From the acs style guide a manual for authors and editors 1 st edition 1986 2 nd edition 1997
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英语科技论文 语法和修辞(表达)概要 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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from : The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1 st edition(1986), 2 nd edition(1997). 英语科技论文 语法和修辞(表达)概要. Email: [email protected] Tel: 0431-85262284. 1 什么是 dangling modifiers (垂悬修饰)? dangling phrases (垂悬短语) 2 如何对英语句子进行扩展? 3 在什么情况下使 which 与先行词分离?. 一点说明

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From the acs style guide a manual for authors and editors 1 st edition 1986 2 nd edition 1997

from: The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors,1st edition(1986), 2nd edition(1997)


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Email: [email protected]

Tel: 0431-85262284


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1 dangling modifiers

dangling phrases

2

3 which


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*

*


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1

  • 2


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The ACS Style Guide:

Effective Communication of Scientific Information 3rd Edition .

edited by Anne Coghill and Lorrin Garson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006


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1


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1Subject-Verb Agreements

  • Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

  • Dangling Modifiers

    4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and

    Auxiliary Verbs


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1 Subject-Verb Agreements

1and

1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described.

[] The subject is application,

which is singular.

Application of this technique to is

described.


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2 Description of the experimental conditions and the results of the present investigation is made in detail in this paper.

description,

the experimental conditions and the resultsof is made


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3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation

are described in detail in this paper.

is described in detail in this paper.


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3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation are described in detail in this paper.

the experimental condition and the result, are described.


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Sometimes, two singular subjects joined by and cause this error.

4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was

described

  • Growth and isolation of M13 virus were

  • described.


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Exception: A subject that is plural in form but singular in effect takes a singular verb.

5 The name and address of each

contributor is given on the title page.

6 Research and developmentis attracting

a growing number of young scientists.

R&D department


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(2) However, when two or more subjects are joined by or, the verb takes the number of the closest subject.

7 Application or useswere noted.

Uses or applicationwas noted.

8 The appropriate metal ion concentration

or the rate constantswere used.

The rate constants or appropriate metal

ion concentrationwas used.


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or,

neithernor,

eitheror,

not onlybut also

9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or

bromohydrinis treated with strong

alkali to give ethylene oxide

( bromohydrin ).


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10 Coagulation of an AgCl precipitate occurs at the equivalence point, where neither chloride nor silver ionsare in excess.(ions)

11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgClwere purified before the use

(CuSO4 and AgCl)


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there isthere are

12 There wasa professor and several students

in the library.

There wereseveral students and a professor

in the library.


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3Collective nouns take a singular verb when the group as a whole is meant; in that case they are often preceded by the word the. Collective nouns take a plural verb when individuals of the group are meant; in that case, they are often preceded by the word a.

contents majority range

couple number series

dozen pair variety

group


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13 The seriesis arranged in order of

decreasing size.

[] Refers to the series as a unit.

14 A series of compounds were tested.

[] Refers to each compound.


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15 The number of metal amides synthesized was

the largest to date. (Refers to the number as

a unit.)

A number of metal amides weresynthesized.

(Refers to each amide.)

16 The series of compounds was prepared to

test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as

a unit.)

A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to

each compound.)


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17 A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn500-700) hasbeen prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.

A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn500-700) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.


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an average of +

An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.


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the average of + []

The average of a series of valuesis obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values.

= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.


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4 Data can be a singular or plural noun.

18 Experimental data that we obtained are

compared with previously reported results.

[] Refers to the data as individual results.

19 After the data aredistributed, we can meet

to discuss them.

After the data isdistributed, we can meet

to discuss it.

[] Refers to the whole collection of data

as one unit.


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5Units of measurement are treated as collective nouns and therefore take a singular verb.

20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent

wereadded.

The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of

diluent was added.


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21 Five grams of NaCL were added to

the solution.

Five grams of NaCLwas added to

the solution.


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22 Three weeks are needed to complete

the experiment.

Three weeksis needed to complete

the experiment.


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23 None of the samples wassoluble.

None of the samples were soluble.

[] Refers to individuals.

24 This group of workers are well aware

of their responsibilities.

This group of workers is well aware

of its responsibilities.

[] Refers to the group as a unit.


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6analyses, bacteria, criteria, formulae, phenomena, spectradata

25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available.

26 The IR absorption spectraprovide significant information regarding functional groups.


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7Nouns ending in ics and denoting a scientific

discipline are usually singular.

dynamics mechanics

kinetics physics

mathematics thermodynamics

Mechanics involves the application of Newtons three

laws of motion.

The kinetics of electron transfer to and from

photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash

photolysis.

The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the

valence and conduction bands.


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8Compound subjects containing the words each, every, and everybody may take singular verbs.

27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.


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Both components of the compound subject must contain the words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.

28 Each student and all of the professors

were invited.


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9Sometimes, one of these words is

implicit; such cases take a singular verb.

29 Each name and address is entered into

the database.


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10Indefinite pronouns themselves (or adjectives combined with the indefinite pronoun one) can be the subject of the sentence.

Those that take a singular verb are each, either, neither, no one, every one, anyone, someone, everyone, anybody, somebody, and everybody.


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30 Eachwas evaluated for its effect on

metabolism.

31 Neitherdisrupts the cell membrane.

32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one

reacts with the control agent.

33 Someonemeasures the volume every day.


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Those that take a plural verb are several,

few, both, and many.

34Severalwere evaluated for their effects on

metabolism.

35Fewdisrupt the cell membrane.

36Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both

react with the control agent.

37Manywere chosen to be part of the

study.


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Those that take either a singular or plural verb, depending on context, are some, any, none, all, and most. The number of the object of the preposition determines the number of the indefinite pronoun related to it.

38Some of the moneywas stolen.

39 Some of the bookswere lost.

40Not all the disksare here; somewere lost.


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11When a fraction is the subject of the sentence, the number of the attendant object of the preposition determines the number of the subject.

41Onethird of the precipitatewas

dissolved.

42 Onefourth of the electronsare

excited.

43The remainder of the compounds

are yet to be described.


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12Most of plenty of , a lot of+

Most of plenty of , a lot of+

,

Most of the better-known organic solventsare all suitable for these tests.

There isplenty of distilled water in the bottle.( water)


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There areplenty of test tubes on test table.

There isplenty of food.

There areplenty of apples.

Is there a lot of support for the idea?

There area lot of tourists here.


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13When a subject and its predicative disagree in number, the verb takes the number of the subject.

44 The preparation and structuredetermination of these three compounds are the topic of paper.

45The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.


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  • Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

    thatwhich

    When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by that, not which.


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46 It was necessary to fined a blocking group which would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.

It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.


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A phrase or clause is nonrestrictive if it adds information but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.

Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas.


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47 The current-voltage curves, which are shown in Figure 6, clearly demonstrate the reversibility of all four processes.


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48Melvin Calvin, who won the Nobel

Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical

pathways in photosynthesis.

49 Here, the Total signal,which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.


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3Dangling Modifiers

(Dangling phrases)

One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.


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The understood subject is usually the same as in the main clause.

Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past.

(= As we were walking , we saw )


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Dangling phrases


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1If a modifier precedes the subject of a sentence, it must modify that subject and be separated from it by a comma. Otherwise, it is a dangling modifier.


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50 Splitting the atom, many new elements were discovered by Seaborg.

splitting the atom

Splitting the atom, Seaborg discovered

many new elements.


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splitting the atom, on upon

Upon Splitting the atom, many new

elements were discovered by Seaborg.

Upon Splitting the atom, Seaborg

discovered many new elements.


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51 When confronted with these limitations,

the experiments were discontinued.

When confronted with these limitations,

we discontinued the experiments.

In light of these limitations,

the experiments were discontinued.


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52 Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, the ortho hydrogens could be assigned to the high-frequency peak.

Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, we could assign the ortho hydrogens to the high-frequency peak.


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53 Using the procedure described previously, the

partition function can be evaluated.

the partition function can be evaluated

by using the procedure described previously.

Or,

Using the procedure described previously,

we can evaluate the partition function.


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505153

upon,

in light of ,

by using


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(2)Phrases starting with based on must modify a noun or pronoun that usually immediately precedes or follows the phrase. Use phrases starting with on the basis of to modify a verb.

based on On the basis of On the basis of Based on


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54 Based on resonance enhancement and

frequency shifts, changes in the

interring separation were calculated.

On the basis of resonance enhancement

and frequency shifts, changes in

the interring separation were

calculated.


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55 Based on extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (Based on extensive study modifies the noun deficiency, but this not the meaning.)


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On the basis of extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (On the basis of extensive study modifies the verb was attributed.)


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56 Style guidelines based on authoritative sourcesare included in this book.

57 Figure 8 shows the analysis of a drug delivery system based on amorphous, biodegradable polymer microspheres.


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3Due to means attributable to; use it only to modify a noun or pronoun directly preceding it in the sentence or following a form of the verb to be.

Due to attributable to ; to be


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58 Delays resulted due to equipment failure.

Delays due toequipment failure were

unavoidable.

The delays were due to equipment

failure.


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Dangling phrases

3

a. (Dangling participle phrases)

Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it.

Having reviewed the technical report,

we found several mistakes in it.


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Based on the biological and geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups.

On the basis of the biological and

geographical characters, lakes in China

can be divided into five major groups.

Lakes in China can be divided into five

major groups according to their biological

and geographical characters.


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b.

(Dangling infinitive phrases)

In order to realize sustainable development of society, it needs to consider the protected area construction as an important component of regional developmental planning and

In order to realize sustainable development of society, we should consider the construction of protected area as an important component of regional developmental planning and


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c.

(Dangling preposition phrases)

After removing the outmost leaves, the material

was rubbed with 70% ethanol for surface

sterilization.

The materials were cleansed with 70% ethanol

for surface sterilization, after their outmost

leaves were removed.

their

materials


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dangling modifiers:

(4)Absolute constructions are words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically unconnected with the rest of the sentence in which they appear. They are sometimes called sentence modifiers because they qualify the rest of the sentence. They may occur anywhere in the sentence, and they are always set off by commas. They are not dangling modifiers.


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sentence modifiers

59 Contrary to the excitedstate situation,

metalbonding interactions in the ground

states are weak.


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60 The constructions were premature,

considering the lack of available data.

61 judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive

photolysis of compound 4 had occurred.

62 The conformations about the ReRe bond,

in addition, are different for all three

complexes.


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Absolute constructions often begin with one of the following words:

considering provided

given providing

judging regarding

concerning failing


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5In mathematical papers, absolute phrases beginning with the words assuming and taking are often used as sentence modifiers.

63 Assuming that distance d is induced by the

norm, M is a symmetrical and positively

defined matrix.

64 Taking this value as an upper limit, the two

shortest distances are sometimes too long

for incipient hydrogen bonds.


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6A subordinate or elliptical clause may be

used as a sentence modifier.

65 The compound is stable in air, as we

concluded from the experiment evidence.

66 The Mo 5s orbitals, as expected, interact

strongly with the ligands.

7An introductory infinitive or infinitive

phrase may be a sentence modifier.

67 To prepare compound 2, the method of

Garner was followed.


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4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and

Auxiliary Verbs

Be sure that each subject in a compound sentence has the proper verbs and auxiliary verbs.

68 The eluant was added to the column, and

the samples collected in 10-mL increments.

The eluant was added to the column, and

the sampleswere collected in 10-mL

increments.


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1

and

eachevery

everybody


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or

The series (to be)

A series of


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2

that

,which ,

3

On the basis of ,

Based on

due to

(to be) due to


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Sentence modifiers

assuming, taking

4

to be


Language

Language

  • The language must aid the understanding of your work.

  • Poor use of language will discourage editors from accepting your work.

  • Spend time on perfecting the language. Communicating the science is as important as the science itself.

  • Ask a skilled writer or someone fluent in English to check your manuscript before submission.


Language1

Language

Spare the reader the trouble of guessing what you mean!

Complaint from an Editor:

I refuse to spend time trying to understand what the author is trying to say. They cannot expect us to correct a poorly written manuscript.If there are more than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I do not waste my time reading the rest.


Language2

Language

Clarity, objectivity, accuracy, brevity

  • Use scientific English.

  • Practice writing English whenever you can.

    Keep records in English during research.

  • Pay attention to the following:

    • Consistency of the sentences

    • Logic of expression

    • Grammar, spelling and punctuation should be correct


Language long sentences

Language long sentences

Direct and short sentences are preferred!

  • Avoid long sentences. The average length of sentences in scientific writing is about 12 to 17 words.

  • The Chinese language can express more complicated meaning with fewer words than English. Change your style when writing in English. One piece of information per sentence is sufficient, avoid multiple pieces in one sentence.


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2


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1

2

3

4

(1)

(2)

(3)

4) which, that, where


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(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

1)

2)

(9) only

(10) different from, similar to,

identical to, identical with


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(11) relative to,as compared to

as compared with,versus

(12) wasnt

(13) andor

and/or

(14)

(15)

(16)


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1

As can be seen from Fig.1, growth is

rapid.

As shown in Fig.1

Growth is rapid (Fig.1).

Fig.1 shows that growth is rapid.

Fig.1 shows


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The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol

by meansof the third peak area in DSC curve.

The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol from (or by) the third peak area in DSC curve.


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a number of = several, some

at a temperature of at

at some future time later

at the present time (moment) now

a very limited number of few

by means of by or with


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due to the fact that because or since

during the time that while

for a period of for

for the reason that because or since

from the standpoint of according to

greater (or higher) number of more

if conditions are such that if

compared with A, B was bigger

B was bigger

than A


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considerable amount of much

considerable number (or proportion) many or most

in a careless manner carelessly

in a considerable number of cases often

in a similar manner similarly

in all cases always, all

in any case anyhow

in consequence of this fact therefore


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in excess of more than

in few cases sometimes, rarely,

seldom

in many cases chemists are

many chemists are

in order to to


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in some cases sometimes

in terms of in

in the case of sodium with sodium

in the event that if

in the near future soon

in the temperature range of

between and

in view of the fact that since or because


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large number(s) of many

large proportion of many

of great importance important

of such hardness that so hard that

on the basis of from, by, because

on the order of about


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over the past few years recently, in recent years

owing to the fact that since, because

a small number of a few

subsequent to after

a sufficient number of enough

with reference to about

prior to before


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It is apparent that Apparently ,

hence,

thus

It appears that Apparently

It is interesting to note that Interestingly

It was in 1977 that In 1977

It is clear that Clearly

It is our conclusion that We conclude that


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It is possible that

It may be said that Perhaps ,

Possibly, Probably

It is often the case that Often

It is possible that the cause is

The cause may be


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It,

It is the aim of the present investigation

to provide

This investigation is aimed

to providing


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ACS

1

As already stated

It has been found that

It has long been known that

It is interesting to note that

It is worth mentioning at this point

It may be said that

It was demonstrated that


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2

It is a procedure that is often used.

This procedure is often used.

There are seven steps that must be completed.

Seven steps must be completed.

This is a problem that is

This problem is

These results are preliminary in nature.

These results are preliminary.


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3

a number of many, several

a small number of a few

are in agreement agree

are found to be are

are known to be are

at present now

at the present time now


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based on the fact that because

by means of by

despite the fact that although

due to the fact that because

during that time while

fewer in number fewer

for the reason that because

has been shown to be is


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if it is assumed that if

in color, e.g., red in color just state the

color, e.g., red

in consequence of this fact therefore,

consequently

in length long

in order to to

in shape, e.g., round in shape just state the

shape, e.g., round

in size, e.g., small in size just state the

size, e.g., small

in spite of the fact that although


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in the case of in , for

in the near future soon

in view of the fact that because

is known to be is

it appears that apparently

it is clear that clearly

it is likely that likely

it is possible that possibly


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it would appear that apparently

of great importance important

on the order of about

owing to the fact that because

prior to before

reported in the literature reported

subsequent to after


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[]

He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope.

He uses an instrument called a spectroscope


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[]

The man who lectures on Thursday is an

expert in dynamics.

The man lecturing on Thursday is an

expert in dynamics.


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Air which is compressed can be used for

several purposes.

Air compressed can be used for several

purposes.

Compressed air can be used for several

purposes.


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Malaysia is a country which produces rubber.

Malaysia is a country producing rubber.

Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.


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+ which

(1)at whichwhere

Airport is a place at which special

attention is paid to the weather.

Airport is a place where special

attention is paid to the weather.


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(2)by means of whichwhereby

A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided.

A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.


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Definition of thermal analysis

A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.


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(3)of which whose

Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 .

Venus is a planet whose surface temperature

is thought to be at least 200 .


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from, in, for

Laboratories are rooms inwhich experiments are conducted.

Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year./ / )


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  • greater thanmore thanoverin excess of

    greater than 50% notin excess of 50%

    more than 100 samples notover 100 samples

    more than 25mg notin excess of 25mg,

    notover 25mg


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1

2

3

4


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2

Such fractions are called as non-freezing water.

Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound

water.

This water is designated as freezing water.


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Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al[1] reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 %, whereas Rozinska et al[2] claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al[3] asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al[4] by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.


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1

2

3

4


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3

1 absorbed by, adsorbed on

adsorbed on

absorbed by

adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine.

water was absorbed by the sponge.


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2 accuracy, precision

accuracy

precision

Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low.


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3 actually, in fact

Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower,

in factactually


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4adjust, calibrate

calibratecalibrationadjustThe results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.


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5common, general, ordinary, usual, routine

common,-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.-

generalOne of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.Friedel-Craft


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ordinary

Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.

ordinary pressure

ordinary temperature

UsualUnder these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.


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method

a common method

a general method

a usual method

a conventional method

routineroutine test


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6by means of, in terms of

by means ofby, using, by usingIR, DSC, NMR, X

in terms of


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The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA.

Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends bymeans of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.


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Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions.

The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg )

and copolymer compositions was interpreted

in terms of Fox equation.


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We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method.

in terms of the Malek method.


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7curve, thermogram

curve thermogram

thermogramDTA curveDTADSC curveDSC


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8derivative, differential

derivativePTtdP/dT (dP/dt ), derivative thermogravimetry

differentialdifferential scanning calorimetry

differential thermogravimetry


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9 Determination, measurement

measurement determinationcp


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A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.

(, )


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The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained

(

)


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10different, various, varying

differentvariousvarying

The results are clearly different.

We tried variousseveral differentmethods.

The effect of varying the condition was


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11mass, weight

massweight

mass of the samplesample weight


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12usually, often, sometimes

usually, often, sometimes

It was usually observed that

It was often observed that

It was sometimes observed that


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13standard material, certified reference material

standard material

certified reference material

standard materialcertified reference material


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14

material

substance

sample

specimen

test specimen

specimens


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ISO 11358: sample: A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (:)


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test specimen: A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test.


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1

2

3

4

(1)

(2)

(3)

4) which, that, where

(5)

(6)

(7)

8

1)

2)


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(9) only

(10) different from,

similar to,identical to, identical with

(11) relative to,as compared to

as compared withversus

(12)

(13) andoran

(14)

(15)

(16)


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4

1

1

The solutionheatedto boiling.

The spectrawere recorded.

Jonesreviewedthe literature and gathered much

of this information.

The structurewas determinedby neutron

diffraction methods.


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Absolute rate constants for a wide variety of

reactionsare available.

Hyperbranched compoundsare macromolecular

compounds that contain a branching point in

each structural repeat unit.


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The characteristics of the voltammetric curve

indicate that electron transfer and breaking of

the carbon-iodine bondare concerted.


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The excellent thermal stability of poly(nRMI)

was confirmedby thermal analysis technique,

i.e., theyhada high glass transition temperature

and decomposition temperature.


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:

In this paper we report the synthesis of RFC containing barium ferrite according to a specific method and its evaluation of dielectric and mechanical properties.

The probable mode of evolution is discussed.


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In the past decade public attention more and more focused on the potential applications of renewable resources (for example as building materials, Sobral 1990)(90).


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High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

was kindly supplied by FIAT (Italy).

The HDPE was blended with the LDPE, in the

molten state at high temperature (200),

using a Brabender blender,equipped with

rotating blades.


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Films were obtained from all the mentioned materials, by compression moulding on a laboratory scale at T = 180 with a thickness0.2mm.


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The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate have been studied.


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,

Tensile strength decreaseswith the addition of ferrites. This is due to the poor interfacial adhesion between

the ferrite filler and nature rubber.


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We conclude that the principle of the

test system allow increased safety and

accuracy in hospital drug handling.


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When photosynthesis can be carried out

artificially on a large scale,we shall

be able to set up factories

to mass-produce food.

In the coming years,scientistswill try

tocollect signals from outer space.


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from:

We presume that a cyclase gene from S. cattleyawas cloned according to the function of the gene products.

According to the function of the gene products,

we may come to the conclusion that a cyclase

gene from S. cattleyahas been cloned.

2)

The fact that such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic control is demonstrated by our

work in this area.

Our work in this area demonstrates that such

processes are under strict stereoelectronic

control.


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He had to discontinue his undergraduate

studies because his physical condition

becomes worse and worse.

He had to discontinue his undergraduate studies because his physical condition became worse and worse.


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Agricultural production rose significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.

Agricultural production has increased significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.

since


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An earlier paper, entitled Modulated DSC; Calculation and Calibration of MDSC Signals(1), presented a discussion on the basic approach that has been used to calculate MDSC signals since commercialization of the technique in 1992.

,--ed , paper


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Since centrosome is chemically complex

cellular structure and autoimmune

antiserum is polyclonal, further

investigation was made by using one of

the antisera against centrosome.

I lived where there are mountains and

rivers.


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2)

The fact that such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic controlis demonstrated

by our work in this area.

  • .

Our work in this areademonstratesthat

such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic control.


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3)

Jones reported xyz, but we found

we present here a detailed study

Our recent work demonstrated

To determine the effects of structure on

photophysics, we


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We believe

We feel

We concluded

We can see


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(2)

from: 2004156747

1

Matter is anything having mass and

occupying space.


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2

While the Indian government were increasing grain yields, they were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.

While increasing grain yields, the Indian government were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.

increasing


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3

We pain so much attention to R line selection that we achieved the hybrid rice of high grain quality.

We pain so much attention to R line selection as to achieve the hybrid rice of high grain quality.


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4withwithout

When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose, most of tomenta fell off.

When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose with most of tomenta felling off.


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(3)

This reactionis not uncommon

This reaction is common

This reaction is not rare

This reaction occurs about 40% of the time

This transitionwas not unexpected

This transition was expected

We know that such transitions were possible


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This strategyis not infrequently used

This strategy is frequently used

This strategy is occasionally used

This resultis not unlikelyto occur

This result is likely to occur

This result is possible


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4 which, that, where, what

which

1) which

The change of heat of fusion of polyethylene as a function of the specific volumewhich the sample has at room temperature, and which is related to the crystallinity through Eq.(5) in Chapter IVis shown in Fig.IV 12.


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Reference specimen: A known specimenwhich is used throughout a thermoanalytical difference measurement against the test specimen to be investigated and which is usually thermally inactive over the temperature and time range of interest.

A known specimen which ,

and which


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2)which

In the case of cold crystallization it is suggested that by reason of somewhat rigid backbone chains in these polymers, there will be some local ordersuch as parallel chains or nematic domains, originating during quenching the melt and frozen in the glassy state, which favors subsequent crystallization.

local ordersuch as , originating ,

which


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That

1)that

One of the difficulties in illustrating the problems of standard DSC is that there are no polymer standards for crystallinity.


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As discussed in the initial overview of this series on MDSC, Modulated DSC differs from standard DSC in that it applies two simultaneous heating rates to sample.


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As + -ed,

As mentioned in initial paper, there are three general misunderstandings associated with technique of MDSC.

As previously stated, the same instrument is used to run both DSC and MDSC experiments.

As has been stated many times, it is important to use the same experimental conditions when comparing samples.


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that

This paper outlines the basis for the Modulated DSC technique and shows its value in solving analytical problems that cannot be readily tackled by traditional DSC.


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2)that

it

In fact it only requires that there be a periodic change in heating rate.

The data (Figure 6) might incorrectly lead to the conclusion thatthe material was only PET.


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This significantly raises probability thatthe sample will change in structure during heating, thus reducing the ability to measure the initial structure.


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Where

This baseline region in the data is where there is no transition occurring and heat flow signal is due only to the heat capacity of the sample.


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what

Thats what (= the thing which) I should like to know. ()

what,


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This is a result of cross-linking of the molecules, which results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is what causes the reaction rate to slow as the reaction moves from chemical control to diffusion control.

what


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5

Thermal decompositionkinetics of the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine by DSC method

DSC study on kineticsof thermaldecomposition for the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine


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6

In the form of extended helical chain, the junction zones are linked.

The junction zones are linked in the form of

extended helical chain.

Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature (Tg) and copolymer compositions.

The relationshipbetween glass temperature

(Tg) and copolymer compositions was

interpreted in terms of Fox equation.


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7

Examine the contents of the tube in which the

liquid have been collected.

[]

(


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Communications are not accepted if the editor believes that the principal content has been published elsewhere.

In many cases, authors are expected to publish complete details (not necessarily in the same journal ) after their communications have been published.


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After having finished the measurement the specimen holder assembly is brought back to loading temperature and the crucible containing the test specimen is taken out.


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8

1

under condition

under non-isothermal condition

at heating/ cooling rate

under atmosphere

The exothermic crystallization peaks were recorded at different cooling rates ranging from 2.5--40/min under a nitrogen atmosphere.


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  • with, withat

    The melting range of this polymer was 138163, and the heat of fusion was 24 cal/g, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry with a scan speed of 8/min.

    subsequently the specimens were cooled down, and crystallization thermograms were recorded at scan speed of 0.532/min with a differential scanning calorimeter manufactured by Perkin-Elmer (DSC model 1 B).


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By differential scanning calorimetry

With differential scanning calorimeter

in

The following equation is valid for the heat flow rate absorbed by the sample (without reference sample) in (quasi-) steady heating mode.

Peak area calibration can be performed in two ways.


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2)

The amorphous subsystem is linked to the equilibrium melt, followed by extrapolation into the nonequilibrium, supercooled melt to the glass , as described in Section V.A.1 and Fig 2.


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The following is valid for the (steady-state) heat flow rates exchanged between furnace and sample, fs, between furnace and reference sample, fr, and for the measured heat (output) flow ratem and true heat flow rate ture in to the sample.

is valid for and (is valid) for


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3

endothermic peak: A peak in which the energy supplied to the test specimen is greater than the energy corresponding to the virtual baseline.

( from: ISO 113571)

:

to the test specimen to the virtual baseline


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than the energy in comparison with maintaining the virtual baseline.


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from: .2004166418

1

a.

ecological adjustment of

groundwater

ecological adjustment by groundwater


5913613

the impending earthquake prediction of some Chinese scientists

the impending earthquake prediction

by some Chinese scientists


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about 500 times at every year

about 500 times in every year

fluid inclusions of early stage

fluid inclusions at early stage

in the depth of 800 m

at the depth of 800 m

It is shown on/by Fig.5.

It is shown in Fig.5.


5913613

The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred on May 13-22, 1998.

The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred during May 13-22, 1998.


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Hydrogen can enter the basin from deep faults.

Hydrogen can enter the basin through deep faults.

When chrysotiles acton body fluid

When chrysotiles act with body fluid


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b.

the difference of geochemical property

the difference in geochemical

property

the relationship of human and nature

the relationship between human and

nature


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A meteorite impacted in the Pacific plate.

A meteorite impacted on the Pacific

plate.


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The research for geological fluids

The research ongeological fluids

thermoluminescence response of radiation

thermoluminescence response to

radiation


5913613

The growth rules of quartz are similar

with those of feldspar.

The growth rules of quartz are

similar to those of feldspar.


5913613

2

the concepts of Magoon and Dow (1994)

the concepts proposed by Magoon and Dow

(1994)


5913613

3

two ideas ofrelating the infrared radiation mechanism

two ideas relating to the infrared

radiation mechanism

the earthquake with magnitude of > 6.5

the earthquake with magnitude

more than 6.5


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The random variable xis the power-function distribution.

The random variable xisof the power-function distribution.


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4

The results show in follows.

As for this, a lot of oil reservoirs

were formed.

The results show as follows.

The results show in the following.

As a result, a lot of oil reservoirs

were formed.


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(9)only

Only the largest groupwas injected with the test compound. ( Meaning: no other group)

The largest group wasonly injected with the test compound. ( not given the compound in any other way)

The largest group was injected withonly the test compound. ( no other compound )


5913613

(10)

different from,

similar to,

identical to,

identical with

The complex shows a significantlydifferentNMR

signal from that of compound 1.

The complex shows an NMR signal significantly

different fromthat of compound 1.


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Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation undersimilarthe conditionstocompound 6.

Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation under the conditionssimilar to those for compound 6.


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The single crystals are all similar in structure to

the crystals of compound 7.

Solution A is identical in appearance with

solution B.


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(11) relative to,

as compared to

as compared with

versus

The greater acidity ofnitric acidrelative tonitrous acidis due to the initial state charge distribution in the molecules.


5913613

The lowering of the vibronic coupling constants forNias compared withCuis due to configuration interaction.

The behavior is analogous to the reduced Wittinglike reactivity inthiolateversusphenoxide complexes.


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(12)

The identificationwasntconfirmed by mass

spectrometry.

The identificationwas notconfirmed by mass

spectrometry.


5913613

(13)andor

and/or

Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leavesand/orroots.

Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leavesandroots.

Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in either the leavesorthe roots.

Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leaves, the roots, or both.


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14

(Italic type)

In an outer-sphere transfer, an electron moves from reductant to oxidant with no chemical alteration of the primary coordination spheres.


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I read articles on that new chiral compound in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

N- cis- trans-

ca. e.g. at al. etc. i.e. in situ vs


5913613

Brief introduction

of Introduction to Instrumental Analysis

This book has the following characteristics:

Easy to understand, Concise and comprehensive

This book not states profound theory and in a pithy style, avoiding tedious mathematical derivation.

Practical

In view of practical, each chapter provides the general principles and also experimental procedure, expression of results, typical examples and possible problems in practical measurements.


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Overall analytical methods of instruments

This book covers most all analytical methods of instruments in not long space, such as:

Infrared spectrometry (IR)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Mass spectroscopy (MS)

Gas chromatography (GC)

Liquid chromatography

Thermal analysis

x-ray diffraction analysis


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Both figures (pictures) and texts are excellent

A lot of common experimental data of typical compounds

In addition, there are 22 translation notes, making the meaning of some concepts and definition more clear and definite.


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Abbreviations


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a.m. before noon

anal. analysis

at. wt atomic weight

bp boiling point

ca. about

CP chemical pure

ed. edition

Ed., Eds. Editor, Editors

e.g. for example

eq(s) equation(s)[with

number(s)]


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et al. and others

etc. and so forth

fp freezing point

i.e. that is

IR infrared

mp melting point

Mr relative molecular mass

(molecular weight)

NMR nuclear molecular resonance

p, pp page, pages

p.m. after noon


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P.O. Post Office (with Box and number)

ref(s) reference(s)[with number(s)]

sp vol specific volume

U.K. United Kingdom

U.S. United States

USP United States Pharmacopeia

UV ultraviolet

vol volume

vs versus

v/v volume per volume

wt weight

w/v weight per volume

w/w weight per weight


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such as

for example

e. g. exempli gratia for example

i. e. that is, in other words, namely

etc. et cetera and so on,

et al et alii and others,


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e.g. etc. p.m. vol. et al. ( m, cm, km)

Fig.4, Eq(3) Figure 4, Equation(3)

&, &

R&D


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a.

On August 3, 1996, we completed the second

phase of the experiment.

The final results will be available in January

1997.

b.

Jan April July Oct

Feb May Aug Nov

March June Sept Dec


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a.

s

HOMOs pHs

b.s

- cmcs

- Os( Os osmium

)

- Tgs pKas

- pK s


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All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectra.

MS spectra = mass spectra spectra

and MS techniques. MS

TGA analysis =

thermogravimetric analysis analysis

TGA


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15

light green, dark green ()

This research suggests that possible

We believe

might be due to ( may be due to;

can be due to )

[.

[J]. 2005,16

6938]


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GB/T 77142005 1987


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(16)

from:

, 2005161127-129

20061761206-1211


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1 Agreement

1

Its inventor and practitioner is Robert.


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2there is, there are

There wasa teacher and several students in the laboratory.

There wereseveral students and a teacher in the laboratory.


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3or, nor (eitheror, neithernor)

The designer or another scientist usually announces the decision.

Neither banks nor independent agenciesoffer appropriate life insurance policies.


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Neither the quality nor the priceshave changed.

Neither the prices nor the qualityhas changed.


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4

That datais reliable.

Do not form conclusion until the datahave

been gathered.


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5

The purpose is to bring together several

manuscripts by active scientists and engineers

and publish them in a single issue.


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(unity)

(disunity)


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2 (coherence)

(discoherence)

1

lack of unity

The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.

The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; above, the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.


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2

If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, several difficulties are encountered.

If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, we shall encountered several difficulties.

If the problem is to be solved in this way, several difficulties shall be encountered.


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3

after, before, first, second, then, finally, later, meanwhile, while, whilst, in the future

A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.,


5913613

  • Differential scanning calorimetry DSCA technique in which the difference between the heat flux (power) into a test specimen and that into a reference specimen is measured as a function of temperature and/or time while the test specimen and the reference specimen are subjected to a controlled temperature programme.


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here,there,nearby,under,below

also, again, in addition,

besides,furthermore, moreover

yet, however, nevertheless,

on the contrary, likewise,

similarly


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thus, therefore, consequently,

as a consequence, accordingly,

for this reason

for example, for instance,

in other words

in conclusion, in short,

in a word,in brief,

on the whole


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4

This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily to

carry out serial determinations.

This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily

applicable to serial determinations.

Test specimen: Specimen to be analysed which is enclosed in the test specimen crucible and placed for measurement on the sample side of symmetric specimen holder assembly.

5


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3

The laboratory needed an operator. Preferably someone with intelligence and experience.

The laboratory needed an operator, preferably someone with intelligence and experience.

Such comments neither contribute nor detract from his reputation.

Such comments neither contribute to nor detract from his reputation.


5913613

4

(1)

TV weather maps have various symbols ,

for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.

TV weather maps have various symbols; for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.

2run-on sentence

The sensor requires little maintenance it can be place in difficult-access areas.

The sensor requires little maintenance, so it can be place in difficult-access areas.


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Thanks!

Thanks!


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