Zoe nichols marine aquaculture dauphin island sea lab
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Zoe Nichols Marine Aquaculture Dauphin Island Sea Lab. Abalone. Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Gastropoda Family: Haliotidae Genus: Haliotis Species:…. Species. Haliotis asinina “Ass's Ear Abalone” South East Asia Haliotis rufescens “Red Abalone” California

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Zoe Nichols Marine Aquaculture Dauphin Island Sea Lab

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Zoe nichols marine aquaculture dauphin island sea lab

Zoe Nichols

Marine Aquaculture

Dauphin Island Sea Lab

Abalone


Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Family: Haliotidae

Genus: Haliotis

Species:…


Species

Species

Haliotisasinina“Ass's Ear Abalone” South East Asia

Haliotisrufescens“Red Abalone” California

Haliotisdiscus “Disk Abalone” Japan

Haliotis discus hannai“Japanese Abalone” Japan, Korea

Haliotisdiversicolorsupertexta“VariousllyColoured Abalone” Japan

Haliotisfulgens“Green Abalone” Southern California

Haliotis iris “Blackfoot Paua” New Zealand

Haliotiskamtschatkana“Northern Abalone” California (endangered)

Haliotislaevigata“Smooth Australian Abalone” Australia

Haliotismidae“South African Abalone” South Africa

Haliotisrubra“BlacklipAbalone”Australia

Haliotistuberculata“Green Ormer” Europe

There are about 100 species (150 with hybrids)

Large abalones → temperate zone, small abalone → tropics and the cold zones.


Species1

Species

Haliotisasinina“Ass's Ear Abalone” South East Asia

Haliotisrufescens“Red Abalone” California

Haliotisdiscus “Disk Abalone” Japan

Haliotis discus hannai“Japanese Abalone” Japan, Korea

Haliotisdiversicolorsupertexta“VariousllyColoured Abalone” Japan

Haliotisfulgens“Green Abalone” Southern California

Haliotis iris “Blackfoot Paua” New Zealand

Haliotiskamtschatkana“Northern Abalone” California (endangered)

Haliotislaevigata“Smooth Australian Abalone” Australia

Haliotismidae“South African Abalone” South Africa

Haliotisrubra“BlacklipAbalone”Australia

Haliotistuberculata“Green Ormer” Europe

There are about 100 species (150 with hybrids)

Large abalones → temperate zone, small abalone → tropics and the cold zones.


Why aquaculture abalone

Why Aquaculture Abalone?

In the last 20+ years abalone populations have declined

Commercial catch worldwide has declined from 18,000mt to a little over 10,000mt

(predation, loss of habitat, illegal harvesting)

An entree of two 4-inch abalone steaks can cost $50-plus

Purchased raw, smaller abalone (in-shell) costs $20 per pound; the price increases as the abalone size increases.

Market locations: Korea, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, Southern Australia, New Zealand, United States of America, and China

Shells are part of the jewelry industry cause they’re pretty


Abalone life cycle

Abalone Life Cycle


Reproduction in captivity

Reproduction In Captivity...

Spawning occurs mostly during the summer months and multiple events during one season are possible

1.Ultraviolet method

2. Desiccation method

3. Thermal shock method

The eggs & sperm are released → fertilization

A 1.5 inch abalone may spawn 10,000 eggs or more at a time, while an 8 inch abalone may spawn 11 million or more.

24hrs later egg hatches (microscopic) → free living larvae

A week later, it settles on the bottom = spat

Begins to develop into an adult


Production methods used

Production methods used:

Juveniles are in controlled tanks and attached to setting boards

When the juveniles reach 5–6 mm after 80 days → intermediate rearing tanks

Intermediate culture period the abalones are reared up to 3 cm

(high density 3–5 kg/m2 and usually with a high survival rate)

> 3cm  Land-basedrearing tanks or in the sea


Production methods used1

Production methods used:

Land-based rearing tanks or in the sea

The land-based method = easier management (artificial feed , electrical pumps, blowers)

Raised in concrete tanks with fresh sea water pumped in

Waste should be regularly removed- once a week at high temperatures, and once a fortnight at low temperatures

IMTA- Israel

cultured marine fish, seaweeds, and Japanese abalone.

The sea-based method uses rearing cage hung from a floating line or raft set at sea.

Affected by seasonal limitation of the environment/ density 2–3 kg/m2

Dead organisms beneath the rearing tank should be removed and a good water flow provided


Feeds and feeding

Feeds and Feeding

The diatom plates → feed free-swimming stage after spawning

Larvae will settle on the plates and feed on the diatoms

Abalone eat marine algae in the wild and on some farms

Abalone farming limited by the quality and quantity of the macroalgae sources worldwide

Cultured abalone, many farms now use high quality manufactured food, which is healthy, efficient and produces very high quality meat.

Juvenile abalone usually feed on benthic diatoms and small benthic organisms.

At 13 mm long they feed on a great variety of seaweeds

Large brown algae such as giant kelp, bull kelp, feather boa kelp and elk kelp

Young barnacles, bivalves and foraminiferans are also found in the stomach of abalones

Feeding habits affected by temperature (20 °C is optimum)


How big can they get

How big can they get?


How to have happy abalone

How to have happy abalone...

Water temperature 20°C

Salinity >30 ‰

Do >4 ppm

Light intensity >3000 Lux

NH4OH-N <5 ppb

PH 8.0–8.3


Advantages disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages

Leave little or no negative environmental effects

Low maintenance

Can use high quality dried food

Can use ocean water

Sell meat and shells (60% weight)

Live around 50 years

Predators/ parasites if using cages in ocean

5-8 years to reach maturity

A lot of natural food required- limiting

Transfer of disease

Unwanted species trans located with abalones


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