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Browning. Compiled by: Mrs. Vandana Mahajani. What is browning?. Browning is a common colour change seen in food during prepreperation, processing or storage of food. Colour may range from cream or pale yellow to brown and black. Browning –desirable or undesirable.

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browning

Browning

Compiled by:

Mrs. Vandana Mahajani

what is browning
What is browning?
  • Browning is a common colour change seen in food during prepreperation, processing or storage of food.
  • Colour may range from cream or pale yellow to brown and black.
browning desirable or undesirable
Browning –desirable or undesirable
  • In some cases the brown colour may add to aroma ,flavour and colour as brown crust of bread, roasted nuts, coffee beans , caramel peanut brittle etc.
  • Undesirable effects are seen in milk, cream, eggs dry fruits, coconut,citrus fruits and canned juice concentrates and milk
types of browning
Types of browning
  • Enzymatic browning occurs in fruits when cells are disturbed when cut or bruised. This is due to the oxidative enzymes present on phenolic substances present in plant tissues.
  • Eg. Apples, brinjals, bananas, pears and potatoes
  • Phenolic compounds------oxygen----------Quonines
  • Enzymatic browning reaction
  • Prevention of EB
  • -by inactivating enzymes by heat, salt, ph levels, and low temp.
  • -by avoiding contact with oxygen
non enzymatic browning
Non enzymatic browning
  • Maillard was the first tp observe browning . The reaction is also called protein sugar reaction.
  • Conditions favouring millard reaction
  • High temperature
  • Increase in alkalinity
  • Concentration and type of amino acid and sugar present (lysine and glucose)
  • Presence of catalyst (such as copper and iron)
  • Desirable changes are seen as in roasting of coffee beans and nuts and quality of baking bread
  • Undesirable changes like off-odour, off-colour , off-flavour can be prevented by low temp and low ph.
caramalization
Caramalization
  • Sugars are caramalized at 163 deg C to 170 deg C.
  • This reaction occurs in sugar alone.
  • high temp
  • Sucrose----------------------------------------caramel * acid
  • decomposition
  • dehydration
  • polymerization
ascorbic acid browning and lipid browning
Ascorbic acid browning and lipid browning
  • Ascorbic acid browning occurs in strawberry and cocum where original red colour changes to brown. The ascorbic acid present in these fruits undergoes oxidation causing browning.
  • Lime juice cordial and other preserves see this kind of browning.
  • Lipid browning occurs when amino acids present in fats react with aldehydes and reducing sugars causing browning.
  • It is an undesirable reaction
role of browning in food preperation
Role of browning in food preperation
  • All browning reactions can be controlled.
  • Enzymatic browning is undesirable especially in cut fruits and salads.
  • Natural browning during preparation of food is desirable.
  • Brown colour, aroma and right texture imparted to food while browning occurs, is desirable.
  • Detrimental effects of browning

. Poor colour.

loss of nutrients

loss of ascorbic acid.

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