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Adoption drivers:. Understanding the adoption constraints and drivers of on-farm change. NEELS BOTHA. DNZ Seminar, Newstead, Hamilton, 3 March 2011. Method. Reviewed NZ adoption research Identified: Themes Main drivers/constraints Report. Main points. On-farm change:

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Adoption drivers
Adoption drivers:

Understanding the adoption constraints and drivers of on-farm change

  • NEELS BOTHA

DNZ Seminar, Newstead, Hamilton, 3 March 2011


Method
Method

  • Reviewed NZ adoption research

  • Identified:

    • Themes

    • Main drivers/constraints

  • Report


Main points
Main points

  • On-farm change:

  • If what you are doing now is not working: STOP! Find a better way.

  • To overcome adoption constraints you need to:

    • Understand your customers/clients

      • How they think and what they do

    • Know the business of your customers/clients

      • How the business works

    • Know (work out) how to use 1 and 2 to encourage change


Starting point
Starting Point

  • Rationality

    • People are rational decision-makers, so they...

      • seek optimal solutions

      • but they lack the resources and time, so they...

      • simplify their available choices

  • Decision-making

    • Comes before adoption

    • Happens at two levels:

      • Intuitive = “in the head” calculations/assessment.

      • Deliberate = use tools, do a “formal” assessment.

  • Motive

    • Reasons and excuses (invalid reasons - often based on non-critical thinking)


Our research shows
Our research shows

  • When deciding to adopt/reject technologies (ideas) farmers (individuals like us) consider drivers and constraints

    • Once they are aware of the technology/solution

  • If they dislike the outcome, the technology / idea gets shelved

    • If it fails the test (consideration) – no adoption

  • These considerations are very important if you want to achieve on-farm practice change


Areas of consideration
Areas of consideration

  • Individual /person

  • Attributes of the technology/solution under consideration

  • Context


Person related self considerations
person-related (self) considerations

  • Am I convinced there is a problem?

  • Am I responsible or can/will someone else deal with it?

  • Am I convinced the “solution” will actually solve the problem? (perception = reality)

  • Can I do this? (knowledge, skills, experience, energy)

    • Self-efficacy

    • Confidence

  • What happens... if I fail (...if it fails)?

    • Fear of failure


  • Based on personal questions barriers
    Based on personal questions / barriers

    • What could be done do overcome these barriers?


    What to do
    What to do?

    • Convince there is a problem:

      • Size, impact, cost, “hassle” factor...

      • Benchmarking and gap analysis

  • Responsibility

    • Talk to the right person / decision-maker

    • Make aware (animal welfare and environmental problems)

  • Convince that the solution will work?

    • Examples of success

    • Objective data/information

    • Trusted individual

    • Link to best practice

  • Foster a sense of confidence (fear of failure is linked to competence, perfectionism)

    • Personal (this is not too hard)

    • System support makes it easy

    • Address procrastination (impact worsens, costs, opportunity goes away...)


  • Considerations about the solution
    Considerations about the solution

    • WIIFM (“What’s In It For Me?”)

    • People try to figure out two things:

      • the value proposition

      • how well the solution fits their goals

  • Dairy farmers trade 3 things off (value proposition):

  • “time”

    “work”

    “money”


    Based on considerations about the solution
    Based on considerations about the solution

    • What can be done about this?


    What to do1
    What to do?

    • Have answers ready about the impacts of your (the) solution on:

      • Time

        • How much time does it take?

        • How much time does it save?

        • What is the value of the time gained or lost? (family/other work/rest...)

      • Work

        • Who will be doing the work?

        • How long will it take (time)?

        • How hard is it (effort)?

        • How difficult is it? (complexity)

        • How much energy does it take (time/effort/difficulty)

        • Does it require extra staff?

      • Money

        • Costs

        • Benefits

        • Savings

    • Have examples of the interplay (T/W/$)ready

    • Show how solution will help achieve goals


    Context related considerations
    context related considerations

    • Context has to do with: Having and Doing

    • ”What I have”

      • Infrastructure / hardware

      • Cows

      • Grass

      • Money

      • Records

    • “What I do - with what I have”

      • Activities


    Context related considerations1
    context related considerations

    • How well does the solution fit “What I have” (e.g. Infrastructure)

      • Fences

      • Races

      • Water

      • Shed(s)

      • Shelter

      • Housing

      • Vehicles

      • Office, computer, telecommunication...

      • Etc....

    • How well does the solution fit “What I do with what I have” (activities)

      • daily?

      • seasonally?

        • Records, accounts, decision-making, family, move cows, feed animals, milkings, ......


    Based on context related considerations
    Based on context related considerations

    • What could be done about this?


    What to do2
    What to do?

    • Have answers ready about the impacts of the solution on: cows, grass, infrastructure....

    • Have answers ready about the impacts of the solution on activities:

      • Daily

      • Seasonal

      • Annual


    Main points1
    Main points

    • On-farm change:

    • Do you know if what you are doing is actually working?

    • If it is not working: STOP! Find a better way.

    • To overcome adoption constraints you need to:

      • Understand your customers/clients

        • How they think and what they do

      • Know the business of your customers/clients

        • How their businesses work

      • Know (work out) how to use 1 and 2 to encourage change


    Things to think about
    Things to think about

    • Whose behaviour do you want to change? Why?

    • Does a one-size-fits-all approach to on-farm practice change actually work?

    • Why is providing information / knowledge the most used but not always the best approach?

    • How to get clients from intuitive to deliberate decision making?

    • What is the best way to know the impact of my own efforts to get something adopted?

    • Why is knowing farmers’ goals so important?

    • Can we ever know how “a farmer” makes decisions?

    • What is the biggest weakness in your own mental model about on-farm practice change?


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