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Acids and bases:. Reactions. DON’T COPY pink WRITING. Acid + base. This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams. ACID + BASE -> SALT + WATER E.g. hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride + water HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H 2 O. Experiment:.

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acids and bases

Acids and bases:

Reactions.

DON’T COPY pinkWRITING

acid base
Acid + base
  • This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams.
  • ACID + BASE -> SALT + WATER
  • E.g.
    • hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride + water
    • HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H2O
experiment
Experiment:
  • Aim: to make a salt by reacting an acid and a base
  • Method:
  • Place 1 mL of 1 molL-1 sulfuric acid into a test tube
  • Place 2 mL of 1 molL-1 sodium hydroxide into the same test tube.
  • Gently shake and tip into an evaporating dish.
  • Make a label and place the evaporating dish on the window sill.
slide4

Results:

    • When we mixed the chemicals we saw … (leave a whole line)
    • After the evaporating dish had been left on the window sill we saw … (leave a whole line)
  • Conclusion:
    • Acid + base -> salt + water
    • Sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium sulfate + water
    • H2SO4 + 2NaOH -> Na2SO4 + 2H2O
acid carbonate
Acid + carbonate
  • This is a common reaction and needs to be remembered for exams.

ACID + CARBONATE -> SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE

  • E.g.
    • Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate -> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
    • 2HCl + CaCO3 -> CaCl2 +H2 O + CO2
experiment1
Experiment:
  • Aim: to observe an acid and a carbonate experiment.
  • Method:
    • Place 2 small pieces of marble in the bottom of a test tube
    • Add 3 mL of sulfuric acid
    • Write down your observations
  • Results:

What did you see happen, what did you hear or feel? Leave a whole line

slide7

Conclusion:

    • An acid + a carbonate produces a gas. This gas is carbon dioxide gas.
    • Acid + Carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide

H2SO4 + CaCO3 -> CaSO4 + CO2 + H2 O

acid metal
Acid + Metal
  • An acid + metal reaction produces hydrogen gas and a salt.
  • ACID + METAL -> HYDROGEN GAS + SALT
  • E.g.
    • Hydrochloric acid + zinc -> hydrogen gas + zinc chloride
    • 2HCl + Zn -> H2 + ZnCl2
experiment2
Experiment
  • Aim: to observe a reaction between an acid and a metal
  • Method:
    • Place a piece of magnesium metal in the bottom of a test tube
    • Add 3 mL of sulfuric acid
    • Write down observations
  • Results:
    • What did you see, hear or feel? Leave whole line
slide10

Conclusion:

    • An acid and a metal produces hydrogen gas.
    • H2 SO4 + Mg -> MgSO4 + H2
formula

formula

Name chemical substances from their formula and write simple word equations

task stick in the ions handout
TASK: stick in the ions handout

For each of the following give the name of the chemical

  • NaCl
  • H2O
  • NaOH
  • Ca(OH)2
  • MgCl2
  • MgSO4
  • CuCO3
  • NaHCO3
  • Na2CO3
  • Sodium chloride
  • Water
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Magnesium chloride
  • Magnesium sulfate
  • Copper carbonate
  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate
  • Sodium carbonate
ions and their names highlight these on the handout add new ones
Ions and their names: highlight these on the handout, add new ones
  • Sulfate
  • Carbonate
  • Chloride
  • Fluoride
  • Nitrate
  • Iodide
  • Hydroxide
  • oxide
  • SO42-
  • CO32-
  • Cl-
  • F-
  • NO3-
  • I-
  • OH-
  • O2-
balancing compounds
Balancing compounds
  • When you are trying to work out the formula for a compound, you need to balance the ion charge. It’s a bit like a fraction (1/2 + 1/3)
  • If one of the ions is +1 and the other is -1 it is easy. If one of the ions is +2 and the other is -1 it gets a bit more complicated.
  • The hardest is e.g. +3 and -2.
  • Na is +1 and SO4 is -2; this means we need 2 X Na to balance the -2 charge: Na2 SO4
  • If Cu is +2 and OH is -1; this means we need 2 X OH to balance the +2 charge: Cu(OH)2 . We have to put brackets around the OH because we need 2 of the hydroxide ion, if we wrote it CuOH2 it would just mean there were 2 H’s.
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