from : The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1 st edition(1986), 2 nd edition(1997). 英语科技论文 语法和修辞（表达）概要. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 0431-85262284. 1 什么是 dangling modifiers （垂悬修饰）？ dangling phrases （垂悬短语） 2 如何对英语句子进行扩展？ 3 在什么情况下使 which 与先行词分离？. 一点说明
1 dangling modifiers
The ACS Style Guide:
Effective Communication of Scientific Information 3rd Edition .
edited by Anne Coghill and Lorrin Garson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006
4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and
1 Subject-Verb Agreements
1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described.
 The subject is application,
which is singular.
Application of this technique to is
2 Description of the experimental conditions and the results of the present investigation is made in detail in this paper.
the experimental conditions and the resultsof is made
3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation
are described in detail in this paper.
is described in detail in this paper.
3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation are described in detail in this paper.
the experimental condition and the result, are described.
Sometimes, two singular subjects joined by and cause this error.
4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was
Exception: A subject that is plural in form but singular in effect takes a singular verb.
5 The name and address of each
contributor is given on the title page.
6 Research and developmentis attracting
a growing number of young scientists.
(2) However, when two or more subjects are joined by or, the verb takes the number of the closest subject.
7 Application or useswere noted.
Uses or applicationwas noted.
8 The appropriate metal ion concentration
or the rate constantswere used.
The rate constants or appropriate metal
ion concentrationwas used.
not onlybut also
9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or
bromohydrinis treated with strong
alkali to give ethylene oxide
( bromohydrin ).
10 Coagulation of an AgCl precipitate occurs at the equivalence point, where neither chloride nor silver ionsare in excess.(ions)
11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgClwere purified before the use
(CuSO4 and AgCl)
there isthere are
12 There wasa professor and several students
in the library.
There wereseveral students and a professor
in the library.
3Collective nouns take a singular verb when the group as a whole is meant; in that case they are often preceded by the word the. Collective nouns take a plural verb when individuals of the group are meant; in that case, they are often preceded by the word a.
contents majority range
couple number series
dozen pair variety
13 The seriesis arranged in order of
 Refers to the series as a unit.
14 A series of compounds were tested.
 Refers to each compound.
15 The number of metal amides synthesized was
the largest to date. (Refers to the number as
A number of metal amides weresynthesized.
(Refers to each amide.)
16 The series of compounds was prepared to
test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as
A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to
17 A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn500-700) hasbeen prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn500-700) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
an average of +
An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.
the average of + 
The average of a series of valuesis obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values.
= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.
4 Data can be a singular or plural noun.
18 Experimental data that we obtained are
compared with previously reported results.
 Refers to the data as individual results.
19 After the data aredistributed, we can meet
to discuss them.
After the data isdistributed, we can meet
to discuss it.
 Refers to the whole collection of data
as one unit.
5Units of measurement are treated as collective nouns and therefore take a singular verb.
20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent
The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of
diluent was added.
21 Five grams of NaCL were added to
Five grams of NaCLwas added to
22 Three weeks are needed to complete
Three weeksis needed to complete
23 None of the samples wassoluble.
None of the samples were soluble.
 Refers to individuals.
24 This group of workers are well aware
of their responsibilities.
This group of workers is well aware
of its responsibilities.
 Refers to the group as a unit.
6analyses, bacteria, criteria, formulae, phenomena, spectradata
25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available.
26 The IR absorption spectraprovide significant information regarding functional groups.
7Nouns ending in ics and denoting a scientific
discipline are usually singular.
Mechanics involves the application of Newtons three
laws of motion.
The kinetics of electron transfer to and from
photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash
The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the
valence and conduction bands.
8Compound subjects containing the words each, every, and everybody may take singular verbs.
27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.
Both components of the compound subject must contain the words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.
28 Each student and all of the professors
9Sometimes, one of these words is
implicit; such cases take a singular verb.
29 Each name and address is entered into
10Indefinite pronouns themselves (or adjectives combined with the indefinite pronoun one) can be the subject of the sentence.
Those that take a singular verb are each, either, neither, no one, every one, anyone, someone, everyone, anybody, somebody, and everybody.
30 Eachwas evaluated for its effect on
31 Neitherdisrupts the cell membrane.
32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one
reacts with the control agent.
33 Someonemeasures the volume every day.
Those that take a plural verb are several,
few, both, and many.
34Severalwere evaluated for their effects on
35Fewdisrupt the cell membrane.
36Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both
react with the control agent.
37Manywere chosen to be part of the
Those that take either a singular or plural verb, depending on context, are some, any, none, all, and most. The number of the object of the preposition determines the number of the indefinite pronoun related to it.
38Some of the moneywas stolen.
39 Some of the bookswere lost.
40Not all the disksare here; somewere lost.
11When a fraction is the subject of the sentence, the number of the attendant object of the preposition determines the number of the subject.
41Onethird of the precipitatewas
42 Onefourth of the electronsare
43The remainder of the compounds
are yet to be described.
12Most of plenty of , a lot of+
Most of plenty of , a lot of+
Most of the better-known organic solventsare all suitable for these tests.
There isplenty of distilled water in the bottle.( water)
There areplenty of test tubes on test table.
There isplenty of food.
There areplenty of apples.
Is there a lot of support for the idea?
There area lot of tourists here.
13When a subject and its predicative disagree in number, the verb takes the number of the subject.
44 The preparation and structuredetermination of these three compounds are the topic of paper.
45The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.
When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by that, not which.
46 It was necessary to fined a blocking group which would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
A phrase or clause is nonrestrictive if it adds information but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.
Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas.
47 The current-voltage curves, which are shown in Figure 6, clearly demonstrate the reversibility of all four processes.
48Melvin Calvin, who won the Nobel
Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical
pathways in photosynthesis.
49 Here, the Total signal,which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.
One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.
The understood subject is usually the same as in the main clause.
Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past.
(= As we were walking , we saw )
1If a modifier precedes the subject of a sentence, it must modify that subject and be separated from it by a comma. Otherwise, it is a dangling modifier.
50 Splitting the atom, many new elements were discovered by Seaborg.
splitting the atom
Splitting the atom, Seaborg discovered
many new elements.
splitting the atom, on upon
Upon Splitting the atom, many new
elements were discovered by Seaborg.
Upon Splitting the atom, Seaborg
discovered many new elements.
51 When confronted with these limitations,
the experiments were discontinued.
When confronted with these limitations,
we discontinued the experiments.
In light of these limitations,
the experiments were discontinued.
52 Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, the ortho hydrogens could be assigned to the high-frequency peak.
Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, we could assign the ortho hydrogens to the high-frequency peak.
53 Using the procedure described previously, the
partition function can be evaluated.
the partition function can be evaluated
by using the procedure described previously.
Using the procedure described previously,
we can evaluate the partition function.
in light of ,
(2)Phrases starting with based on must modify a noun or pronoun that usually immediately precedes or follows the phrase. Use phrases starting with on the basis of to modify a verb.
based on On the basis of On the basis of Based on
54 Based on resonance enhancement and
frequency shifts, changes in the
interring separation were calculated.
On the basis of resonance enhancement
and frequency shifts, changes in
the interring separation were
55 Based on extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (Based on extensive study modifies the noun deficiency, but this not the meaning.)
On the basis of extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (On the basis of extensive study modifies the verb was attributed.)
56 Style guidelines based on authoritative sourcesare included in this book.
57 Figure 8 shows the analysis of a drug delivery system based on amorphous, biodegradable polymer microspheres.
3Due to means attributable to; use it only to modify a noun or pronoun directly preceding it in the sentence or following a form of the verb to be.
Due to attributable to ; to be
58 Delays resulted due to equipment failure.
Delays due toequipment failure were
The delays were due to equipment
a. (Dangling participle phrases)
Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it.
Having reviewed the technical report,
we found several mistakes in it.
Based on the biological and geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups.
On the basis of the biological and
geographical characters, lakes in China
can be divided into five major groups.
Lakes in China can be divided into five
major groups according to their biological
and geographical characters.
(Dangling infinitive phrases)
In order to realize sustainable development of society, it needs to consider the protected area construction as an important component of regional developmental planning and
In order to realize sustainable development of society, we should consider the construction of protected area as an important component of regional developmental planning and
(Dangling preposition phrases)
After removing the outmost leaves, the material
was rubbed with 70% ethanol for surface
The materials were cleansed with 70% ethanol
for surface sterilization, after their outmost
leaves were removed.
(4)Absolute constructions are words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically unconnected with the rest of the sentence in which they appear. They are sometimes called sentence modifiers because they qualify the rest of the sentence. They may occur anywhere in the sentence, and they are always set off by commas. They are not dangling modifiers.
59 Contrary to the excitedstate situation,
metalbonding interactions in the ground
states are weak.
60 The constructions were premature,
considering the lack of available data.
61 judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive
photolysis of compound 4 had occurred.
62 The conformations about the ReRe bond,
in addition, are different for all three
Absolute constructions often begin with one of the following words:
5In mathematical papers, absolute phrases beginning with the words assuming and taking are often used as sentence modifiers.
63 Assuming that distance d is induced by the
norm, M is a symmetrical and positively
64 Taking this value as an upper limit, the two
shortest distances are sometimes too long
for incipient hydrogen bonds.
6A subordinate or elliptical clause may be
used as a sentence modifier.
65 The compound is stable in air, as we
concluded from the experiment evidence.
66 The Mo 5s orbitals, as expected, interact
strongly with the ligands.
7An introductory infinitive or infinitive
phrase may be a sentence modifier.
67 To prepare compound 2, the method of
Garner was followed.
4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and
Be sure that each subject in a compound sentence has the proper verbs and auxiliary verbs.
68 The eluant was added to the column, and
the samples collected in 10-mL increments.
The eluant was added to the column, and
the sampleswere collected in 10-mL
The series (to be)
A series of
On the basis of ,
(to be) due to
Spare the reader the trouble of guessing what you mean!
Complaint from an Editor:
I refuse to spend time trying to understand what the author is trying to say. They cannot expect us to correct a poorly written manuscript.If there are more than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I do not waste my time reading the rest.
Clarity, objectivity, accuracy, brevity
Keep records in English during research.
Direct and short sentences are preferred!
4) which, that, where
(10) different from, similar to,
identical to, identical with
(11) relative to,as compared to
as compared with,versus
As can be seen from Fig.1, growth is
As shown in Fig.1
Growth is rapid (Fig.1).
Fig.1 shows that growth is rapid.
The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol
by meansof the third peak area in DSC curve.
The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol from (or by) the third peak area in DSC curve.
a number of = several, some
at a temperature of at
at some future time later
at the present time (moment) now
a very limited number of few
by means of by or with
due to the fact that because or since
during the time that while
for a period of for
for the reason that because or since
from the standpoint of according to
greater (or higher) number of more
if conditions are such that if
compared with A, B was bigger
B was bigger
considerable amount of much
considerable number (or proportion) many or most
in a careless manner carelessly
in a considerable number of cases often
in a similar manner similarly
in all cases always, all
in any case anyhow
in consequence of this fact therefore
in excess of more than
in few cases sometimes, rarely,
in many cases chemists are
many chemists are
in order to to
in some cases sometimes
in terms of in
in the case of sodium with sodium
in the event that if
in the near future soon
in the temperature range of
in view of the fact that since or because
large number(s) of many
large proportion of many
of great importance important
of such hardness that so hard that
on the basis of from, by, because
on the order of about
over the past few years recently, in recent years
owing to the fact that since, because
a small number of a few
subsequent to after
a sufficient number of enough
with reference to about
prior to before
It is apparent that Apparently ,
It appears that Apparently
It is interesting to note that Interestingly
It was in 1977 that In 1977
It is clear that Clearly
It is our conclusion that We conclude that
It is possible that
It may be said that Perhaps ,
It is often the case that Often
It is possible that the cause is
The cause may be
It is the aim of the present investigation
This investigation is aimed
As already stated
It has been found that
It has long been known that
It is interesting to note that
It is worth mentioning at this point
It may be said that
It was demonstrated that
It is a procedure that is often used.
This procedure is often used.
There are seven steps that must be completed.
Seven steps must be completed.
This is a problem that is
This problem is
These results are preliminary in nature.
These results are preliminary.
a number of many, several
a small number of a few
are in agreement agree
are found to be are
are known to be are
at present now
at the present time now
based on the fact that because
by means of by
despite the fact that although
due to the fact that because
during that time while
fewer in number fewer
for the reason that because
has been shown to be is
if it is assumed that if
in color, e.g., red in color just state the
color, e.g., red
in consequence of this fact therefore,
in length long
in order to to
in shape, e.g., round in shape just state the
shape, e.g., round
in size, e.g., small in size just state the
size, e.g., small
in spite of the fact that although
in the case of in , for
in the near future soon
in view of the fact that because
is known to be is
it appears that apparently
it is clear that clearly
it is likely that likely
it is possible that possibly
it would appear that apparently
of great importance important
on the order of about
owing to the fact that because
prior to before
reported in the literature reported
subsequent to after
He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope.
He uses an instrument called a spectroscope
The man who lectures on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
The man lecturing on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
Air which is compressed can be used for
Air compressed can be used for several
Compressed air can be used for several
Malaysia is a country which produces rubber.
Malaysia is a country producing rubber.
Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.
Airport is a place at which special
attention is paid to the weather.
Airport is a place where special
attention is paid to the weather.
(2)by means of whichwhereby
A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided.
A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.
Definition of thermal analysis
A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.
(3)of which whose
Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 .
Venus is a planet whose surface temperature
is thought to be at least 200 .
from, in, for
Laboratories are rooms inwhich experiments are conducted.
Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year./ / )
greater than 50% notin excess of 50%
more than 100 samples notover 100 samples
more than 25mg notin excess of 25mg,
Such fractions are called as non-freezing water.
Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound
This water is designated as freezing water.
Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 %, whereas Rozinska et al claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.
1 absorbed by, adsorbed on
adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine.
water was absorbed by the sponge.
2 accuracy, precision
Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low.
3 actually, in fact
Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower,
calibratecalibrationadjustThe results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.
5common, general, ordinary, usual, routine
common,-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.-
generalOne of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.Friedel-Craft
Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.
UsualUnder these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.
a common method
a general method
a usual method
a conventional method
6by means of, in terms of
by means ofby, using, by usingIR, DSC, NMR, X
in terms of
The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA.
Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends bymeans of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions.
The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg )
and copolymer compositions was interpreted
in terms of Fox equation.
We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method.
in terms of the Malek method.
thermogramDTA curveDTADSC curveDSC
derivativePTtdP/dT (dP/dt ), derivative thermogravimetry
differentialdifferential scanning calorimetry
9 Determination, measurement
A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.
The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained
10different, various, varying
The results are clearly different.
We tried variousseveral differentmethods.
The effect of varying the condition was
mass of the samplesample weight
12usually, often, sometimes
usually, often, sometimes
It was usually observed that
It was often observed that
It was sometimes observed that
13standard material, certified reference material
certified reference material
standard materialcertified reference material
ISO 11358: sample: A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (:)
test specimen: A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test.
4) which, that, where
(10) different from,
similar to,identical to, identical with
(11) relative to,as compared to
as compared withversus
The solutionheatedto boiling.
The spectrawere recorded.
Jonesreviewedthe literature and gathered much
of this information.
The structurewas determinedby neutron
Absolute rate constants for a wide variety of
Hyperbranched compoundsare macromolecular
compounds that contain a branching point in
each structural repeat unit.
The characteristics of the voltammetric curve
indicate that electron transfer and breaking of
the carbon-iodine bondare concerted.
The excellent thermal stability of poly(nRMI)
was confirmedby thermal analysis technique,
i.e., theyhada high glass transition temperature
and decomposition temperature.
In this paper we report the synthesis of RFC containing barium ferrite according to a specific method and its evaluation of dielectric and mechanical properties.
The probable mode of evolution is discussed.
In the past decade public attention more and more focused on the potential applications of renewable resources (for example as building materials, Sobral 1990)(90).
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
was kindly supplied by FIAT (Italy).
The HDPE was blended with the LDPE, in the
molten state at high temperature (200),
using a Brabender blender,equipped with
Films were obtained from all the mentioned materials, by compression moulding on a laboratory scale at T = 180 with a thickness0.2mm.
The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate have been studied.
Tensile strength decreaseswith the addition of ferrites. This is due to the poor interfacial adhesion between
the ferrite filler and nature rubber.
We conclude that the principle of the
test system allow increased safety and
accuracy in hospital drug handling.
When photosynthesis can be carried out
artificially on a large scale,we shall
be able to set up factories
to mass-produce food.
In the coming years,scientistswill try
tocollect signals from outer space.
We presume that a cyclase gene from S. cattleyawas cloned according to the function of the gene products.
According to the function of the gene products,
we may come to the conclusion that a cyclase
gene from S. cattleyahas been cloned.
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic control is demonstrated by our
work in this area.
Our work in this area demonstrates that such
processes are under strict stereoelectronic
He had to discontinue his undergraduate
studies because his physical condition
becomes worse and worse.
He had to discontinue his undergraduate studies because his physical condition became worse and worse.
Agricultural production rose significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.
Agricultural production has increased significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.
An earlier paper, entitled Modulated DSC; Calculation and Calibration of MDSC Signals(1), presented a discussion on the basic approach that has been used to calculate MDSC signals since commercialization of the technique in 1992.
,--ed , paper
Since centrosome is chemically complex
cellular structure and autoimmune
antiserum is polyclonal, further
investigation was made by using one of
the antisera against centrosome.
I lived where there are mountains and
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic controlis demonstrated
by our work in this area.
Our work in this areademonstratesthat
such processes are under strict
Jones reported xyz, but we found
we present here a detailed study
Our recent work demonstrated
To determine the effects of structure on
We can see
Matter is anything having mass and
While the Indian government were increasing grain yields, they were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
While increasing grain yields, the Indian government were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
We pain so much attention to R line selection that we achieved the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
We pain so much attention to R line selection as to achieve the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose, most of tomenta fell off.
When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose with most of tomenta felling off.
This reactionis not uncommon
This reaction is common
This reaction is not rare
This reaction occurs about 40% of the time
This transitionwas not unexpected
This transition was expected
We know that such transitions were possible
This strategyis not infrequently used
This strategy is frequently used
This strategy is occasionally used
This resultis not unlikelyto occur
This result is likely to occur
This result is possible
4 which, that, where, what
The change of heat of fusion of polyethylene as a function of the specific volumewhich the sample has at room temperature, and which is related to the crystallinity through Eq.(5) in Chapter IVis shown in Fig.IV 12.
Reference specimen: A known specimenwhich is used throughout a thermoanalytical difference measurement against the test specimen to be investigated and which is usually thermally inactive over the temperature and time range of interest.
A known specimen which ,
In the case of cold crystallization it is suggested that by reason of somewhat rigid backbone chains in these polymers, there will be some local ordersuch as parallel chains or nematic domains, originating during quenching the melt and frozen in the glassy state, which favors subsequent crystallization.
local ordersuch as , originating ,
One of the difficulties in illustrating the problems of standard DSC is that there are no polymer standards for crystallinity.
As discussed in the initial overview of this series on MDSC, Modulated DSC differs from standard DSC in that it applies two simultaneous heating rates to sample.
As + -ed,
As mentioned in initial paper, there are three general misunderstandings associated with technique of MDSC.
As previously stated, the same instrument is used to run both DSC and MDSC experiments.
As has been stated many times, it is important to use the same experimental conditions when comparing samples.
This paper outlines the basis for the Modulated DSC technique and shows its value in solving analytical problems that cannot be readily tackled by traditional DSC.
In fact it only requires that there be a periodic change in heating rate.
The data (Figure 6) might incorrectly lead to the conclusion thatthe material was only PET.
This significantly raises probability thatthe sample will change in structure during heating, thus reducing the ability to measure the initial structure.
This baseline region in the data is where there is no transition occurring and heat flow signal is due only to the heat capacity of the sample.
Thats what (= the thing which) I should like to know. ()
This is a result of cross-linking of the molecules, which results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is what causes the reaction rate to slow as the reaction moves from chemical control to diffusion control.
Thermal decompositionkinetics of the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine by DSC method
DSC study on kineticsof thermaldecomposition for the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine
In the form of extended helical chain, the junction zones are linked.
The junction zones are linked in the form of
extended helical chain.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature (Tg) and copolymer compositions.
The relationshipbetween glass temperature
(Tg) and copolymer compositions was
interpreted in terms of Fox equation.
Examine the contents of the tube in which the
liquid have been collected.
Communications are not accepted if the editor believes that the principal content has been published elsewhere.
In many cases, authors are expected to publish complete details (not necessarily in the same journal ) after their communications have been published.
After having finished the measurement the specimen holder assembly is brought back to loading temperature and the crucible containing the test specimen is taken out.
under non-isothermal condition
at heating/ cooling rate
The exothermic crystallization peaks were recorded at different cooling rates ranging from 2.5--40/min under a nitrogen atmosphere.
The melting range of this polymer was 138163, and the heat of fusion was 24 cal/g, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry with a scan speed of 8/min.
subsequently the specimens were cooled down, and crystallization thermograms were recorded at scan speed of 0.532/min with a differential scanning calorimeter manufactured by Perkin-Elmer (DSC model 1 B).
By differential scanning calorimetry
With differential scanning calorimeter
The following equation is valid for the heat flow rate absorbed by the sample (without reference sample) in (quasi-) steady heating mode.
Peak area calibration can be performed in two ways.
The amorphous subsystem is linked to the equilibrium melt, followed by extrapolation into the nonequilibrium, supercooled melt to the glass , as described in Section V.A.1 and Fig 2.
The following is valid for the (steady-state) heat flow rates exchanged between furnace and sample, fs, between furnace and reference sample, fr, and for the measured heat (output) flow ratem and true heat flow rate ture in to the sample.
is valid for and (is valid) for
endothermic peak: A peak in which the energy supplied to the test specimen is greater than the energy corresponding to the virtual baseline.
( from: ISO 113571)
to the test specimen to the virtual baseline
than the energy in comparison with maintaining the virtual baseline.
ecological adjustment of
ecological adjustment by groundwater
the impending earthquake prediction of some Chinese scientists
the impending earthquake prediction
by some Chinese scientists
about 500 times at every year
about 500 times in every year
fluid inclusions of early stage
fluid inclusions at early stage
in the depth of 800 m
at the depth of 800 m
It is shown on/by Fig.5.
It is shown in Fig.5.
The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred on May 13-22, 1998.
The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred during May 13-22, 1998.
Hydrogen can enter the basin from deep faults.
Hydrogen can enter the basin through deep faults.
When chrysotiles acton body fluid
When chrysotiles act with body fluid
the difference of geochemical property
the difference in geochemical
the relationship of human and nature
the relationship between human and
A meteorite impacted in the Pacific plate.
A meteorite impacted on the Pacific
The research for geological fluids
The research ongeological fluids
thermoluminescence response of radiation
thermoluminescence response to
The growth rules of quartz are similar
with those of feldspar.
The growth rules of quartz are
similar to those of feldspar.
the concepts of Magoon and Dow (1994)
the concepts proposed by Magoon and Dow
two ideas ofrelating the infrared radiation mechanism
two ideas relating to the infrared
the earthquake with magnitude of > 6.5
the earthquake with magnitude
more than 6.5
The random variable xis the power-function distribution.
The random variable xisof the power-function distribution.
The results show in follows.
As for this, a lot of oil reservoirs
The results show as follows.
The results show in the following.
As a result, a lot of oil reservoirs
Only the largest groupwas injected with the test compound. ( Meaning: no other group)
The largest group wasonly injected with the test compound. ( not given the compound in any other way)
The largest group was injected withonly the test compound. ( no other compound )
The complex shows a significantlydifferentNMR
signal from that of compound 1.
The complex shows an NMR signal significantly
different fromthat of compound 1.
Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation undersimilarthe conditionstocompound 6.
Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation under the conditionssimilar to those for compound 6.
The single crystals are all similar in structure to
the crystals of compound 7.
Solution A is identical in appearance with
(11) relative to,
as compared to
as compared with
The greater acidity ofnitric acidrelative tonitrous acidis due to the initial state charge distribution in the molecules.
The lowering of the vibronic coupling constants forNias compared withCuis due to configuration interaction.
The behavior is analogous to the reduced Wittinglike reactivity inthiolateversusphenoxide complexes.
The identificationwasntconfirmed by mass
The identificationwas notconfirmed by mass
Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leavesand/orroots.
Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leavesandroots.
Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in either the leavesorthe roots.
Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leaves, the roots, or both.
In an outer-sphere transfer, an electron moves from reductant to oxidant with no chemical alteration of the primary coordination spheres.
I read articles on that new chiral compound in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
N- cis- trans-
ca. e.g. at al. etc. i.e. in situ vs
of Introduction to Instrumental Analysis
This book has the following characteristics:
Easy to understand, Concise and comprehensive
This book not states profound theory and in a pithy style, avoiding tedious mathematical derivation.
In view of practical, each chapter provides the general principles and also experimental procedure, expression of results, typical examples and possible problems in practical measurements.
Overall analytical methods of instruments
This book covers most all analytical methods of instruments in not long space, such as:
Infrared spectrometry (IR)
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
Mass spectroscopy (MS)
Gas chromatography (GC)
x-ray diffraction analysis
Both figures (pictures) and texts are excellent
A lot of common experimental data of typical compounds
In addition, there are 22 translation notes, making the meaning of some concepts and definition more clear and definite.
a.m. before noon
at. wt atomic weight
bp boiling point
CP chemical pure
Ed., Eds. Editor, Editors
e.g. for example
et al. and others
etc. and so forth
fp freezing point
i.e. that is
mp melting point
Mr relative molecular mass
NMR nuclear molecular resonance
p, pp page, pages
p.m. after noon
P.O. Post Office (with Box and number)
ref(s) reference(s)[with number(s)]
sp vol specific volume
U.K. United Kingdom
U.S. United States
USP United States Pharmacopeia
v/v volume per volume
w/v weight per volume
w/w weight per weight
e. g. exempli gratia for example
i. e. that is, in other words, namely
etc. et cetera and so on,
et al et alii and others,
e.g. etc. p.m. vol. et al. ( m, cm, km)
Fig.4, Eq(3) Figure 4, Equation(3)
On August 3, 1996, we completed the second
phase of the experiment.
The final results will be available in January
Jan April July Oct
Feb May Aug Nov
March June Sept Dec
- Os( Os osmium
- Tgs pKas
- pK s
All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectra.
MS spectra = mass spectra spectra
and MS techniques. MS
TGA analysis =
thermogravimetric analysis analysis
light green, dark green ()
This research suggests that possible
might be due to ( may be due to;
can be due to )
GB/T 77142005 1987
Its inventor and practitioner is Robert.
2there is, there are
There wasa teacher and several students in the laboratory.
There wereseveral students and a teacher in the laboratory.
3or, nor (eitheror, neithernor)
The designer or another scientist usually announces the decision.
Neither banks nor independent agenciesoffer appropriate life insurance policies.
Neither the quality nor the priceshave changed.
Neither the prices nor the qualityhas changed.
That datais reliable.
Do not form conclusion until the datahave
The purpose is to bring together several
manuscripts by active scientists and engineers
and publish them in a single issue.
lack of unity
The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; above, the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, several difficulties are encountered.
If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, we shall encountered several difficulties.
If the problem is to be solved in this way, several difficulties shall be encountered.
after, before, first, second, then, finally, later, meanwhile, while, whilst, in the future
A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.,
also, again, in addition,
yet, however, nevertheless,
on the contrary, likewise,
thus, therefore, consequently,
as a consequence, accordingly,
for this reason
for example, for instance,
in other words
in conclusion, in short,
in a word,in brief,
on the whole
This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily to
carry out serial determinations.
This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily
applicable to serial determinations.
Test specimen: Specimen to be analysed which is enclosed in the test specimen crucible and placed for measurement on the sample side of symmetric specimen holder assembly.
The laboratory needed an operator. Preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
The laboratory needed an operator, preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
Such comments neither contribute nor detract from his reputation.
Such comments neither contribute to nor detract from his reputation.
TV weather maps have various symbols ,
for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
TV weather maps have various symbols; for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
The sensor requires little maintenance it can be place in difficult-access areas.
The sensor requires little maintenance, so it can be place in difficult-access areas.