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U.S. Census Overview. SOC 101. Outline of Presentation. Census History Census Questionnaire Census Geography Census Data American FactFinder. Census History. Survey of the United States population every 10 years Mandated by Constitution

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U.S. Census Overview

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U s census overview

U.S. Census Overview

SOC 101


Outline of presentation

Outline of Presentation

  • Census History

  • Census Questionnaire

  • Census Geography

  • Census Data

    • American FactFinder


Census history

Census History

  • Survey of the United States population every

    10 years

  • Mandated by Constitution

  • Purpose: reapportionment of 435 seats in the House of Representatives


Census questions vary over time

Census Questions Vary Over Time

  • Total population, race, sex in 1790

    (650 enumerators counted 3,929,214 people at a cost of $44,337)

  • Physical and Mental Disabilities in 1830

  • Income first asked in 1940

  • Televisions surveyed, 1950-70

  • Detailed ancestry beginning 1980

  • Multiple races and grandparents as caregivers in 2000

    (500,000 enumerators counted 281,421,906 people at a cost of $4.5 billion)


Census questions vary over time1

Census Questions Vary Over Time

  • Reflects changes in society

  • In 1990 and 2000 Congress wanted to reduce paperwork

  • Grid of questions, 1790-2000

    http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/census2/censubj.pdf


Practical applications for census data

Practical Applications for Census Data

  • Public health professionals identify vulnerable

    populations for chronic disease

  • Urban planners identify zoning, housing, sewage, and transportation issues

  • Social workers conduct needs assessments for

    services to the elderly, poor, children


Practical applications for census data1

Practical Applications for Census Data

  • Marketers target likely buyers

  • Politicians use the census to determine voting

    districts and to assess constituent interests

  • Environmentalists map the spread of toxic effluents

    and population densities


Practical applications for census data2

Practical Applications for Census Data

  • Occupation by age, race, and sex for equal

    employment opportunity

  • Librarians base collection development policy on

    community characteristics

  • Mayors use numbers to apply

    for federal grants.

    • Undercount costs money

    • Identify communities of

      interest or need

CENSUS 2000 SHORT FORM (SF1)HISPANICS AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION


2000 questionnaires 100 and sample

2000 Questionnaires100% and Sample

100% Questionnaire

  • Age

  • Sex

  • Race (Multiple)

  • Hispanic origin

  • Household relationship

  • Occupied v. vacant housing units

  • Owner v. renter occupied housing


Primary uses of short form data

Primary Uses of Short Form Data

  • Race and sex for single years of age to 99; three groups after 100

  • Most detail by race (250 groups total)


Race groups in 2000

Race Groups in 2000

  • White

  • Black or African-American

  • American Indian or Alaskan Native

  • Asian

  • Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

  • Other

  • Two or More Races

    • (Based on Self-Identification)


Household relationships

Household Relationships

Relationship to Householder

  • Spouse

  • Child

  • Stepchild

  • Grandchild

  • Brother/Sister

  • Parent

  • Non-relative

  • Unmarried partner is separate category


2000 sample questionnaire generally 1 6 of population

2000 Sample Questionnaire(generally 1/6 of population)

  • Marital status, housing value and rent (100% in 1990)

  • Grandparents as caregivers (new)

  • Ancestry

  • Language

  • Country of origin

  • School enrollment and educational attainment (and dropouts)


2000 sample questionnaire

2000 Sample Questionnaire

  • Employment

  • Industry and occupation

  • Transportation to and place of work

  • Disability and mental illness

  • Veteran status

  • Income and poverty


American community survey acs

American Community Survey (ACS)

  • Started in 1996 to address 2-3 year lag in availability of decennial census data

  • Annual sample of 3,000,000 households (long form)

  • Decennial census will still be conducted, but will only include short form

  • Will enhance the usefulness of the census for planning efforts

  • Some concerns about sampling error and undercounts

    • Between 1940 and 2000 the undercount of African Americans was much greater than non-African Americans

    • Men also tend to be undercounted more than women


Census geography

Census Geography

This diagram shows the hierarchical relationships between geographic types.

For example, a line extends from states to counties because a state is comprised of many counties, and a single county can never cross a state boundary.


Census geography1

If no line joins two geographic types, then an absolute and predictable relationship does not exist between them.

For example, many places are confined to one county. However, some places extend over more than one county, such as New York City.

Therefore, an absolute hierarchical relationship does not exist between counties and places, and any tabulation involving both these geographic types may represent only a part of one county or one place.

Census Geography


Census geography2

Census Geography

Notice that many lines radiate from blocks, indicating that most geographic types can be described as a collection of blocks, the smallest geographic unit for which the Census Bureau reports data.

However, only two of these lines also describe the path by which a block is uniquely named. That is, the path through the Block Group.


Census geography map

Census Geography Map


Urban areas

Urban Areas

  • Urbanized = Densely settled area, 50,000+

  • Urban Cluster = Densely settled area,

  • 2500-50,000; can be outside metro area


Metropolitan statistical area

Metropolitan Statistical Area

  • Central city of 50,000 or more

  • Its own county, and

  • Surrounding counties with heavy commuting patterns

  • Entire counties belong to MSAs


Msa definitions

MSA Definitions

  • This is very complicated

  • Just consult the definitions when you need them

  • http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metrodef.html


Census tracts

Census Tracts

  • Areas of about 4000 people

  • Approximate neighborhoods


Block group

Block Group

Two – eight block groups per tract

Smallest area for sample data


Census data sources

Census Data Sources

  • American FactFinder

    • http://factfinder.census.gov/

  • A web-based tool developed by the Census Bureau to provide census data on the Web

  • Will probably suffice for all but the most complex analyses

  • Provides useful first glance at the data before you construct your own analysis


Sources

Sources

  • U.S. Census Bureau

    • http://www.census.gov

  • American FactFinder

    • http://factfinder.census.gov/

  • Census Toolkit

    • http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/census2/centool.pdf

  • Census Tutorials

    • Numeric and Spatial Data Services Library, University of Michigan

      • http://www.lib.umich.edu/nsds/

    • Community and Regional Planning Program of The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, “Working with 2000 Census Data in ArcGIS,”

      • http://mather.ar.utexas.edu/Courses/parmenter/gis/arcgis_tips/census2000/index.html

  • Peters, A. and H. MacDonald. 2004. Unlocking the Census with GIS. ESRI Press.

    Redlands, CA.


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