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Chapter 15. Interior Routing Protocols. Introduction. Routing protocols essential to operation of an internet Routers forward IP datagrams from one router to another on path from source to destination Router must have idea of topology of internet Routing protocols provide this information.

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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Interior Routing Protocols

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Introduction

Introduction

  • Routing protocols essential to operation of an internet

  • Routers forward IP datagrams from one router to another on path from source to destination

  • Router must have idea of topology of internet

  • Routing protocols provide this information

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Internet routing principles

Internet Routing Principles

  • Routers receive and forward datagrams

  • Make routing decisions based on knowledge of topology and conditions on internet

  • Decisions based on some least cost criterion (chapter 14)

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Fixed routing

Fixed Routing

  • Single permanent route configured for each source-destination pair

    • Routes fixed

    • May change when topology changes

    • Link cost not based on dynamic data

    • Based on estimated traffic volumes or capacity of link

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Example configuration

Example Configuration

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Discussion of example

Discussion of Example

  • 5 networks, 8 routers

  • Link cost for output side of each router for each network

    • Next slide shows how fixed cost routing may be implemented

  • Each router has routing table

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Routing table

Routing Table

  • One required for each router

  • Entry for each network

    • Not for each destination

    • Routing only needs network portion

  • Once datagram reaches router attached to destination network, that router can deliver to host

  • IP address typically has network and host portion

  • Each entry shows next node on route

    • Not whole route

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Routing tables in hosts

Routing Tables in Hosts

  • May also exist in hosts

    • If attached to single network with single router then not needed

      • All traffic must go through that router (called the gateway)

    • If multiple routers attached to network, host needs table saying which to use

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Example routing tables

Example Routing Tables

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Adaptive routing

Adaptive Routing

  • As conditions on internet changes, routes may change

    • Failure

      • Can route round problems

    • Congestion

      • Can route round congestion

      • Avoid, or at least not add to further congestion

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Drawbacks of adaptive routing

Drawbacks of Adaptive Routing

  • More complex routing decisions

    • Router processing increases

  • Depends on information collected in one place but used in another

    • More information exchanged improves routing decisions but increases overhead

  • May react two fast causing congestion through oscillation

  • May react to slow, being irrelevant

  • Can produce pathologies

    • Fluttering

    • Looping

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Fluttering

Fluttering

  • Rapid oscillation in routing

  • Due to router attempting load balancing or splitting

    • Splitting traffic among a number of routes

    • May result in successive packets bound for same destination taking very different routes (see next slide)

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Example of fluttering

Example of Fluttering

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Problems with fluttering

Problems with Fluttering

  • If in one direction only, route characteristics may differ in the two directions

    • Including timing and error characteristics

      • Confuses management and troubleshooting applications that measure these

  • Difficulty estimating round trip times

  • TCP packets arrive out of order

    • Spurious retransmission

    • Duplicate acknowledgements

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Looping

Looping

  • Packet forwarded by router eventually returns to that router

  • Algorithms designed to prevent looping

  • May occur when changes in connectivity not propagated fast enough to all other routers

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Adaptive routing advantages

Adaptive Routing Advantages

  • Improve performance as seen by user

  • Can aid congestion control

  • Benefits depend on soundness of design

  • Adaptive routing very complex

    • Continual evolution of protocols

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Classification of adaptive routing strategies

Classification of Adaptive Routing Strategies

  • Based on information sources

    • Local

      • E.g. route each datagram to network with shortest queue

      • Balance loads on networks

      • May not be heading in correct direction

        • Include preferred direction

      • Rarely used

    • Adjacent nodes

      • Distance vector algorithms

    • All nodes

      • Link-state algorithms

      • Both need routing protocol to exchange information

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Autonomous systems as

Autonomous Systems (AS)

  • Group of routers exchanging information via common routing protocol

  • Set of routers and networks managed by single organization

  • Connected

    • Except in time of failure

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Interior routing protocol irp

Interior Routing Protocol (IRP)

  • Passes routing information between routers within AS

  • Does not need to be implemented outside AS

    • Allows IRP to be tailored

  • May be different algorithms and routing information in different connected AS

  • Need minimum information from other connected AS

    • At least one router in each AS must talk

    • Use Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP)

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Exterior routing protocol erp

Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP)

  • Pass less information than IRP

  • Router in first system determines route to target AS

  • Routers in target AS then co-operate to deliver datagram

  • ERP does not deal with details within target AS

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Irp and erp

IRP and ERP

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Routing information protocol rip

Routing Information Protocol(RIP)

  • Simple

  • Suitable for small internets

  • Widely used

  • Uses Distance vector routing

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Distance vector routing

Distance Vector Routing

  • Each node exchange information with neighbors

    • Directly connected by same network

  • Each node maintains three vectors

    • Link cost

    • Distance vector

    • Next hop vector

  • Every 30 seconds, exchange distance vector with neighbors

  • Use this to update distance and next hop vector

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Distance vector example

Distance Vector Example

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Distributed bellman ford

Distributed Bellman-Ford

  • RIP is a distributed version of Bellman-Ford

  • Original routing algorithm in ARPANET

  • Each simultaneous exchange of vectors between routers is equivalent to one iteration of step 2

  • In fact, asynchronous exchange used

    • At start-up, get vectors from neighbors

      • Gives initial routing

    • By own timer, update every 30 seconds

    • Changes are propagated across network

    • Routing converges within finite time

      • Proportional to number of routers

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Rip details incremental update

RIP Details – Incremental Update

  • Updates do not arrive from neighbors within small time window

  • RIP packets use UDP

  • Tables updated after receipt of individual distance vector

    • Add any new destination network

    • Replace existing routes with small delay ones

    • If update from router R, update all routes using R as next hop

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Rip details topology change

RIP Details –Topology Change

  • If no updates received from a router within 180 seconds, mark route invalid

    • Assumes router crash or network connection unstable

    • Set distance value to infinity

      • Actually 16

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Counting to infinity problem 1

Counting to Infinity Problem (1)

  • Slow convergence may cause:

  • All link costs 1

  • B has distance to network 5 as 2, next hop D

  • A & C have distance 3 and next hop B

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Counting to infinity problem 2

Counting to Infinity Problem (2)

  • Suppose router D fails:

    • B determines network 5 no longer reachable via D

      • Sets distance to 4 based on report from A or C

    • At next update, B tells A and C this

    • A and C receive this and increment their network 5 distance to 5

      • 4 from B plus 1 to reach B

    • B receives distance count 5 and assumes network 5 is 6 away

    • Repeat until reach infinity (16)

    • Takes 8 to 16 minutes to resolve

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Counting to infinity diagram

Counting to Infinity Diagram

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Split horizon

Split Horizon

  • Counting to infinity problem caused by misunderstanding between B and A, and B and C

    • Each thinks it can reach network 5 via the other

  • Split Horizon rule says do not send information about a route back in the direction it came from

    • Router sending information is nearer destination than you

    • Erroneous route now eliminated within time out period (180 seconds)

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Poisoned reverse

Poisoned Reverse

  • Send updates with hop count of 16 to neighbors for route learned from those neighbors

    • If two routers have routes pointing at each other advertising reverse route with metric 16 breaks loop immediately

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Rip packet format

RIP Packet Format

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Rip packet format notes

RIP Packet Format Notes

  • Command: 1=request 2=reply

    • Updates are replies whether asked for or not

    • Initializing node broadcasts request

    • Requests are replied to immediately

  • Version: 1 or 2

  • Address family: 2 for IP

  • IP address: non-zero network portion, zero host portion

    • Identifies particular network

  • Metric

    • Path distance from this router to network

    • Typically 1, so metric is hop count

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Rip limitations

RIP Limitations

  • Destinations with metric more than 15 are unreachable

    • If larger metric allowed, convergence becomes lengthy

  • Simple metric leads to sub-optimal routing tables

    • Packets sent over slower links

  • Accept RIP updates from any device

    • Misconfigured device can disrupt entire configuration

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Open shortest path first ospf

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

  • RIP limited in large internets

  • OSPF preferred interior routing protocol for TCP/IP based internets

  • Link state routing used

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Link state routing

Link State Routing

  • When initialized, router determines link cost on each interface

  • Router advertises these costs to all other routers in topology

  • Router monitors its costs

    • When changes occurs, costs are re-advertised

  • Each router constructs topology and calculates shortest path to each destination network

  • Not distributed version of routing algorithm

  • Can use any algorithm

    • Dijkstra

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Flooding

Flooding

  • Packet sent by source router to every neighbor

  • Incoming packet resent to all outgoing links except source link

  • Duplicate packets already transmitted are discarded

    • Prevent incessant retransmission

  • All possible routes tried so packet will get through if route exists

    • Highly robust

  • At least one packet follows minimum delay route

    • Reach all routers quickly

  • All nodes connected to source are visited

    • All routers get information to build routing table

  • High traffic load

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Flooding example

Flooding Example

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Ospf overview

OSPF Overview

  • Router maintains descriptions of state of local links

  • Transmits updated state information to all routers it knows about

  • Router receiving update must acknowledge

    • Lots of traffic generated

  • Each router maintains database

    • Directed graph

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Router database graph

Router Database Graph

  • Vertices

    • Router

    • Network

      • Transit

      • Stub

  • Edges

    • Connecting two routers

    • Connecting router to network

  • Built using link state information from other routers

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Sample autonomous system

Sample Autonomous System

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Resultant directed graph

Resultant Directed Graph

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Link costs

Link Costs

  • Cost of each hop in each direction is called routing metric

  • OSPF provides flexible metric scheme based on type of service (TOS)

    • Normal (TOS) 0

    • Minimize monetary cost (TOS 2)

    • Maximize reliability (TOS 4)

    • Maximize throughput (TOS 8)

    • Minimize delay (TOS 16)

  • Each router generates 5 spanning trees (and 5 routing tables)

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Spf tree for router 6

SPF Tree for Router 6

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Areas

Areas

  • Make large internets more manageable

  • Configure as backbone and multiple areas

  • Area – Collection of contiguous networks and hosts plus routers connected to any included network

  • Backbone – contiguous collection of networks not contained in any area, their attached routers and routers belonging to multiple areas

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Operation of areas

Operation of Areas

  • Each are runs a separate copy of the link state algorithm

    • Topological database and graph of just that area

    • Link state information broadcast to other routers in area

    • Reduces traffic

    • Intra-area routing relies solely on local link state information

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Inter area routing

Inter-Area Routing

  • Path consists of three legs

    • Within source area

      • Intra-area

    • Through backbone

      • Has properties of an area

      • Uses link state routing algorithm for inter-area routing

    • Within destination area

      • Intra-area

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Ospf packet format

OSPF Packet Format

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Packet format notes

Packet Format Notes

  • Version number: 2 is current

  • Type: one of 5, see next slide

  • Packet length: in octets including header

  • Router id: this packet’s source, 32 bit

  • Area id: Area to which source router belongs

  • Authentication type: null, simple password or encryption

  • Authentication data: used by authentication procedure

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


Ospf packet types

OSPF Packet Types

  • Hello: used in neighbor discovery

  • Database description: Defines set of link state information present in each router’s database

  • Link state request

  • Link state update

  • Link state acknowledgement

Chapter 15 Interior Routing Protocols


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