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Using this presentation

Using this Presentation

Please click on the buttons available below to move through the presentation.

Other forward and reverse functions are disabled.

Go back to beginning

End the presentation

FORWARD Button


Navigation

Navigation

  • Accurate navigation is critical to SAR personnel:

    • Provide help quickly...

    • Know where you did not search


Navigation skills for sar

Navigation Skills for SAR

  • Includes:

    • Map reading

      • Establishing distance and direction between points

    • Compass usage

      • Using a compass to travel

      • Taking Declination into account


Primary navigation tools

PRIMARY NAVIGATIONTOOLS

  • MAP - A graphic description of an area

    • Click here for more information on how to read a map

  • COMPASS - A magnetized needle thatpoints North


Map orientation

Map Orientation

  • Top is North – more on this later

  • Steps to good map use.

    • Someone gives you a map

      Hint: Never search without a map!

    • Study it – find key information

    • Turn the map so the top is to the North by looking at things around you:

      • Sun / moon / stars

      • Roads and visible landmarks

      • Terrain features


Compass

Compass

  • We recommend the use of an orienteering compass

  • Many searchers use a sighting mirror type orienteering compass.

  • Trust but verify (Ronald Reagan)

    • Sun / Moon / Terrain


Orienteering compass

Orienteering Compass


Compass use

Compass Use

  • On a map – it’s a protractor

  • To navigate – ALWAYS

    • RED FRED in the SHED

    • Follow the Direction of Travel (DOT) arrow


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Red Arrow

“RED FRED”


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Orienting Arrow or

“RED SHED”


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DOT Arrow


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Orienting Lines


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Go this way


Quiz question 1

Quiz Question 1

When navigating with a compass you should put RED FRED in the SHED and then follow the:

A Red Arrow

B White Arrow

C Direction of Travel Arrow

D Orientation Line

Click on

your

choice

A

B

C

D


Answer a red arrow

Answer A – Red Arrow

  • Sorry

    • The red arrow (Red Fred) and the orientation arrow (Red Shed) should always point North. So this answer is only correct if you want to go North. This is a common way people get lost!!

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer b white arrow

Answer B – White Arrow

  • Sorry

    • The white arrow always points South. So this answer is only correct if you want to go South. By the way putting the white arrow on the orienting arrow or “Red Shed” is an easy way to run a reverse azimuth (or go backwards).

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer d orientation line

Answer D – Orientation Line

  • Sorry

    • The orientation lines run parallel to the orientation arrow or “RED SHED” and as such will be aligned with North and South. These lines are used to align the compass dial when reading an azimuth from a map.

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer c dot arrow

Answer C – DOT Arrow

  • YES – GREAT ANSWER!

    • Align your body and forward motion with the Direction of Travel (DOT) arrow. Sighting on a distant object and putting the compass away until you reach the object will allow you to focus on other tasks.

Review Question 1


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Tips

  • Nearby metal and electronics such as a GPS can cause compass error.

  • A GPS is no substitute for a compass.

  • You can’t search well if you are looking at a compass dial.

  • The easiest route is often the quickest. Take a well marked trail if possible.


Compass usage first knowing your azimuth

Compass UsageFirst - Knowing your Azimuth

Azimuth = Bearing in degrees

Ways to get an azimuth:

  • Somebody tells you

  • Map reading (click here for more info)

  • Compass sighting

    • Aim your compass DOT arrow at target

    • Dial-in Red Fred in the Shed

    • Your azimuth is now aligned with the DOT arrow


Traveling on a heading

Traveling on a Heading

  • Dial-in azimuth to match the DOT arrow

  • Put Red Fred in the Shed

  • Walk to a distant landmark pointed out by the DOT arrow


North north and north

North, North and North

  • The top of a map is North

    • Grid NORTH

      • Side borders align to North and South

    • True North

      • Assumed here to be nearly same as grid North.

      • True axis of the earth

    • Magnetic North - Sometimes not the same as true North.


Declination diagram

Declination Diagram

  • DECLINATION – The difference between True and Magnetic North at your location.

  • Diagram may be provided

    • North arrows (Grid, True, and Magnetic)

    • Bottom left of map

    • Provides graphic of declination


Declination graphic

Declination Graphic

Image Reference: Pidwirny, Dr. Michael, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 1999, http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/2b.html


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True North

Magnetic North


Why do i care

Why Do I care?

  • Test questions

  • Some parts of the world it is a big deal

    • Wisconsin – generally can be ignored

    • Arctic Circle – 30-40 degrees

      • Should not be ignored!!

    • Continental USA – 0-20 degrees

      • Declination important for accurate navigation


Three types of declination

Three Types of Declination

  • Negligible - Almost Zero and can be ignored

    • Recommended when possible ;)

  • Westerly Declination

    • Magnetic north is west of true.

    • Eastern USA (example - Maine)

  • Easterly Declination

    • Magnetic north is east of true.

    • Western USA (example - California)


Magnetic lines

Magnetic Lines


Two types of correction

Two Types of Correction

  • Map to Compass

    • Reading an azimuth from a map and using a compass to navigate

  • Compass to Map

    • Transferring an azimuth sighted with a compass to show it on a map.

      Not often recommended:

      Reset compass adjustments

      Map markups with magnetic North


Recommendation memorize wam w est declination a dd going m ap to compass

Recommendation Memorize “WAM”“West Declination, Add going Map to Compass”


Example declination

EXAMPLE: Declination

  • I am near Bangor Maine, declination is 17 degrees westerly.

  • My compass points North

    • Magnetic North, that is.

    • True north, which is what my map shows, is to the right of where my compass is pointing.


Maine declination

Maine - Declination

  • People are reading maps in the command center.

    • They have my position identified

    • They want me to navigate to a target

    • They read a heading of 100 degrees based on their map.

  • Remember: Your compass is 17 degrees off their map.


Maine declination1

Maine - Declination

  • Use the WAM rule.

    • Declination is westerly.

    • I am going from map to compass

  • So – WAM – ADD 17 degrees

  • Set your compass at 117 degrees!


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WEST DECLINATION

Map To Compass

ADD


Quiz question 2

Quiz Question 2

You have your current location established on a map in an area with 15 degrees westerly declination. Using your compass you sight a landmark at 260 degrees. What azimuth will you use to draw a line on a map from your current location to the landmark?

Continue on next slide


Recommendation memorize wam west declination add going map to compass

Recommendation Memorize “WAM”“West Declination, add going Map to Compass”


Quiz question 21

Quiz Question 2

You have your current location established on a map in an area with 15 degrees westerly declination. Using your compass you sight a landmark at 260 degrees. What azimuth will you use to draw a line on a map from your current location to the landmark?

A 245

B 260

C 275

D 290

A

B

C

D


Answer b 260

Answer B - 260

  • Sorry – Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Review the question

Retry


Answer c 275

Answer C – 275

  • Sorry – Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer d 290

Answer D – 290

  • Sorry – Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Note: This mistake is common when people adjust their compass settings for declination.

    Please Try Again

Retry


Answer a 245 degrees

Answer A – 245 degrees

  • YES – GREAT ANSWER

  • In this case we subtract the declination

    • Remember WAM

      • Yes, this is Westerly Declination

      • But, we are going from Compass to Map so,

        Subtract 15 from 260 = 245

Subtract

Review Question 2


Quiz question 3

Quiz Question 3

You are in the woods with a map (5 degree Easterly Declination) and compass. You plot your position and determine your destination to be at 87 degrees on the map. What heading will you dial-in on your compass?

Continue on next slide


Quiz question 31

Quiz Question 3

You are in the woods with a map (5 degree Easterly Declination) and compass. You plot your position and see your destination at 87 degrees on the map. What heading will you dial-in on your compass?

A 92

B 89

C 87

D 82

A

B

C

D


Answer a 92

Answer A – 92

  • Sorry not 92.

  • Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer b 89

Answer B – 89

  • Sorry – 89 is not the answer

  • Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Please Try Again

RETRY #3


Answer c 87

Answer C – 87

  • Sorry – not 87

  • Please review the declination chart and address the declination properly for this area.

  • Please Try Again

Retry


Answer d 82

Answer D - 82

  • YES – 82 DEGREES – GREAT ANSWER!

  • This area has an Easterly Declination

  • WAM

    • No it is not Westerly – calls for subtraction

    • But, yes it is map to compass – stays subtraction

  • So Subtract

  • 87 – 5 = 82

Subtract

REVISIT QUESTION #3


References

References

  • Compass images provided by NASAR.


Thank you for your time

Thank you for your time!

  • This concludes this learning module.

  • If you would like to ask questions or send input please send me a note.

    Chuck

    [email protected]

End of Presentation – Thanks!!


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