Acids and bases
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Acids and bases:. Reactions. DON’T COPY pink WRITING. Acid + base. This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams. ACID + BASE -> SALT + WATER E.g. hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride + water HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H 2 O. Experiment:.

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Acids and bases

Acids and bases:

Reactions.

DON’T COPY pinkWRITING


Acid base

Acid + base

  • This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams.

  • ACID + BASE -> SALT + WATER

  • E.g.

    • hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride + water

    • HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H2O


Experiment

Experiment:

  • Aim: to make a salt by reacting an acid and a base

  • Method:

  • Place 1 mL of 1 molL-1 sulfuric acid into a test tube

  • Place 2 mL of 1 molL-1 sodium hydroxide into the same test tube.

  • Gently shake and tip into an evaporating dish.

  • Make a label and place the evaporating dish on the window sill.


Acids and bases

  • Results:

    • When we mixed the chemicals we saw … (leave a whole line)

    • After the evaporating dish had been left on the window sill we saw … (leave a whole line)

  • Conclusion:

    • Acid + base -> salt + water

    • Sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium sulfate + water

    • H2SO4 + 2NaOH -> Na2SO4 + 2H2O


Acid carbonate

Acid + carbonate

  • This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams.

    ACID + CARBONATE -> SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE

  • E.g.

    • Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate -> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide

    • 2HCl + CaCO3 -> CaCl2 +H2 O + CO2


Experiment1

Experiment:

  • Aim: to observe an acid and a carbonate experiment.

  • Method:

    • Place 2 small pieces of marble in the bottom of a test tube

    • Add 3 mL of sulfuric acid

    • Write down your observations

  • Results:

    What did you see happen, what did you hear or feel? Leave a whole line


Acids and bases

  • Conclusion:

    • An acid + a carbonate produces a gas. This gas is carbon dioxide gas.

    • Acid + Carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide

      H2SO4 + CaCO3 -> CaSO4 + CO2 + H2 O


Acid metal

Acid + Metal

  • An acid + metal reaction produces hydrogen gas and a salt.

  • ACID + METAL -> HYDROGEN GAS + SALT

  • E.g.

    • Hydrochloric acid + zinc -> hydrogen gas + zinc chloride

    • 2HCl + Zn -> H2 + ZnCl2


Experiment2

Experiment

  • Aim: to observe a reaction between an acid and a metal

  • Method:

    • Place a piece of magnesium metal in the bottom of a test tube

    • Add 3 mL of sulfuric acid

    • Write down observations

  • Results:

    • What did you see, hear or feel? Leave whole line


Acids and bases

  • Conclusion:

    • An acid and a metal produces hydrogen gas.

    • H2 SO4 + Mg -> MgSO4 + H2


Formula

formula

Name chemical substances from their formula and write simple word equations


Task stick in the ions handout

TASK: stick in the ions handout

For each of the following give the name of the chemical

  • NaCl

  • H2O

  • NaOH

  • Ca(OH)2

  • MgCl2

  • MgSO4

  • CuCO3

  • NaHCO3

  • Na2CO3

  • Sodium chloride

  • Water

  • Sodium hydroxide

  • Calcium hydroxide

  • Magnesium chloride

  • Magnesium sulfate

  • Copper carbonate

  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate

  • Sodium carbonate


Ions and their names highlight these on the handout add new ones

Ions and their names: highlight these on the handout, add new ones

  • Sulfate

  • Carbonate

  • Chloride

  • Fluoride

  • Nitrate

  • Iodide

  • Hydroxide

  • oxide

  • SO42-

  • CO32-

  • Cl-

  • F-

  • NO3-

  • I-

  • OH-

  • O2-


Balancing compounds

Balancing compounds

  • When you are trying to work out the formula for a compound, you need to balance the ion charge. It’s a bit like a fraction (1/2 + 1/3)

  • If one of the ions is +1 and the other is -1 it is easy. If one of the ions is +2 and the other is -1 it gets a bit more complicated.

  • The hardest is e.g. +3 and -2.

  • Na is +1 and SO4 is -2; this means we need 2 X Na to balance the -2 charge: Na2 SO4

  • If Cu is +2 and OH is -1; this means we need 2 X OH to balance the +2 charge: Cu(OH)2 . We have to put brackets around the OH because we need 2 of the hydroxide ion, if we wrote it CuOH2 it would just mean there were 2 H’s.


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