from : The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1 st edition(1986), 2 nd edition(1997). 英语科技论文 语法和修辞（表达）概要. Email: [email protected] Tel: 0431-85262284. 1 什么是 dangling modifiers （垂悬修饰）？ dangling phrases （垂悬短语） 2 如何对英语句子进行扩展？ 3 在什么情况下使 which 与先行词分离？. 一点说明
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1 什么是dangling modifiers（垂悬修饰）？
dangling phrases （垂悬短语）
Effective Communication of Scientific Information 3rd Edition .
edited by Anne Coghill and Lorrin Garson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006
1 Subject-Verb Agreements
4 Awkward Omissions of Verbs and
例1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described.
[说明] The subject is “application”,
which is singular.
Application of this technique to … is
例2 Description of the experimental conditions and the results of the present investigation is made in detail in this paper.
the experimental conditions and the results是并列的，与of 构成介词短语作定语，故谓语动词用“is made”。
例3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation
are described in detail in this paper. 还是
is described in detail in this paper.
例3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation are described in detail in this paper.
此句中的主语为the experimental condition and the result, 为并列主语，故谓语用are described.
Sometimes, two singular subjects joined by “and” cause this error.
例4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was
Exception: A subject that is plural in form but singular in effect takes a singular verb.
例5 The name and address of each
contributor is given on the title page.
例6 Research and developmentis attracting
a growing number of young scientists.
(2) However, when two or more subjects are joined by “or”, the verb takes the number of the closest subject.
例7 Application or useswere noted.
Uses or applicationwas noted.
例8 The appropriate metal ion concentration
or the rate constantswere used.
The rate constants or appropriate metal
ion concentrationwas used.
not only…but also
例9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or
bromohydrinis treated with strong
alkali to give ethylene oxide
(与 bromohydrin 一致).
例10 Coagulation of an AgCl precipitate occurs at the equivalence point, where neither chloride nor silver ionsare in excess.(与ions一致)
例11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgClwere purified before the use
(与CuSO4 and AgCl一致)
在“there is”，“there are”句型中，主语为复合主语时，谓语动词与靠近的主语一致
例12 There wasa professor and several students
in the library.
There wereseveral students and a professor
in the library.
（3）Collective nouns take a singular verb when the group as a whole is meant; in that case they are often preceded by the word “the”. Collective nouns take a plural verb when individuals of the group are meant; in that case, they are often preceded by the word “a”.
contents majority range
couple number series
dozen pair variety
例13 The seriesis arranged in order of
[说明] Refers to the series as a unit.
例14 A series of compounds were tested.
[说明] Refers to each compound.
例15 The number of metal amides synthesized was
the largest to date. (Refers to the number as
A number of metal amides weresynthesized.
(Refers to each amide.)
例16 The series of compounds was prepared to
test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as
A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to
例17 A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn＝500-700) hasbeen prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
→ A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn＝500-700) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
an average of + 数词（意思为平均数量有…之多）作主语，谓语动词用复数形式
An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.
the average of + 数词[意思为平均数（值）…]作主语，谓语动词用单数形式。
The average of a series of valuesis obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values.
（= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.）
（4） “Data” can be a singular or plural noun.
例18 Experimental data that we obtained are
compared with previously reported results.
[说明] Refers to the data as individual results.
例19 After the data aredistributed, we can meet
to discuss them.
→ After the data isdistributed, we can meet
to discuss it.
[说明] Refers to the whole collection of data
as one unit.
（5）Units of measurement are treated as collective nouns and therefore take a singular verb.
例20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent
→ The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of
diluent was added.
例21 Five grams of NaCL were added to
→ Five grams of NaCLwas added to
例22 Three weeks are needed to complete
→ Three weeksis needed to complete
例23 None of the samples wassoluble.
→None of the samples were soluble.
[说明] Refers to individuals.
例24 This group of workers are well aware
of their responsibilities.
→ This group of workers is well aware
of its responsibilities.
[说明] Refers to the group as a unit.
（6）某些特殊变化的复数名词切不可误认为是单数名词，这样的词（如analyses, bacteria, criteria, formulae, phenomena, spectra，data等）作主语时，谓语动词用复数形式。
例25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available.
例26 The IR absorption spectraprovide significant information regarding functional groups.
（7）Nouns ending in ics and denoting a scientific
discipline are usually singular.
Mechanics involves the application of Newton’s three
laws of motion.
The kinetics of electron transfer to and from
photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash
The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the
valence and conduction bands.
（8）Compound subjects containing the words “each”, “every”, and “everybody” may take singular verbs.
例27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.
Both components of the compound subject must contain the words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.
例28 Each student and all of the professors
（ words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.9）Sometimes, one of these words is
implicit; such cases take a singular verb.
例29 Each name and address is entered into
（ words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.10）Indefinite pronouns themselves (or adjectives combined with the indefinite pronoun “one”) can be the subject of the sentence.
• Those that take a singular verb are “each”, “either”, “neither”, “no one”, “every one”, “anyone”, “someone”, “everyone”, “anybody”, “somebody”, and “ everybody”.
例 words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.30 Eachwas evaluated for its effect on
例 31 Neitherdisrupts the cell membrane.
例 32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one
reacts with the control agent.
例 33 Someonemeasures the volume every day.
• words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.Those that take a plural verb are “several”,
“few”, “both”, “’and “many”.
例34Severalwere evaluated for their effects on
例35Fewdisrupt the cell membrane.
例36Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both
react with the control agent.
例37Manywere chosen to be part of the
• words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.Those that take either a singular or plural verb, depending on context, are “some”, “any”, “none”, “all”, and “most”. The number of the object of the preposition determines the number of the indefinite pronoun related to it.
例38Some of the moneywas stolen.
例39 Some of the bookswere lost.
例40Not all the disksare here; somewere lost.
（ words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.11）When a fraction is the subject of the sentence, the number of the attendant object of the preposition determines the number of the subject.
例41One‐third of the precipitatewas
例42 One‐fourth of the electronsare
例43The remainder of the compounds
are yet to be described.
（ words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.12）Most of （plenty of , a lot of）+ 复数名词
Most of （plenty of , a lot of）+ 不可数名词
Most of the better-known organic solventsare all suitable for these tests.
There isplenty of distilled water in the bottle.(其中的 water是不可数名词。)
There words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.areplenty of test tubes on test table.
There isplenty of food.
There areplenty of apples.
Is there a lot of support for the idea?
There area lot of tourists here.
（ words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.13）When a subject and its predicative disagree in number, the verb takes the number of the subject.
例44 The preparation and structuredetermination of these three compounds are the topic of paper.
例45The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.
When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by “that”, not “which”.
例 words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.46 It was necessary to fined a blocking group which would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
→ It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
A phrase or clause is nonrestrictive if it adds information but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.
Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.47 The current-voltage curves, which are shown in Figure 6, clearly demonstrate the reversibility of all four processes.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.48Melvin Calvin, who won the Nobel
Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical
pathways in photosynthesis.
例49 Here, the Total signal,which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.
3 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Dangling Modifiers （垂悬修饰语）
也称垂悬短语 (Dangling phrases)
• One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.
• but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.The understood subject is usually the same as in the main clause.
Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past.
(= As we were walking …, we saw …)
悬垂修饰语或称悬垂短语（ but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Dangling phrases）是指对句子中的另一词或短语关系不清晰并不合逻辑非谓语动词短语。人们所理解的这类短语的逻辑主语通常与主句的主语是一致的。
（ but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.1）If a modifier precedes the subject of a sentence, it must modify that subject and be separated from it by a comma. Otherwise, it is a dangling modifier.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.50 Splitting the atom, many new elements were discovered by Seaborg.
此句中的 splitting the atom 为现在分词短语，其逻辑主语应与句子主语一致，故需改成
→ Splitting the atom, Seaborg discovered
many new elements.
或将 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.splitting the atom考虑为动名词短语,在其前加 on 或 upon 变成介词短语：
→ Upon Splitting the atom, many new
elements were discovered by Seaborg.
→ Upon Splitting the atom, Seaborg
discovered many new elements.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.51 When confronted with these limitations,
the experiments were discontinued.
→ When confronted with these limitations,
we discontinued the experiments.
→ In light of these limitations,
the experiments were discontinued.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.52 Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, the ortho hydrogens could be assigned to the high-frequency peak.
→Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, we could assign the ortho hydrogens to the high-frequency peak.
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.53 Using the procedure described previously, the
partition function can be evaluated.
→ the partition function can be evaluated
by using the procedure described previously.
→ Using the procedure described previously,
we can evaluate the partition function.
这种悬垂结构（例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.50、51、53）可修改为介词短语
in light of …,
by using …
(2) but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Phrases starting with “based on” must modify a noun or pronoun that usually immediately precedes or follows the phrase. Use phrases starting with “on the basis of” to modify a verb.
短语 based on 在句中修饰一个名词或代名词，通常该短语紧跟被修饰的名词或代名词之后。应以 “On the basis of ” 开头的短语去修饰一个动词。即一个句子可以On the basis of 开头，而不是以Based on开头。
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.54 Based on resonance enhancement and
frequency shifts, changes in the
inter‐ring separation were calculated.
→ On the basis of resonance enhancement
and frequency shifts, changes in
the inter‐ring separation were
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.55 Based on extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (“Based on extensive study” modifies the noun “deficiency”, but this not the meaning.)
→ but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.On the basis of extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (“On the basis of extensive study” modifies the verb “was attributed”.)
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.56 Style guidelines based on authoritative sourcesare included in this book.
例57 Figure 8 shows the analysis of a drug delivery system based on amorphous, biodegradable polymer microspheres.
（ but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.3）“Due to” means “attributable to”; use it only to modify a noun or pronoun directly preceding it in the sentence or following a form of the verb “to be”.
“Due to” 意思是 “attributable to” （归因于）; 用它只是去修饰一个名词或代名词，在句中直接将其前置；或在动词 “to be” 的某种形式之后 。
例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.58 Delays resulted due to equipment failure.
→ Delays due toequipment failure were
→ The delays were due to equipment
祝 国庆 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.· 中秋
Dangling phrases but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.包括悬垂分词短语、
a. 悬垂分词短语 (Dangling participle phrases)
Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it.
→ Having reviewed the technical report,
we found several mistakes in it.
Based on but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted. the biological and geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups.
→ On the basis of the biological and
geographical characters, lakes in China
can be divided into five major groups.
→ Lakes in China can be divided into five
major groups according to their biological
and geographical characters.
b. but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.悬垂不定式短语
(Dangling infinitive phrases)
In order to realize sustainable development of society, it needs to consider the protected area construction as an important component of regional developmental planning and …
→ In order to realize sustainable development of society, we should consider the construction of protected area as an important component of regional developmental planning and …
c. but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.悬垂介词短语
(Dangling preposition phrases)
After removing the outmost leaves, the material
was rubbed with 70% ethanol for surface
→ The materials were cleansed with 70% ethanol
for surface sterilization, after their outmost
leaves were removed.
下面几种情形不是 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.dangling modifiers:
(4)Absolute constructions are words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically unconnected with the rest of the sentence in which they appear. They are sometimes called “sentence modifiers” because they qualify the rest of the sentence. They may occur anywhere in the sentence, and they are always set off by commas. They are not dangling modifiers.
在句中出现的与句子的其余部分在语法上无联系的词、短语和从句。由于它们是修饰句子的其余部分，有时将其称作句子修饰语 “sentence modifiers” 。这种独立结构可出现在句子的任意处，并以逗号分隔，它们不是垂悬修饰语。
例59 Contrary to the excited‐state situation,
metal–bonding interactions in the ground
states are weak.
例 “60 The constructions were premature,
considering the lack of available data.
例61 judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive
photolysis of compound 4 had occurred.
例62 The conformations about the Re–Re bond,
in addition, are different for all three
Absolute constructions often begin with one of the following words:
（ following words:5）In mathematical papers, absolute phrases beginning with the words “assuming” and “taking” are often used as sentence modifiers.
例63 Assuming that distance d is induced by the
norm, M is a symmetrical and positively
例64 Taking this value as an upper limit, the two
shortest distances are sometimes too long
for incipient hydrogen bonds.
（ following words:6）A subordinate or elliptical clause may be
used as a sentence modifier.
例65 The compound is stable in air, as we
concluded from the experiment evidence.
例66 The Mo 5s orbitals, as expected, interact
strongly with the ligands.
（7）An introductory infinitive or infinitive
phrase may be a sentence modifier.
例67 To prepare compound 2, the method of
Garner was followed.
4 following words:Awkward Omissions of Verbs and
Be sure that each subject in a compound sentence has the proper verbs and auxiliary verbs.
例68 The eluant was added to the column, and
the samples collected in 10-mL increments.
→ The eluant was added to the column, and
the sampleswere collected in 10-mL
小结 following words:
以 … and … 连接的两个单数主语
• following words:两个主语以“or”连接，谓语与最靠近的主语
The series (to be) …视为整体，谓语
A series of …视为分别的，谓语用复数
2 following words:限制性和非限制性从句
… that …
•由On the basis of …开头 ,
不是 Based on
• due to 后跟名词或代名词，
或(to be) due to
Sentence modifiers following words:
•数学论文，以assuming, taking 开头
Spare the reader the trouble of guessing what you mean!
Complaint from an Editor:
“I refuse to spend time trying to understand what the author is trying to say. They cannot expect us to correct a poorly written manuscript. If there are more than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I do not waste my time reading the rest. ”
Clarity, objectivity, accuracy, brevity
Keep records in English during research.
Direct and short sentences are preferred!
科技英语写作表达 following words:
1 following words:简明
（4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句
(5) following words:不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修饰
(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”, “similar to”,
“identical to”, “identical with” 等惯用语拆开
(11) following words:由“relative to”,“as compared to”，
“as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的
(12) 科学论文，不用 wasn’t 之类的缩写形式
(14) 正斜体 缩写
1 following words:简明
例 As can be seen from Fig.1, growth is
As shown in Fig.1 …
→ Growth is rapid (Fig.1).
→ Fig.1 shows that growth is rapid.
→ Fig.1 shows …
by meansof the third peak area in DSC curve.
→ The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol from (or by) the third peak area in DSC curve.
下述句式可以更加简洁的形式表达 62.38 kJ/mol
a number of = several, some
at a temperature of at
at some future time later
at the present time (moment) now
a very limited number of few
by means of by or with
due to the fact that 62.38 kJ/mol because or since
during the time that while
for a period of for
for the reason that because or since
from the standpoint of according to
greater (or higher) number of more
if conditions are such that if
compared with A, B was bigger
B was bigger
considerable amount of 62.38 kJ/mol much
considerable number (or proportion) many or most
in a careless manner carelessly
in a considerable number of cases often
in a similar manner similarly
in all cases always, all
in any case anyhow
in consequence of this fact therefore
in excess of 62.38 kJ/mol more than
in few cases sometimes, rarely,
in many cases chemists are …
many chemists are …
in order to to
in some cases 62.38 kJ/mol sometimes
in terms of in
in the case of sodium with sodium
in the event that if
in the near future soon
in the temperature range of
between … and … ℃
in view of the fact that since or because
large number(s) of 62.38 kJ/mol many
large proportion of many
of great importance important
of such hardness that so hard that
on the basis of from, by, because
on the order of about
over the past few years 62.38 kJ/mol recently, in recent years
owing to the fact that since, because
a small number of a few
subsequent to after
a sufficient number of enough
with reference to about
prior to before
It is apparent that … 62.38 kJ/mol Apparently …,
It appears that … Apparently …
It is interesting to note that … Interestingly …
It was in 1977 that … In 1977 …
It is clear that … Clearly …
It is our conclusion that … We conclude that …
It is possible that … 62.38 kJ/mol
It may be said that … Perhaps …,
It is often the case that … Often …
It is possible that the cause is …
The cause may be …
可去掉 62.38 kJ/mol It, 改用动词，而不用名词
It is the aim of the present investigation
to provide …
→ This investigation is aimed
to providing …
ACS 62.38 kJ/mol 建议以如下几种方式，使文章写得更简明：
As already stated
It has been found that
It has long been known that
It is interesting to note that
It is worth mentioning at this point
It may be said that
It was demonstrated that
（ 62.38 kJ/mol 2）删去多余的词
It is a procedure that is often used.
→ This procedure is often used.
There are seven steps that must be completed.
→ Seven steps must be completed.
This is a problem that is…
→ This problem is…
These results are preliminary in nature.
→ These results are preliminary.
（ 62.38 kJ/mol 3） 不用短语，用单一词表达
a number of → many, several
a small number of → a few
are in agreement → agree
are found to be → are
are known to be → are
at present → now
at the present time → now
based on the fact that 62.38 kJ/mol → because
by means of → by
despite the fact that → although
due to the fact that → because
during that time → while
fewer in number → fewer
for the reason that → because
has been shown to be → is
if it is assumed that 62.38 kJ/mol → if
in color, e.g., red in color → just state the
color, e.g., red
in consequence of this fact → therefore,
in length → long
in order to → to
in shape, e.g., round in shape → just state the
shape, e.g., round
in size, e.g., small in size → just state the
size, e.g., small
in spite of the fact that → although
in the case of … 62.38 kJ/mol → in …, for…
in the near future → soon
in view of the fact that → because
is known to be → is
it appears that → apparently
it is clear that → clearly
it is likely that → likely
it is possible that → possibly
it would appear that 62.38 kJ/mol → apparently
of great importance → important
on the order of → about
owing to the fact that → because
prior to → before
reported in the literature → reported
subsequent to → after
两种类型的复合句及其简化 62.38 kJ/mol
He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope.
→ He uses an instrument called a spectroscope
[ 62.38 kJ/mol 主动式从句]
例 The man who lectures on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
→ The man lecturing on Thursday is an
expert in dynamics.
再简化 62.38 kJ/mol
Air which is compressed can be used for
→ Air compressed can be used for several
→ Compressed air can be used for several
主动式 62.38 kJ/mol
Malaysia is a country which produces rubber.
Malaysia is a country producing rubber.
Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.
带有 62.38 kJ/mol 介词 + which句子的简化
Airport is a place at which special
attention is paid to the weather.
→ Airport is a place where special
attention is paid to the weather.
(2) 62.38 kJ/mol by means of which→whereby
A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided.
→ A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.
Definition of thermal analysis 62.38 kJ/mol
A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.
(3) 62.38 kJ/mol of which → whose
Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
→ Venus is a planet whose surface temperature
is thought to be at least 200 ℃.
﹡ 62.38 kJ/mol 有介词 from, in, for 则不能简化
Laboratories are rooms inwhich experiments are conducted.
Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year.（这里是今年要做的/ 必须做的/ 已做过的实验明细表。)
greater than 50% notin excess of 50%
more than 100 samples notover 100 samples
more than 25mg notin excess of 25mg,
2 62.38 kJ/mol 富于变换
Such fractions are called as non-freezing water.
Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound
This water is designated as freezing water.
再比如， 62.38 kJ/mol 报道、阐述、主张、确认
Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 %, whereas Rozinska et al claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.
3 62.38 kJ/mol 辨析近义词
例1 absorbed by, adsorbed on
…adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine.
water was absorbed by the sponge.
例 62.38 kJ/mol 2 accuracy, precision
Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low.（虽然达到高精密度，但准确度低。）
例 62.38 kJ/mol 3 actually, in fact
“Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower, …”
例 62.38 kJ/mol 4adjust, calibrate
calibrate的名词形式是calibration（校准），在规定条件下为确定测量仪器或测量系统的示值与被测量相对应的已知值之间关系的一组操作。可以用校准的结果评定测量仪器、测量系统的示值误差，或给任意标尺上的标记赋值；有时把校准的结果表示为校正因子或取校正曲线形式的一系列校正因子。可按上述的校正对测量结果做调整（adjust）。例如：The results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.（校准的结果允许我们去调整最终结果。）
例 62.38 kJ/mol 5common, general, ordinary, usual, routine
common（普通的，共同的）,α-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.（α-氧化铝单水合物是许多铝土矿的共同成分。）
general（一般的），One of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.（制备芳酮类化合物一般最好的方法之一是Friedel-Craft反应。）
ordinary 62.38 kJ/mol （普通的，通常的），如：
Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.（重水在某些物理性质方面与普通的水有所不同。）
Usual（常规的），Under these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.（在这种条件下，按常规的办法可以精确发现滴定终点。）
茲以 62.38 kJ/mol method为例：
a common method 普通的方法
a general method 一般的方法
a usual method 常规的方法
a conventional method 传统的方法
例 62.38 kJ/mol 6by means of, in terms of
by means of与by, using, by using同义，表示利用某种方法（手段，诸如IR, DSC, NMR, X射线衍射等）开展研究、观测；
in terms of 通常用在采用某种理论（说法）、参数来解释实验结果。
例如： 62.38 kJ/mol
The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA.
Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends bymeans of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions.
→ The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg )
and copolymer compositions was interpreted
in terms of Fox equation.
We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method.
→ … in terms of the Malek method.
例 its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 7curve, thermogram
thermogram的一种解释是，住院病人，例行查房，体温的逐日记录。因此，以英国学者为主的热分析名词委员会主张称热分析的记录为“曲线”，而不称“热谱”。如DTA curve（DTA曲线），DSC curve（DSC曲线）。
例 its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 8derivative, differential
derivative（微商），表示某物理量P对温度T或时间t的微商，dP/dT (或dP/dt ), 如derivative thermogravimetry（微商热重法）
differential（差，差示），如differential scanning calorimetry（差示扫描量热法）。
例 its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 9 Determination, measurement
“测量” （measurement）是指对某物理量（如空间、时间、速度、功能等的有关数值）进行测试的过程，对地形、地貌的测绘也称测量，可称测量目的、测量原理、测量方法、测量条件、测量步骤等；而“测定” （determination）是更着眼于测试的结果，取得待测的某种参数，如比定压热容cp 的测定、动力学参数的测定、熔点测定、玻璃化温度的测定、纯度测定等。这种区别从如下英文的表述中也可以明显看出。
A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.
The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained
例 temperature is 10different, various, varying
The results are clearly different.
We tried various（或several different）methods.（我们试过各种方法。）
The effect of varying the condition was …
例 temperature is 11mass, weight
如：mass of the sample（试样质量，或简称试样量），而不称sample weight（试样重量）。重量在本质上与力是相同的，即是质量与因重力而产生的加速度的乘积。
例 temperature is 12usually, often, sometimes
usually, often, sometimes 依次为
It was usually observed that …
It was often observed that …
It was sometimes observed that …
例 temperature is 13standard material, certified reference material
certified reference material有证参样（或称有证标准物质）。
standard material用于检定仪器测量准确度的物质；certified reference material用一种或多种技术上正确的方法，鉴定了其特性值、具有可溯源性并附有鉴定机构所发给的证书或其他文件的标准物质。
例 temperature is 14
ISO 11358 temperature is : sample: A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (样品:可代表整个材料或产品的一小部分批料)
test specimen temperature is : A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. （试样：取自样品的一个完整产品或单一件并用于进行测试。对于诸如板材、粉末或粒子的批料，是从样品取一小部分，并用于测试。）
用非常少量的 temperature is 试样而又必须能代表整个样品，则要求必须制备成均匀组成的分析试样。
1 temperature is 简明
（4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句
(9) “only” temperature is 的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定
(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”,
“similar to”,“identical to”, “identical with”等惯用语
(11) 由“relative to”,“as compared to”，
“as compared with”，以及单词“versus”引出的
(14) 正斜体 缩写
4 temperature is 语法修辞及其他
The solutionheatedto boiling.
The spectrawere recorded.
Jonesreviewedthe literature and gathered much
of this information.
The structurewas determinedby neutron
• temperature is 用现在时叙述事实
Absolute rate constants for a wide variety of
Hyperbranched compoundsare macromolecular
compounds that contain a branching point in
each structural repeat unit.
• temperature is 现在时和一般过去时可用于表达文章的结果、讨论和结论
The characteristics of the voltammetric curve
indicate that electron transfer and breaking of
the carbon-iodine bondare concerted.
The excellent thermal stability of poly(nRMI) temperature is
was confirmedby thermal analysis technique,
i.e., theyhada high glass transition temperature
and decomposition temperature.
论文常用时态 temperature is 可概括如下:
In this paper we report the synthesis of RFC containing barium ferrite according to a specific method and its evaluation of dielectric and mechanical properties.
The probable mode of evolution is discussed.
叙述 temperature is 他人已报道的内容用一般过去时或现在完成时
In the past decade public attention more and more focused on the potential applications of renewable resources (for example as building materials, Sobral 1990)(90).
• temperature is 表示研究过程的行为通常用一般过去时或现在完成时
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
was kindly supplied by FIAT (Italy).
The HDPE was blended with the LDPE, in the
molten state at high temperature (200℃),
using a Brabender blender,equipped with
Films temperature is were obtained from all the mentioned materials, by compression moulding on a laboratory scale at T = 180℃ with a thickness≈0.2mm.
The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate have been studied.
• short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 表示实验结果及其产生的原因,通常用一般现在时
Tensile strength decreaseswith the addition of ferrites. This is due to the poor interfacial adhesion between
the ferrite filler and nature rubber.
如用 short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 一般过去时，则表示这一结论仅适用于该研究过程中的特定情况，不具普遍性
We conclude that the principle of the
test system allow increased safety and
accuracy in hospital drug handling.
• short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 表示计划与预期的结果用将来时
When photosynthesis can be carried out
artificially on a large scale,we shall
be able to set up factories
to mass-produce food.
In the coming years,scientistswill try
tocollect signals from outer space.
时态的呼应 short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate
from: 冯志杰 汉英科技翻译指要
We presume that a cyclase gene from S. cattleyawas cloned according to the function of the gene products.
→According to the function of the gene products,
we may come to the conclusion that a cyclase
gene from S. cattleyahas been cloned.
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic control is demonstrated by our
work in this area.
→ Our work in this area demonstrates that such
processes are under strict stereoelectronic
He short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate had to discontinue his undergraduate
studies because his physical condition
becomes worse and worse.
→ He had to discontinue his undergraduate studies because his physical condition became worse and worse.
Agricultural production short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate rose significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.
→ Agricultural production has increased significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.
An earlier paper, short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate entitled “Modulated DSC; Calculation and Calibration of MDSC Signals”(1), presented a discussion on the basic approach that has been used to calculate MDSC signals since commercialization of the technique in 1992.
下划线部分（,--ed …, ）是 paper 的后置定语
• short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 但，有些情况也可不一致。如，虽主句是过去时，但从句叙述的是客观事实，故用现在时。
Since centrosome is chemically complex
cellular structure and autoimmune
antiserum is polyclonal, further
investigation was made by using one of
the antisera against centrosome.
I lived where there are mountains and
2) short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 语态
The fact that such processes are under strict
stereoelectronic controlis demonstrated
by our work in this area.
→ Our work in this areademonstratesthat
such processes are under strict
• 现在时 客观真理
• 现在完成时 延续性
• 过去时 局限性
Jones reported xyz, but we found …
we present here a detailed study …
Our recent work demonstrated …
To determine the effects of structure on
photophysics, we …
We can see
Matter is anything having mass and
While the Indian government were increasing grain yields, they were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
→While increasing grain yields, the Indian government were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.
We pain so much attention to R line selection that we achieved the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
→ We pain so much attention to R line selection as to achieve the hybrid rice of high grain quality.
When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose, most of tomenta fell off.
→ When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose with most of tomenta felling off.
This reactionis not uncommon
→This reaction is common
This reaction is not rare
→This reaction occurs about 40% of the time
This transitionwas not unexpected
→This transition was expected
→We know that such transitions were possible
This strategy不过，要用事实说话，避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式is not infrequently used
→ This strategy is frequently used
This strategy is occasionally used
This resultis not unlikelyto occur
→ This result is likely to occur
This result is possible
（不过，要用事实说话，避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式4）由 which, that, where, what 引出的从句
1)通过 which 进行双扩展
The change of heat of fusion of polyethylene as a function of the specific volumewhich the sample has at room temperature, and which is related to the crystallinity through Eq.(5) in Chapter IVis shown in Fig.IV 12.
Reference specimen: 不过，要用事实说话，避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式A known specimenwhich is used throughout a thermoanalytical difference measurement against the test specimen to be investigated and which is usually thermally inactive over the temperature and time range of interest.
先行词A known specimen which …,
and which …
In the case of cold crystallization it is suggested that by reason of somewhat rigid backbone chains in these polymers, there will be some local ordersuch as parallel chains or nematic domains, originating during quenching the melt and frozen in the glassy state, which favors subsequent crystallization.
…local ordersuch as …, originating …,
One of the difficulties in illustrating the problems of standard DSC is that there are no polymer standards for crystallinity.
As discussed in the initial overview of this series on MDSC, Modulated DSC differs from standard DSC in that it applies two simultaneous heating rates to sample.
• 不过，要用事实说话，避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式由As + -ed…,作句子的状语
As mentioned in initial paper, there are three general misunderstandings associated with technique of MDSC.
As previously stated, the same instrument is used to run both DSC and MDSC experiments.
As has been stated many times, it is important to use the same experimental conditions when comparing samples.
This paper outlines the basis for the Modulated DSC technique and shows its value in solving analytical problems that cannot be readily tackled by traditional DSC.
In fact it only requires that there be a periodic change in heating rate.
The data (Figure 6) might incorrectly lead to the conclusion thatthe material was only PET.
This significantly raises probability 不过，要用事实说话，避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式thatthe sample will change in structure during heating, thus reducing the ability to measure the initial structure.
This “baseline” region in the data is where there is no transition occurring and heat flow signal is due only to the heat capacity of the sample.
That’s what (= the thing which) I should like to know. (这正是我想知道的。)
This is a result of cross-linking of the molecules, which results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is what causes the reaction rate to slow as the reaction moves from chemical control to diffusion control.
（ results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 5）不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修
Thermal decompositionkinetics of the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine by DSC method
→ DSC study on kineticsof thermaldecomposition for the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine
（ results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 6）词序
In the form of extended helical chain, the junction zones are linked.
→ The junction zones are linked in the form of
extended helical chain.
Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature (Tg) and copolymer compositions.
→ The relationshipbetween glass temperature
(Tg) and copolymer compositions was
interpreted in terms of Fox equation.
（ results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 7）利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系
Examine the contents of the tube in which the
liquid have been collected.
Communications results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is are not accepted if the editor believes that the principal content has been published elsewhere.
In many cases, authors are expected to publish complete details (not necessarily in the same journal ) after their communications have been published.
After results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is having finished the measurement the specimen holder assembly is brought back to loading temperature and the crucible containing the test specimen is taken out.
（ results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 8）介词
• under condition
… under non-isothermal condition
• at heating/ cooling rate
The exothermic crystallization peaks were recorded at different cooling rates ranging from 2.5--40℃/min under a nitrogen atmosphere.
The melting range of this polymer was 138～163℃, and the heat of fusion was 24 cal/g, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry with a scan speed of 8℃/min.
… subsequently the specimens were cooled down, and crystallization thermograms were recorded at scan speed of 0.5～32℃/min with a differential scanning calorimeter manufactured by Perkin-Elmer (DSC model 1 B).
By results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 使用方法differential scanning calorimetry
With 使用仪器differential scanning calorimeter
• in 按（升、降温）模式
The following equation is valid for the heat flow rate absorbed by the sample (without reference sample) in (quasi-) steady heating mode.
Peak area calibration can be performed in two ways.
2) results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 由相同介词引起的相互平行的对等结构
The amorphous subsystem is linked to the equilibrium melt, followed by extrapolation into the nonequilibrium, supercooled melt to the glass , as described in Section V.A.1 and Fig 2.
The following results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is is valid for the (steady-state) heat flow rates exchanged between furnace and sample, φfs, between furnace and reference sample, φfr, and for the measured heat (output) flow rateφm and true heat flow rate φture in to the sample.
… is valid for… and (is valid) for…
3 results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is ）由疑似对等结构产生歧义的例子
endothermic peak: A peak in which the energy supplied to the test specimen is greater than the energy corresponding to the virtual baseline.
( from: ISO 11357—1)
to 后的the test specimen 与 to the virtual baseline 不能对等。
建议英文修改成：“…than the energy in comparison with maintaining the virtual baseline.”
ecological adjustment of
→ecological adjustment by groundwater
the impending earthquake prediction of some Chinese scientists
→the impending earthquake prediction
by some Chinese scientists
about 500 times at every year
→ about 500 times in every year
fluid inclusions of early stage
→ fluid inclusions at early stage
in the depth of 800 m
→ at the depth of 800 m
It is shown on/by Fig.5.
→ It is shown in Fig.5.
The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred on May 13-22, 1998.
→ The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred during May 13-22, 1998.
Hydrogen can enter the basin from deep faults.
→ Hydrogen can enter the basin through deep faults.
When chrysotiles acton body fluid …
→ When chrysotiles act with body fluid …
the difference of geochemical property
→the difference in geochemical
the relationship of human and nature
→ the relationship between human and
A meteorite impacted in the Pacific plate.
→ A meteorite impacted on the Pacific
The research for geological fluids
→ The research ongeological fluids
thermoluminescence response of radiation
→ thermoluminescence response to
with those of feldspar.
→ The growth rules of quartz are
similar to those of feldspar.
the concepts of Magoon and Dow (1994)
→ the concepts proposed by Magoon and Dow
two ideas ofrelating the infrared radiation mechanism
→ two ideas relating to the infrared
the earthquake with magnitude of > 6.5
→ the earthquake with magnitude
more than 6.5
The random variable xis the power-function distribution.
→ The random variable xisof the power-function distribution.
The results show in follows.
As for this, a lot of oil reservoirs
→ The results show as follows.
→ The results show in the following.
→ As a result, a lot of oil reservoirs
Only the largest groupwas injected with the test compound. ( Meaning: no other group)
The largest group wasonly injected with the test compound. ( not given the compound in any other way)
The largest group was injected withonly the test compound. ( no other compound )
“identical with” 等惯用语拆开
The complex shows a significantlydifferentNMR
signal from that of compound 1.
→The complex shows an NMR signal significantly
different fromthat of compound 1.
Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation undersimilarthe conditionstocompound 6.
→Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation under the conditionssimilar to those for compound 6.
The single crystals are all similar in structure to
the crystals of compound 7.
Solution A is identical in appearance with
(11) 由 “relative to”,
“as compared to”，
“as compared with”，
以及单词 “versus” 引出的相比较的第二成分，与第一成分在语法结构上必须是平行的。
The greater acidity ofnitric acidrelative tonitrous acidis due to the initial state charge distribution in the molecules.
The lowering of the vibronic coupling constants for Nias compared withCuis due to configuration interaction.
The behavior is analogous to the reduced Witting‐like reactivity inthiolateversusphenoxide complexes.
The identificationwasn’tconfirmed by mass
→ The identificationwas notconfirmed by mass
Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leavesand/orroots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leavesandroots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in either the leavesorthe roots.
→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leaves, the roots, or both.
（ 14）正斜体 缩写
• 应慎用斜体强调某一词或短语，不可对一 长段话使用斜体；
•文章中首次出现的新引进的术语，可使用斜 体 如：
In an outer-sphere transfer, an electron moves from reductant to oxidant with no chemical alteration of the primary coordination spheres.
I read articles on that new chiral compound in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
N-乙烯基咪唑 cis- trans-
ca. e.g. at al. etc. i.e. in situ vs …
of Introduction to Instrumental Analysis
This book has the following characteristics:
• Easy to understand, Concise and comprehensive
This book not states profound theory and in a pithy style, avoiding tedious mathematical derivation.
In view of practical, each chapter provides the general principles and also experimental procedure, expression of results, typical examples and possible problems in practical measurements.
• Overall analytical methods of instruments
This book covers most all analytical methods of instruments in not long space, such as:
Infrared spectrometry (IR)
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
Mass spectroscopy (MS)
Gas chromatography (GC)
x-ray diffraction analysis
• Both figures (pictures) and texts are excellent
• A lot of common experimental data of typical compounds
In addition, there are 22 translation notes, making the meaning of some concepts and definition more clear and definite.
at. wt atomic weight
bp boiling point
CP chemical pure
Ed., Eds. Editor, Editors
e.g. for example
etc. and so forth
fp freezing point
i.e. that is
mp melting point
Mr relative molecular mass
NMR nuclear molecular resonance
p, pp page, pages
p.m. after noon
ref(s) reference(s)[with number(s)]
sp vol specific volume
U.K. United Kingdom
U.S. United States
USP United States Pharmacopeia
v/v volume per volume
w/v weight per volume
w/w weight per weight
such as 诸如
for example 例如
e. g. 是拉丁文exempli gratia 的缩写，等同于 for example
i. e. 等同于 that is, in other words, namely
etc. 是 et cetera 的缩写，等同于and so on,
et al 是拉丁文et alii 的缩写，等同于and others,
e.g. etc. p.m. vol. et al. (计量单位除外 m, cm, km)
Fig.4, Eq(3) 等缩略结构若出现在句首，须写出全称Figure 4, Equation(3)
On August 3, 1996, we completed the second
phase of the experiment.
The final results will be available in January
Jan April July Oct
Feb May Aug Nov
March June Sept Dec
- 小写的缩写 cmc’s
- 单字母大写的缩写 O’s( Os 是osmium
- 以上、下角标结尾的缩写 Tg’s pKa’s
- 以斜体字母结尾的缩写 pK ’s
All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectra.
MS spectra = mass spectra spectra
… and MS techniques. 或 MS
类似地 TGA analysis =
thermogravimetric analysis analysis
light green, dark green (并非七基色)
This research suggests that … possible
We believe …
… might be due to ( may be due to;
can be due to )
国家标准 GB/T 7714—2005 与1987年标准相比做了许多修改，但与国际标准似乎有了更大的不同。
中国科技期刊研究, 2005，16（1）：127-129 ；
Its inventor and practitioner is Robert.
（ 2）“there is”, “there are” 句型，主语为复合主
There wasa teacher and several students in the laboratory.
There wereseveral students and a teacher in the laboratory.
（ 3）用or, nor (或者either…or, neither…nor) 连接的复合主语，有时用复数，有时用单数。复合主语中两个主语均是单数时，谓语动词用单数；两个主语均是复数时，谓语动词用复数
The designer or another scientist usually announces the decision.
Neither banks nor independent agenciesoffer appropriate life insurance policies.
Neither the quality nor the priceshave changed.
Neither the prices nor the qualityhas changed.
That datais reliable.
Do not form conclusion until the datahave
The purpose is to bring together several
manuscripts by active scientists and engineers
and publish them in a single issue.
2 复合主语中一个主语是复数，另一个是单数，谓语动词与靠近的主语一致连贯性 (coherence)
（lack of unity）
The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
→ The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; above, the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.
例 If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, several difficulties are encountered. （假如用这种方法解决问题，会遇到一些困难。）
→ If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, we shall encountered several difficulties.（强调研究者的行为）
或 If the problem is to be solved in this way, several difficulties shall be encountered. （强调遇到的困难）
•时间和顺序关系 after, before, first, second, then, finally, later, meanwhile, while, whilst, in the future
例如 A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.（在程序温度下,测量物质的物理性质与温度的关系的一类技术。）
•附加、递增关系 also, again, in addition,
•异同关系 yet, however, nevertheless,
on the contrary, likewise,
•复合主语中一个主语是复数，另一个是单数，谓语动词与靠近的主语一致因果关系 thus, therefore, consequently,
as a consequence, accordingly,
for this reason
•举例说明 for example, for instance,
in other words
•总结归纳 in conclusion, in short,
in a word,in brief,
on the whole
例 This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily to
carry out serial determinations.
→ This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily
applicable to serial determinations.
例 Test specimen: Specimen to be analysed which is enclosed in the test specimen crucible and placed for measurement on the sample side of symmetric specimen holder assembly.
The laboratory needed an operator. Preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
→ The laboratory needed an operator, preferably someone with intelligence and experience.
Such comments neither contribute nor detract from his reputation.
→ Such comments neither contribute to nor detract from his reputation.
TV weather maps have various symbols ,
for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
→ TV weather maps have various symbols; for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.
The sensor requires little maintenance it can be place in difficult-access areas.
→ The sensor requires little maintenance, so it can be place in difficult-access areas.