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Cultures, Generations, Communications. MICM Lectures Utrecht / The Hague 15 / 28 November 2006 Henk Vinken www.henkvinken.nl. This Lecture. Definitions and relations of dimensions of cultures : Hofstede & Inglehart Break Dynamics: cultural change and generations Culture and communications

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Cultures generations communications

Cultures, Generations, Communications

MICM LecturesUtrecht / The Hague15 / 28 November 2006

Henk Vinken

www.henkvinken.nl


This lecture

This Lecture

Definitions and relations of dimensions

of cultures : Hofstede & Inglehart

Break

Dynamics: cultural change and generations

Culture and communications

End

Before, during, after this lecture: Interrupt, question, criticize as often as possible !!!


Cultures

Cultures

Culture belongs to a collective :

a group, an organisation, a nation

Culture is transferred from generation to generation :

it is not congenital, but learned

Culture is a guiding principle :it influences people’s behaviour


Cultures1

Cultures

Core element : values (change slowest)

Also : heroes, symbols, rituals (change faster)

Value: fundamental tendency to prefer a

certain state of affairs over another;

the desired (vs. the desirable);

that what is regarded good, beautiful, true


Cultural dimensions

Cultural dimensions

Latent (non-observable)

collections of several interrelated values

with which to compare groups, etc.

Researchers seek to find

the smallest set of dimensions (7, 5 or 2)

with which to explain biggest set of behaviours


Hofstede

Hofstede

hierarchy

truth

Hofstede’s five dimensions of national cultures

1 Power distance (pdi) : equality or inequality ?2 Uncertainty avoidance (uai) : ambiguity or certainty ?3 Collectivism/Individualism (idv) : together or solo ?4 Femininity/Masculinity (mas) : caring men and women or caring women and assertive men ?5 Short/Long-term orientation (lto) : rewards now or later ?

identity

gender

virtue


Cultures generations communications

den

swe

gb

ire

nor

sla

nl

swi

fin

est

wg

aus

ita

spa

fra

hun

cze

bul

tur

pol

bel

rus

rom

por

gre

Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.


Cultures generations communications

den

swe

gb

ire

nor

sla

nl

swi

fin

est

wd

aus

ita

spa

fra

hun

cze

bul

tur

pol

bel

rus

rom

por

gre

Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.


Cultures generations communications

den

gb

swe

gb

ire

nl

hun

ita

bel

swe

den

fra

nor

swi

nor

sla

ire

nl

wg

swi

fin

pol

fin

est

cze

wd

aus

est

sla

aus

spa

ita

spa

fra

hun

cze

rus

bra

tur

bul

gre

tur

pol

bel

rus

bul

rom

rom

por

por

chi

gre

ido

Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.

Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.


Inglehart

Inglehart

Modernization :

from traditional to secular-rational authority

Postmodernization :from survival to self-expression

(postmaterialism)

Plotting an increasing numberof nations on these 2 dimensions with the World Values Survey (wvs)


Cultures generations communications

od

wd

est

czs

swe

lat

rus

nl

blr

fin

nor

bul

slo

den

lit

swi

ice

bel

gb

fra

hun

aus

ita

rom

por

spa

tur

pol

ire

nir

Source: Own analyzes based on estimates derived from Inglehart, 1997: 93.


Summary

Summary

Dekker e.a. 2006Europese Verkenningen 4 [European Outlook 4]The Hague: Sdu/Ministery of Foreign Affairs


Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break


Dynamics

Dynamics

Impression: cultures change, e.g., in NL …


Dynamics1

Dynamics

Assumptions: cultural diversity …


Generations

Generations

Vehicles of cultural change = Generations

Generations emerge when conscious

of novelty of shared history ánd destiny

(members remain different when growing old)

New generations provide new answersto newly arising problems / challenges

Cultures change by generational replacement

(old die, new take over)


The pace of change

The pace of change

Generation formation relates to pace of change

1 Slow : Continuation of tradition

(no new answers needed / no new generations )

2 Moderate : New cultures

(new answers / generations )

3 Fast : Constant innovation

(new answers do not spread / no new generations )

In the midst of phase 3, orall youth merge in one superculture ?


The rise of a mcworld generation

The rise of a McWorld generation ?

Globalization yields one similar global culture

Presupposes acceptance of globalization

(other responses: rejection, coexistence, synthesis)(e.g., ‘Davos’ culture in business/academic world)

The McWorld generation

(participation in global modernity)(engagement in pop culture / media)(similar in valeus and choices)

Evidence ?(young generations from different cultures should be more similar)


Cultures generations communications

whole population

young people

(born 1970-1987)

source: world values survey/european values study 1999-2000


Cultures generations communications

whole population

young people

(born 1970-1987)

source: world values survey/european values study 1999-2000


Preliminary conclusions

Preliminary conclusions

  • Across the board : Young people close to national responses

  • Which are very different in both Western and Asian societies

  • Especially so on values of child rearing

  • Less so on gendered values of combining work and family life

  • Young generation NOT clear forerunner of value convergence

  • Preliminary : survey studies have limitations

  • Preliminary : repeat analysis with dimensions

  • Preliminary: use repeated surveys to see if generations change


Communications

Communications

Focus on individualism / collectivism (idv / col)

On self-expression / survival ?

idv : sample cues ‘inside’ persons

(personal beliefs, attitudes, values) :

behavior shaped by attitude

(individual traits fixed : change situation)

col : sample cues about events/groups

(norms, roles, situations agreements) :

behavior shaped by duties

(situation fixed : adaptable self)


Communications1

Communications

idv : sample content of communication (verbal)

col : sample context (level of voice, eye contact, emotional expression, the non-verbal)

The self (I am busy)

The other (my co-students think I am busy)

Beware of prejudice and stereotyping !

Statements on cultures are not on individuals


Discussion

Discussion

All people want the sameout of life; culture doesn’t matterI am different than othersin my culture of origin, c.q.my cultural origin is not telling you who I am

Understanding cultural diversity doesn’t help much in communication


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