Chapter 9 identification of saliva and misc biological fluids
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Chapter 9: Identification of Saliva and Misc. Biological Fluids. Forensic Biology by Richard Li. Biological Characteristics. Human salivary glands produce 1.0-1.5 liters per day Mostly water Amylase- digests carbohydrates in the oral cavity Identification of amylase indicates saliva

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Forensic Biology by Richard Li

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Chapter 9 identification of saliva and misc biological fluids

Chapter 9: Identification of Saliva and Misc. Biological Fluids

Forensic Biologyby Richard Li


Biological characteristics

Biological Characteristics

  • Human salivary glands produce 1.0-1.5 liters per day

  • Mostly water

  • Amylase- digests carbohydrates in the oral cavity

    • Identification of amylase indicates saliva

    • Enzymes that cleave polysaccarides that are composed of D-glucose units connected by (α1-4) linkages

      • Starch

Forensic Biology by Richard Li


Biological characteristics1

Biological Characteristics

  • Starch

  • Amylose

  • Amylopectin

  • Two types of amylases:

    • β-amylase

      • Plant and bacterial sources

    • α-amylase

      • Human

      • Human salivary (HSA)

      • Human pancreatic (HPA)

Forensic Biology by Richard Li


Presumptive assays

Presumptive Assays

  • Visual Examination

    • ALS (470nm), Microscopic

  • Starch-iodine assays

    • Iodine used to test for starch

    • Not specific

  • Colorimetric assays

    • Dye-labeled amylase substrates are employed

    • Phadebas test

Forensic Biology by Richard Li


Confirmatory assays

Confirmatory Assays

  • Immunochromatographic Assays

    • RSID-Saliva

  • ELISA

    • Monoclonal HSA antibody

  • RNA-based assays

    • Certain genes are specifically expressed in certain types of cells

Forensic Biology by Richard Li


Misc biological fluids

Misc. Biological Fluids

  • Vaginal secretions, Menstrual blood, Urine, Feces, Vomitus

    • Less frequently encountered

    • Can be probative in certain cases

Forensic Biology by Richard Li


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