A molecular sieve
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A molecular sieve. greek.: dialysis = dispersal. semipermeable membrane lat.: semi = „half“, „partial“ und permeable = “diaphanous“ Only the small molecules are able to pass the dividing wall. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialyse. The “miracuolous” powder.

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A molecular sieve

greek.: dialysis = dispersal

semipermeable membrane

lat.: semi = „half“, „partial“ und permeable = “diaphanous“

Only the small molecules are able to pass the dividing wall


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

The miracuolous powder
The “miracuolous” powder

The super-absorbent polymer, a coarse grained powder

Super-absorbent particles before (left) and after absorbing water

1g Polymer absorbs up to 1000g of water

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superabsorber /http://www.chemgapedia.de

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Separating colours chromatography
Separating colours: Chromatography

Chromatography: greek: croma = colour and grafein = to write


During his research into chlorophyll the Russian botanist Michail Tswett (1903) separated plant pigments such chlorophyll, carotenes etc.

Using a column containing calcium-carbonate he was able to separate the differently coloured dyestuffs of green leaves

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

What does the sample contain –

and how much of it?


Today automatic methods print such chromatograms

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

From the carob tree into to the pudding
From the carob tree intoto the pudding

locust bean gum can absorb a hundred times it’s own weight

Used as a thickening agent in sauces, puddings and candies

polysaccharide consisting of mannose and galactose units


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Fats lipids in our blood
fats (lipids) in our blood

Lipids are lipophilic (lipos: greek = fett; philos = friend)

our blood consists of 90% water, therefore lipids are attached to proteins for transportation

if the blood consists of to many lipids, drops are formed

this blood is called lipaemic blood

fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Detection of blood fats
Detection of blood-fats

  • enzymatic reaction

  • enzyme: Lipoprotein lipase

  • the lipoprotein lipase splits the

  • triglyceride in glycerol

  • More reactions follow and a red dyestuff is formed => lipaemic blood

  • The intensity of the red colour enables a quantitative determination of the blood fat concentration


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Synthetic balls from the other point of view
Synthetic balls from the other point of view

  • Interpretation of synthetic balls

  • cross-linked and non cross-linked



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Phenomenon out of the kitchen
Phenomenon out of the kitchen

Why the sauce becomes even thicker when it is heated up?

Thickening a sauce


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

  • Starch is not soluble in cold water

  • It falls to the bottom of a vessel and begins to swell

  • In hot water the molecules of the starch become loose, build a lattice and so they are „fatter“

  • When you put acid in it, the bonds will be break and the sauce will become thinner again

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Some more kitchen chemistry
Some more kitchen chemistry

Why are carrots steamed in fat and why shouldn‘t they be cooked just in water?

Carrots contain a great concentration of β-Carotene, therefore they are an excellent source for vitamin A

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21


  • β-Carotene is nonpolar, and therefore its soluble in fat

  • The human body is only able to absorb β-Carotene, if the nutrition contains fat as well

    => Therefore carrots are steamed in fat

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Vitamin A

  • β-Carotene = provitamin A

  • The human body converts provitamin A to

  • vitamin A


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Quite different fats

Saturated fatty acid

Substances of animal origin

Unsaturated fatty acid

Substances of plant origin




CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Saturated fatty acidy can be packed together very tightly, therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

The double bond causes the unsaturated fatty acids to bend, they can’t be packed together tightly, therefore they are liquid at room temperature => oils


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

  • Fats have important functions: therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

  • source of energy, the human body draws 30-35% of the needed energy from fats

  • transport “fat-soluble” vitamins => see carrots!!!

  • fats are the major form of energy storage in the animal organism. Fats deliver carbonate.

  • in fats of animal origin are saturated fatty acids are predominant, but these ones are the thickeners

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Fat hardening
Fat hardening therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

In the fat hardening process trans-fatty-acids (adjacent carbon-atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond) accrue as by-products (naturally only cis-fats occur)

The consumption of trans-fats increases one’s risk of coronary heart diseases

Margarine is produced by fat hardening



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Colouring eggs using an onion therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

an onion contains quercetin, which is a natural dye

The eggshell contains copper, aluminium, and iron



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Through treating the egg with onionskin the egg turns brown therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

Quercetin reacts with the

metals in the eggshell to yield a coloured complexes

  • Aluminium forms yellow


  • Iron forms brown compounds

  • Copper forms red compounds



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

The connection maker
The connection maker therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature

  • Emulsifiers are amphipathic molecules

  • They contain a lipophilic group (fat-loving) and a hydrophilic group (water-loving)

  • the hydrophilic group interacts with the water , while the lipophilic group interacts with the oil. This way the emulsifier blends two liquids



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

  • An emulsifier stabilises an therefore they have a higher melting point, therefore they are solid at room temperature emulsion

  • Emulsion: mixture of two immiscible substances.

The surfactant emulsifier is able to blend the two liquids


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Emulsifier are used in products of our daily life for example in cosmetics, groceries…

with emulsifier without emulsifier


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Milk an oil in water emulsion
Milk: An Oil-in-water-emulsion example in

  • The main contents of milk are water and fat

  • Milk contains a natural emulsifier (Lecithin)

  • Lecithins surround the globule of fat and distribute those in the milk

Structure of the Lecithins



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Bullrich salz
Bullrich-Salz example in

  • Bullrich Salz

    • heartburn and acid-related

      stomach complaints medication

    • Over 150 years Bullrich-Salz has been

      traditionally used as a gentle medication

  • Active Ingredient: Sodium Bicarbonate

  • In 1827 the former pharmacist August Wilhelm Bullrich established the so called “Bullrich-Salz” as an universal salt

  • Smart, popular and persuasive promotion helped “Bullrich-Salz” to become one of the most famous household remedies in Germany


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

The dna in every mouth
The DNA in every mouth example in

  • all animals and plants contain DNA within their cell nucleus

  • every human being consumes with his nutrition 1g of DNA

  • the body uses this DNA for the synthesis of human DNA


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Warm hands thanks to the bear
Warm hands thanks to the bear example in

The bear contains a metastable

sodium acetate solution, that

means more salt is dissolved than

water is normally able to dissolve

A mechanic disturbance of the system leads

to a stable system, i.e. crystallised salt

metastability: weakly stable state


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

  • The red ball shows the metastable system example in

  • Through an input of energy, the red ball is able to roll up the little hill ( green ball),

  • This input of energy equals the energy needed to transform the system into a stable system (blue ball), the stable system has the least energy


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

cracking the little metal plate (disturbing the system) causes crystallisation => stable system

Through crystallisation energy is released in the form of heat

This way the bear keeps our hands warm!!


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Active component: causes crystallisation => stable system



CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Aluminium chloride hexahydrate
Aluminium-chloride-hexahydrate causes crystallisation => stable system

Aluminium-Chlorohydrate is based on Aluminium- chlorid-hexahydrate. This is (AlCl3 · 6 H2O)

Alumimium-chloride- hexahydrate can be

imagined as a metal-complex

lat. Complexus = enclose, embrace


In this kind of complex Aluminium is weakly connected to six surrounding H2O-molecules.

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

What is the effect of aluminium in a deodorant
What is the effect of Aluminium in a deodorant?? causes crystallisation => stable system

Solutions of Aluminium-chloride-hexahydrate are found to be acidic

A solution added with an indicator indicates the acidity


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Sweat consists of Proteins causes crystallisation => stable system

Under native conditions proteins are soluble

Aluminium is able to change those native

With Aluminium the solution becomes acidic and therefore the structure of the proteins is changing ; this is called denaturation

Soluble proteins


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Denaturation causes the proteins to fold themselves in a different way

The proteins are not soluble anymore

  • Aluminium forms a gel plug in the duct of the sweat gland

  • The plugs prevent the gland from excreting

  • This characteristic of aluminium is called adstringent


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Aluminium can even cure a sore throat different way


  • Used to treat an inflammation of the throat

  • Active ingredient: aluminium-chloride

  • Aluminium-chloride protects the mucous membranes against germs

  • Aluminium initiates the generation of a protective layer of proteins on the surface of the cells


CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Do energy drinks really let you fly

Do Energy Drinks really different waylet you fly?

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Do energy drinks really let you fly1
Do Energy Drinks really different waylet you fly?

  • Ingredients of a common energy drink

  • per 250mL can

  • sugar

  • water

  • 80 mg caffeine

  • This is equal to the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee

  • 1000 mg Taurine

  • ...and Taurine is supposed to let you fly!

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Taurine different way

lat.: Bos taurus; the bull

  • 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid

  • Derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine

  • white crystal substance

  • human body produces Taurine out of the amino acid cysteine

  • necessary for production of bile acid.

  • in 1827 Chemists isolated it fromthe gall bladder of a bull

  • today it is produced out of Ethene,Ammonia and Sodium sulfite

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21

Taurin and ist effects
Taurin and ist effects different way

  • Athletes use it to increase their performance.

  • Through taurine weightlifters alleviate muscle fatigue.

  • Taurine regulates the amount of water in the muscle cells.

  • This contributes an effective protein synthesis.

  • Marathon runners use Taurine to increase the stroke volume of their heart.

  • Scientists do not agree, whether taurine is really responsible for the effect of energy drinks or not. Some scientists also say that the mixture of caffeine and taurine in the drinks could be responsible for this secondary effect.

CITIES Project N. 129193-CP-1-2006-1-DE–COMENIUS–C21