considered low prevalence Recognition of risk factors and determinants of vulnerability Diversity between and within countries

12. 5/3/2012 12 Concentrated epidemic Outbreak among Injecting Drug Users (e.g. Iran, Libya) Other countries might also be in the concentrated phase, but limited data

13. 5/3/2012 13 Generalized epidemic Djibouti – 2.9 % prevalence, with range of 1.1 - 4.7% [5-6% HIV prevalence among 20-34 years old] Sudan – 1.6 % prevalence Somalia – neighboring countries with similar factors of vulnerability

14. 5/3/2012 14 Factors of vulnerability in the Region Protective social factors, but changes taking place in particular among young people Mobility, Migration and Displacement Increasing drug use, in particular IDU Socio-economic disparities, unemployment Social marginalization Limited access to information, health and prevention services

15. 5/3/2012 15 Main driving forces for HIV/AIDS Driving forces or influences on the sexual transmission of HIV can be catagorized as shown in the slide. All bullet points shown pose a potential entry point for planning prevention efforts. Key is to determine which is most relevant for the specific region, country or community based on identified priorities, gaps and needs Where UNFPA’s local comparative advantage lies (based upon our mandate) What will have the greatest potential impact for resources used. Whichever entry point is chosen prevention efforts should be looked at a range of interventions (next slide) Driving forces or influences on the sexual transmission of HIV can be catagorized as shown in the slide. All bullet points shown pose a potential entry point for planning prevention efforts. Key is to determine which is most relevant for the specific region, country or community based on identified priorities, gaps and needs Where UNFPA’s local comparative advantage lies (based upon our mandate) What will have the greatest potential impact for resources used. Whichever entry point is chosen prevention efforts should be looked at a range of interventions (next slide)

16. 5/3/2012 16 Situation in Gulf Countries Low number of HIV/AIDS cases, but increases reported Diversity between countries Need for more epidemiological and behavioral data

17. 5/3/2012 17 Achievements in the Response Increased awareness, however there is need for more intensive prevention efforts Blood safety and infection control in most countries ARVs made available in a growing number of countries of the region, however there is need to develop psychosocial support Growing recognition of risk and vulnerability factors Development of National Strategic Plans (NSP) on HIV/AIDS including planning across sectors Increased participation of NGOs, involvement and support for people living with HIV/AIDS

18. 5/3/2012 18 Challenges in the Response Lack of information on the epidemic Limited capacities Stigmatization and discrimination Reach of vulnerable groups, contexts Policy and legislation challenges Coordination between partners Need to strengthen both ‘normative’ areas and across sectors

19. 5/3/2012 19

20. 5/3/2012 20 Thank You

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