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Module 11 Energy Management (continued) Energy management basics Energy audit Demand-side management Life-cycle assessment Exergy analysis Carbon and ecological footprints Clean development mechanism. Selected topics in Energy Management:. Energy audit  Demand-side management 

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Module 11

Energy Management (continued)

Energy management basics

Energy audit

Demand-side management

Life-cycle assessment

Exergy analysis

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism


Selected topics in Energy Management:

Energy audit 

Demand-side management 

Life-cycle assessment 

Exergy analysis (continued)

Carbon and ecological footprints

Clean development mechanism


Exergy is the maximum theoretical work that can be obtained from an amount of energy.

Energy is conserved.

Exergy (which is the useful work potential of the energy) is not conserved.

Once the exergy is wasted, it can never be recovered.


Exergy (formal definition) and the Dead State from an amount of energy.

The useful work potential of a system is the amount of energy we could have extracted as useful work.

The useful work potential of a system at the specified state is called exergy.

Exergy is a property and is associated with the state of the system and the environment.

A system that is in equilibrium with its surroundings has zero exergy and is said to be at the dead state.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy Forms from an amount of energy.

There are 4 components:

  • Kinetic exergy of bulk motion

  • Potential exergy of gravitational or electro-magnetic field differentials

  • Physical exergy from temperature and pressure differentials

  • Chemical exergy arising from differences in chemical composition

    We can ignore the first two for many industrial and economic applications.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy of kinetic energy from an amount of energy.

Kinetic energy is a form of mechanical energy and can be converted directly into work.

Kinetic energy itself is the work potential or exergy of kinetic energy independent of the temperature and pressure of the environment.

Specific exergy of kinetic energy:

It is also known as

kinetic exergy EKN

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy of potential energy from an amount of energy.

Potential energy is a form of mechanical energy and can be converted directly into work.

Potential energy itself is the work potential or exergy of potential energy independent of the temperature and pressure of the environment.

Specific exergy of potential energy:

It is also known as

potential exergy EPT

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Physical exergy from an amount of energy.

Physical exergy from temperature and pressure differentials

It is also known as physical exergy EPH

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy of a flow stream from an amount of energy.

The exergy of a flow (stream) on a unit mass basis is written as follows:

The exergy change of a fluid stream as it undergoes a process from state 1 to state 2 is

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy transfer by heat transfer from an amount of energy.

By the second law we know that only a portion of heat transfer at a temperature above the environment temperature can be converted into work.

The maximum useful work is produced from it by passing this heat transfer through a reversible heat engine.

The exergy transfer by heat is

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Derivation is given on the following slides. from an amount of energy.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Heat engine converts heat into work from an amount of energy.

Wout

ηthermal

=

Qin

Hot reservoir at TH K

Wmax

ηCarnot

=

Qin

Qin

Wout

Tenv

ηCarnot

-

1

=

TH

Wmax

Exergy =

Qout

= ηCarnot Qin

Environment at Tenv K

Tenv

-

= Qin

1

TH


Derivation ends here. from an amount of energy.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy transfer by work from an amount of energy.

Exergy is the useful work potential, and the exergy transfer by work can simply be expressed as

where , P0 is atmospheric pressure, and

V1 and V2 are the initial and final volumes of the system.

The exergy transfer for shaft work and electrical work is equal to the work W itself.

Note that exergy transfer by work is zero for systems that have no work.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy transfer by mass from an amount of energy.

Mass flow is a mechanism to transport exergy, entropy, and energy into or out of a system.

As mass in the amount m enters or leaves a system the exergy transfer is given by

where

Note that exergy transfer by mass is zero for systems that involve no flow.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


The Decrease of Exergy Principle from an amount of energy.

The exergy of an isolated system during a process always decreases or, in the limiting case of a reversible process, remains constant.

This is known as the decrease of exergy principle and is expressed as

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy Destruction from an amount of energy.

Irreversibilities such as friction, mixing, chemical reactions, heat transfer through finite temperature difference, unrestrained expansion, non-quasi-equilibrium compression, or expansion always generate entropy, and anything that generates entropy always destroys exergy.

The exergy destroyed is proportional to the entropy generated as expressed as

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


The decrease of exergy principle does not imply that the exergy of a system cannot increase.

The exergy change of a system can be positive or negative during a process, but exergy destroyed cannot be negative.

The decrease of exergy principle can be summarized as follows:

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Exergy Balances exergy of a system cannot increase.

Exergy balance for any system undergoing any process can be expressed as

For a reversible process, the exergy destruction term is zero.

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


General: exergy of a system cannot increase.

General, unit-mass basis:

General, rate form:

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


General, rate form: exergy of a system cannot increase.

where

YA Çengel and MA Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed.


Chemical exergy exergy of a system cannot increase.

Even when a system is in a state of thermomechanical equilibrium with the environment, it may still be out of equilibrium with that environment owing to the difference in the composition and nature of the components making up the system and the environment, respectively.

These differences lead to values for the chemical exergy.

For example, pure nitrogen and oxygen have nonzero chemical exergies because their mole fraction in the environment is different from unity (1).


Chemical exergy in Iron Production exergy of a system cannot increase.

Production of pure iron (Fe) from iron oxide (Fe2O3).

This requires exergy from burning coke (pure carbon).

The reaction is as follows:

2Fe2O3 + 3C  4Fe + 3CO2

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the waste product from the reaction.

3/4 moles of CO2 is produced per mole of Fe manufactured.


2Fe exergy of a system cannot increase. 2O3 + 3C  4Fe + 3CO2

Exergy imbalance = 1565.3 – 1263.9 = 301.4

2Fe2O3 + 3C  4Fe + 3CO2

has the correct mass balance, but incorrect exergy balance


2 Fe exergy of a system cannot increase. 2O3 + 3.76 C + 0.76 O2  4 Fe + 3.76 CO2

On the input side oxygen has been added to

fulfill the balance of the extra C required

Exergy balance = 1580.4 – 1279.0 ≈ 0


2 Fe exergy of a system cannot increase. 2O3 + 3.76 C + 0.76 O2  4 Fe + 3.76 CO2

3.76/4 moles of CO2 is produced per mole of Fe manufactured

Molecular mass of Fe is 56 and that of CO2 is 44.

(3.76/4) x 44 kg of CO2 is produced per 56 kg of Fe.

0.74 kg of waste CO2 is produced per kg of Fe manufactured.

This is the thermodynamic minimum.

In reality, blast furnace has an average efficiency of 33%.

So, a mole of C accounts for only 135.4 kJ instead of 410.3 kJ.

As a result, we require 12.42 moles of C instead of 3.76 moles.


2 Fe exergy of a system cannot increase. 2O3 + 12.42 C + 9.42 O2  4 Fe + 12.42 CO2 + heat

Exergy balance = -3417.6

(12.42/4) x 44 kg of CO2 is produced per 56 kg of Fe.

2.44 kg of waste CO2 is produced per kg of Fe manufactured.


Types of exergy service exergy of a system cannot increase.

  • Prime movers ( electricity)

  • Transport

  • High temperature process heat

  • Mid and low temperature process heat

  • Lighting

  • Non-fuel application


Exergy Analysis: exergy of a system cannot increase.

Transactions of the ASME, Vol 119, Sept 1997, pp200-204


Exergy Analysis: exergy of a system cannot increase.

Transactions of the ASME, Vol 119, Sept 1997, pp200-204


Exergy Analysis: exergy of a system cannot increase.

Transactions of the ASME, Vol 119, Sept 1997, pp200-204


Exergy efficiency of useful work categories: exergy of a system cannot increase.

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Exergy efficiency of useful work categories: exergy of a system cannot increase.

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Exergy efficiency of useful work categories: exergy of a system cannot increase.

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Exergy efficiency of useful work categories: exergy of a system cannot increase.

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Energy and exergy efficiencies of space heating technologies:

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Aggregate exergy efficiency: technologies:

B. Warr et al. / Ecological Economics 69 (2010) 1904–1917


Exergy maps also available at technologies:

http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/exergycharts.html


Selected topics in Energy Management: technologies:

Energy audit 

Demand-side management 

Life-cycle assessment 

Exergy analysis 

Carbon and ecological footprints 

Clean development mechanism


Let’s take a look at how globalization assists in combating global warming.

Global warming is said to have caused by greenhouse gases (GHG).

GHGs are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.


The Greenhouse effect combating global warming.

A T M O S P H E R E

S U N

G R E E N H O U S E G A S E S


The main GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

Without GHGs, Earth's surface would be on average about 33°C colder than at present.


Rise in the concentration of four GHGs carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.


Global Warming Potential (GWP) of different GHGs carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.


The burning of fossil fuels, land use change and other industrial activities since the Industrial revolution have increased the GHGs in the atmosphere to such a level that the earth’s surface is heating up to temperatures that are very destructive to life on earth.


Time taken to reach equilibrium after the emissions peak industrial activities since the Industrial revolution have increased the GHGs in the atmosphere to such a level that the earth’s surface is heating up to temperatures that are very destructive to life on earth.

Magnitude of response

Sea level rise due to ice melting takes several millennia

CO2 emissions peak 0 to 100 years

Sea level rise due to thermal expansion takes centuries to millennia

Temperature stabilization takes a few centuries

CO2 stabilization takes 100 to 300 years

CO2 emissions

Today 100 years 1000 years


So there was an urgent need for global action to reduce GHGs.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

(UNFCCC)

One global treaty

Kyoto Protocol

Another global treaty


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change GHGs.

(UNFCCC)

UNFCCC sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. 

It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other GHGs. 

The objective of the treaty is to stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

Source: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/items/2627.php


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change GHGs.

(UNFCCC)

Under the Convention, governments:

- gather and share information on GHG emissions, national policies and best practices

- launch national strategies for addressing GHG emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries 

- cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change

Source: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/items/2627.php


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change GHGs.

(UNFCCC)

May 09, 1992: The Convention was adopted at the United Nations Headquarters, New York.

June 1992 – June 1993: It was open for signature at the Earth Summit (held in Rio de Janeiro) and thereafter at the United Nations Headquarters, New York.

March 21, 1994: The Convention entered into force.

Currently, there are 194 Parties (193 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the UNFCCC.

Source: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/

status_of_ratification/items/2631.php


Kyoto Protocol GHGs.

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the UNFCCC, and it is adopted at third Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997.

The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.

Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.”

Source: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php


Kyoto Protocol GHGs.

Dec 11, 1997: The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan.

Feb 16, 2005: Protocol entered into force.


Kyoto Protocol GHGs.

The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for Annex I parties for reducing the emissions of the following GHGs:

- Carbon dioxide (CO2)

- Methane (CH4)

- Nitrous oxide (N2O)

- Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

- Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) group of gases

- Perfluorocarbon (PFC) group of gases

The binding targets of Annex 1 parties amount to a total of 5.2% below that of 1990 levels over 2008-2012.

Source: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php


Annex 1 parties to Kyoto Protocol GHGs.

  • Australia,Austria,Belarus,Belgium,

  • Bulgaria,Canada,Croatia,Czech Rep.

  • Denmark,Estonia,Finland, France,

  • Germany, Greece,Hungary,Iceland,

  • Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,

  • Liechtenstein,Lithuania, Luxembourg,Monaco,

  • Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,Poland,

  • Portugal,Romania,Russia Slovakia,

  • Slovenia,Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

  • Turkey,Ukraine,UK, USA

Countries with economies in transition to a market economy.

Annex II countries which is a subgroup of Annex 1 countries.

USA has no intention to ratify the Protocol.


Emission trend of Annex 1 parties in 2005 GHGs.

Decreased emissions

(1990 baseline)

Increased emissions

(1990 baseline)


Kyoto Protocol GHGs.

USA, which was expected to cut the emissions 7% below the 1990 level, has no intention to ratify the Protocol.

Since USA, which roughly contributes a quarter of the world’s GHGs, has not ratified the Protocol and since a number of parties to the Protocol has not so far met their Protocol emissions target, the success of the Kyoto Protocol is questionable.


The Kyoto Mechanisms GHGs.

Under the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures.

However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms, which are the following:

Emissions trading (ET), known as “the carbon market" 

Clean development mechanism (CDM)

Joint implementation (JI)

The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.

Source: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php


The Kyoto Mechanisms GHGs.

ET - Emissions Trading

AAU (Assigned Amount Units) are exchanged between Annex I countries

JI - Joint Implementation

Annex I investors receive ERUs (Emission Reduction Units) by investing in a project in another Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions

CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

Annex I investors receive CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) by investing in a project in a non-Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions

Source: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

CDM is a mechanism to ensure that Annex I countries can meet their emission reduction target in a cost effective way by financing GHG emission reduction in developing countries.

If an Annex I country finance an emission reduction project in a Non-Annex I country, the project participants will be granted ”Certified Emission Reductions” (CERs), also called carbon credits.

The number of CERs granted reflects the emission reduction; an emission reduction equal to one metric ton of CO2 gives one CER.

The CERs are tradable, and they can be used to supplement national GHG emission reductions.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

  • Annex I countries cannot base all their emission reductions on CERs.

  • The European Trading System (ETS) limits emission reductions covered by CERs to 10 to 30 percents; the rest must be real emission reductions in the home country.

  • There are two reasons for this limit;

  • to ensure that there are not too many CERs on the market

  • to ensure that Annex I countries do not base all their emission reduction on buying CERs without reducing emissions at home.

  • Only projects that contribute to sustainable development in developing countries are accepted as CDM projects.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

Only projects that would not have taken place without the CDM will be accepted as a CDM projects, and this is referred to as the Additionality criteria.

An example of additionality is a wind power project that is not profitable without the CDM, but with the added value of CERs it will be profitable.

A financial and/or technical analysis has to be performed to document additionality. The analysis has to highlight all reasons why the project would not happen without the CDM, and all technical, legal and infrastructural barriers must be described.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

The idea behind additionality is to ensure that CDM projects results in real emission reductions that would not have happened in a business-as-usual scenario.

Another prerequisite for CDM projects is that there exists a recognised method for calculating emission reduction. This is referred to as the Methodology criteria.

Finally, CDM projects must also meet the host country’s criteria for sustainable development.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

The complicated framework for registration of CDM projects has lead to criticism because several sustainable projects find the cost of CDM registration as a main barrier for the project.

As an example, several smaller solar energy projects in developing countries have not taken place because of an expensive and complicated process of CDM registration.

However, a procedure called Programmatic CDM will reduce this barrier because it allows similar projects to be evaluated in one common process instead of several individual processes.

Another problem is that many potential CDM projects do not apply for CDM status due to lack of knowledge about the CDM registration process.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

CDM projects include energy efficiency, renewable energy production, methane emission reduction, and fuel switch projects.

There are CDM projects within several industrial sectors including power production; steel, cement and paper plants; renewable energy; forestation; hydropower; and biomass.

Some projects are controversial, like large water dam projects for hydropower and HFC23 projects (HFC23 is a GHG with a global warming potential 11,700 times higher than CO2). The HFC23 projects have so far been extremely profitable, and it is therefore discussed to exclude HFC23 projects from the CDM.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

Around half of CDM credits issued have been for destroying HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) which is emitted while making the refrigerant HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane).  

HFC-23 is easily removed by cheap gas scrubbers. It prevents more preferable CDM projects, like biomass or wind power, and creates a perverse incentive for companies to expand refrigerant plant capacity purely for the greater profit of destroying HFC-23 byproducts.  

Montreal protocol is aimed to reduce ozone-depleting gases - for example, by replacing HCFC-22 with other HFC blends or hydrocarbons which are kinder to the ozone layer. 

But developing countries are allowed to increase their HCFC-22 production until 2016 and maintain that level until 2040.


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) GHGs.

There are large commercial risks due to the uncertainty of future CERs prices, since Kyoto protocol expires in 2012 and it is highly uncertain what happens with CDM post Kyoto.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


There is a common international understanding that there is a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

Source: http://www.bellona.org/factsheets/1191918665.67


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

Activities:

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority a need for a mechanism like CDM also beyond 2012, but one challenge is to establish a mechanism that all countries can agree on, including the U.S. and other countries that have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.

http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/energy_managment.html


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