From the acs style guide a manual for authors and editors 1 st edition 1986 2 nd edition 1997
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from : The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1 st edition(1986), 2 nd edition(1997). 英语科技论文 语法和修辞(表达)概要. Email: [email protected] Tel: 0431-85262284. 1 什么是 dangling modifiers (垂悬修饰)? dangling phrases (垂悬短语) 2 如何对英语句子进行扩展? 3 在什么情况下使 which 与先行词分离?. 一点说明

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From the acs style guide a manual for authors and editors 1 st edition 1986 2 nd edition 1997
from: The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors,1st edition(1986), 2nd edition(1997)

英语科技论文

语法和修辞(表达)概要


Email: [email protected]

Tel: 0431-85262284


1 什么是dangling modifiers(垂悬修饰)?

dangling phrases (垂悬短语)

2 如何对英语句子进行扩展?

3 在什么情况下使which与先行词分离?


一点说明

不同来源的资料,说法不完全相同

《气象科技》英文编辑曾晓梅:“信中谈到的问题我也注意到了。不同的书、不同出版单位有自己的说法和做法,不同国家的英文,差异也很大。


我在《中国科技期刊研究》上文章根据的是几本美国大学英语课常用教学参考书(已列作该文的参考文献),我习惯遵守这几本书的规定。实际上,一些权威的书和期刊上前后都不一致。现在,我在改稿时的做法是,在两者均有根据(或范例)时,一般来说不改,除非文中内容是指个体还是整体非常明显。*”

* 指主谓一致。


1部分 几个语法问题

  • 科技英语写作语法错误举例

    第2部分 修辞与表达

  • 英语写作表达的几个问题


The ACS Style Guide:

Effective Communication of Scientific Information 3rd Edition .

edited by Anne Coghill and Lorrin Garson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006


平山健三 英语化学论文写作方法

市原 英语论文的写作方法

孙娴柔 实用英语科技论文写作

周春晖 科技英语写作

冯志杰 汉英科技翻译指要

任胜利 英语科技论文撰写与投稿

英文现刊以及英文学术专著


1部分 几个语法问题


科技英语写作语法错误举例

1   Subject-Verb Agreements

  • Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

  • Dangling Modifiers(垂悬修饰语)

    4   Awkward Omissions of Verbs and

    Auxiliary Verbs


1       Subject-Verb Agreements

(1)在主语中含并列连词“and”时,应正确区分是单个主语还是并列主语。若属前者,谓语动词为单数形式,若属后者,谓语动词则为复数形式。

例1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described.

[说明] The subject is “application”,

which is singular.

Application of this technique to … is

described.


2 Description of the experimental conditions and the results of the present investigation is made in detail in this paper.

此句中的主语为description,

the experimental conditions and the results是并列的,与of 构成介词短语作定语,故谓语动词用“is made”。


3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation

are described in detail in this paper. 还是

is described in detail in this paper.


3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation are described in detail in this paper.

此句中的主语为the experimental condition and the result, 为并列主语,故谓语用are described.


Sometimes, two singular subjects joined by “and” cause this error.

例4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was

described

  • → Growth and isolation of M13 virus were

  • described.


Exception: A subject that is plural in form but singular in effect takes a singular verb.

例5 The name and address of each

contributor is given on the title page.

例6 Research and developmentis attracting

a growing number of young scientists.

R&D department


(2) However, when two or more subjects are joined by “or”, the verb takes the number of the closest subject.

例7 Application or useswere noted.

Uses or applicationwas noted.

例8 The appropriate metal ion concentration

or the rate constantswere used.

The rate constants or appropriate metal

ion concentrationwas used.


当两个以上主语以

or,

neither…nor,

either…or,

not only…but also

等组句时,谓语动词应与其最近的名词在人称和数上保持一致。

例9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or

bromohydrinis treated with strong

alkali to give ethylene oxide

(与 bromohydrin 一致).


10 Coagulation of an AgCl precipitate occurs at the equivalence point, where neither chloride nor silver ionsare in excess.(与ions一致)

例11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgClwere purified before the use

(与CuSO4 and AgCl一致)


在“there is”,“there are”句型中,主语为复合主语时,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致

例12 There wasa professor and several students

in the library.

There wereseveral students and a professor

in the library.


3)Collective nouns take a singular verb when the group as a whole is meant; in that case they are often preceded by the word “the”. Collective nouns take a plural verb when individuals of the group are meant; in that case, they are often preceded by the word “a”.

contents majority range

couple number series

dozen pair variety

group


13 The seriesis arranged in order of

decreasing size.

[说明] Refers to the series as a unit.

例14 A series of compounds were tested.

[说明] Refers to each compound.


15 The number of metal amides synthesized was

the largest to date. (Refers to the number as

a unit.)

A number of metal amides weresynthesized.

(Refers to each amide.)

例16 The series of compounds was prepared to

test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as

a unit.)

A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to

each compound.)


17 A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn=500-700) hasbeen prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.

→ A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn=500-700) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.


an average of + 数词(意思为平均数量有…之多)作主语,谓语动词用复数形式

An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.


the average of + 数词[意思为平均数(值)…]作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

The average of a series of valuesis obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values.

(= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.)


4) “Data” can be a singular or plural noun.

例18 Experimental data that we obtained are

compared with previously reported results.

[说明] Refers to the data as individual results.

例19 After the data aredistributed, we can meet

to discuss them.

→ After the data isdistributed, we can meet

to discuss it.

[说明] Refers to the whole collection of data

as one unit.


5)Units of measurement are treated as collective nouns and therefore take a singular verb.

例20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent

wereadded.

→ The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of

diluent was added.


21 Five grams of NaCL were added to

the solution.

→ Five grams of NaCLwas added to

the solution.


22 Three weeks are needed to complete

the experiment.

→ Three weeksis needed to complete

the experiment.


23 None of the samples wassoluble.

→None of the samples were soluble.

[说明] Refers to individuals.

例24 This group of workers are well aware

of their responsibilities.

→ This group of workers is well aware

of its responsibilities.

[说明] Refers to the group as a unit.


6)某些特殊变化的复数名词切不可误认为是单数名词,这样的词(如analyses, bacteria, criteria, formulae, phenomena, spectra,data等)作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

例25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available.

例26 The IR absorption spectraprovide significant information regarding functional groups.


7)Nouns ending in ics and denoting a scientific

discipline are usually singular.

dynamics mechanics

kinetics physics

mathematics thermodynamics

Mechanics involves the application of Newton’s three

laws of motion.

The kinetics of electron transfer to and from

photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash

photolysis.

The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the

valence and conduction bands.


8)Compound subjects containing the words “each”, “every”, and “everybody” may take singular verbs.

例27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.


Both components of the compound subject must contain the words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.

例28 Each student and all of the professors

were invited.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.9)Sometimes, one of these words is

implicit; such cases take a singular verb.

例29 Each name and address is entered into

the database.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.10)Indefinite pronouns themselves (or adjectives combined with the indefinite pronoun “one”) can be the subject of the sentence.

• Those that take a singular verb are “each”, “either”, “neither”, “no one”, “every one”, “anyone”, “someone”, “everyone”, “anybody”, “somebody”, and “ everybody”.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.30 Eachwas evaluated for its effect on

metabolism.

例 31 Neitherdisrupts the cell membrane.

例 32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one

reacts with the control agent.

例 33 Someonemeasures the volume every day.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.Those that take a plural verb are “several”,

“few”, “both”, “’and “many”.

例34Severalwere evaluated for their effects on

metabolism.

例35Fewdisrupt the cell membrane.

例36Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both

react with the control agent.

例37Manywere chosen to be part of the

study.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.Those that take either a singular or plural verb, depending on context, are “some”, “any”, “none”, “all”, and “most”. The number of the object of the preposition determines the number of the indefinite pronoun related to it.

例38Some of the moneywas stolen.

例39 Some of the bookswere lost.

例40Not all the disksare here; somewere lost.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.11)When a fraction is the subject of the sentence, the number of the attendant object of the preposition determines the number of the subject.

例41One‐third of the precipitatewas

dissolved.

例42 One‐fourth of the electronsare

excited.

例43The remainder of the compounds

are yet to be described.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.12)Most of (plenty of , a lot of)+ 复数名词

作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;

Most of (plenty of , a lot of)+ 不可数名词

作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式

Most of the better-known organic solventsare all suitable for these tests.

There isplenty of distilled water in the bottle.(其中的 water是不可数名词。)


There words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.areplenty of test tubes on test table.

There isplenty of food.

There areplenty of apples.

Is there a lot of support for the idea?

There area lot of tourists here.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.13)When a subject and its predicative disagree in number, the verb takes the number of the subject.

例44 The preparation and structuredetermination of these three compounds are the topic of paper.

例45The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.


  • Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.

    当复合句的某一从句是限制性从句,则该从句对句子的含义是必须的,如无该从句句子便失去意义。最好以“that”(而非“which”)引出限制性从句。

    When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by “that”, not “which”.


words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural.46 It was necessary to fined a blocking group which would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.

→ It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.


A phrase or clause is nonrestrictive if it adds information but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.

Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas.

如短语或从句只是给句子增添信息,但并非根本性的,则为非限制性短语或从句,即如删去这类短语或从句,句子并不失去其意义。非限制性短语或从句前后用逗号分隔。


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.47 The current-voltage curves, which are shown in Figure 6, clearly demonstrate the reversibility of all four processes.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.48Melvin Calvin, who won the Nobel

Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical

pathways in photosynthesis.

例49 Here, the Total signal,which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.


3 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Dangling Modifiers (垂悬修饰语)

也称垂悬短语 (Dangling phrases)

• One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.The understood subject is usually the same as in the main clause.

Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past.

(= As we were walking …, we saw …)

• 与句子主语没有联系的短语修饰语,即动词短语的逻辑主语(隐含主语)与主句主语不一致。

•短语的隐含主语和主句中的主语应保持一致。


悬垂修饰语或称悬垂短语( but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Dangling phrases)是指对句子中的另一词或短语关系不清晰并不合逻辑非谓语动词短语。人们所理解的这类短语的逻辑主语通常与主句的主语是一致的。

下面列举悬垂修饰语的几种情形:


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.1)If a modifier precedes the subject of a sentence, it must modify that subject and be separated from it by a comma. Otherwise, it is a dangling modifier.

如果一个修饰语是在句子的主语之前,它必须修饰那个主语,并以逗号分隔。否则就是悬垂修饰语


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.50 Splitting the atom, many new elements were discovered by Seaborg.

此句中的 splitting the atom 为现在分词短语,其逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,故需改成

→ Splitting the atom, Seaborg discovered

many new elements.


或将 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.splitting the atom考虑为动名词短语,在其前加 on 或 upon 变成介词短语:

→ Upon Splitting the atom, many new

elements were discovered by Seaborg.

→ Upon Splitting the atom, Seaborg

discovered many new elements.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.51 When confronted with these limitations,

the experiments were discontinued.

→ When confronted with these limitations,

we discontinued the experiments.

→ In light of these limitations,

the experiments were discontinued.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.52 Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, the ortho hydrogens could be assigned to the high-frequency peak.

→Understanding the effect of substituents on the parent molecules, we could assign the ortho hydrogens to the high-frequency peak.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.53 Using the procedure described previously, the

partition function can be evaluated.

→ the partition function can be evaluated

by using the procedure described previously.

Or,

→ Using the procedure described previously,

we can evaluate the partition function.


这种悬垂结构(例 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.50、51、53)可修改为介词短语

upon…,

in light of …,

by using …

但由于主句的主语并非介词短语中的行为执行者,有时仍视为悬垂结构


(2) but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.Phrases starting with “based on” must modify a noun or pronoun that usually immediately precedes or follows the phrase. Use phrases starting with “on the basis of” to modify a verb.

短语 based on 在句中修饰一个名词或代名词,通常该短语紧跟被修饰的名词或代名词之后。应以 “On the basis of ” 开头的短语去修饰一个动词。即一个句子可以On the basis of 开头,而不是以Based on开头。


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.54 Based on resonance enhancement and

frequency shifts, changes in the

inter‐ring separation were calculated.

→ On the basis of resonance enhancement

and frequency shifts, changes in

the inter‐ring separation were

calculated.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.55 Based on extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (“Based on extensive study” modifies the noun “deficiency”, but this not the meaning.)


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.On the basis of extensive study, this genetic deficiency was attributed to the loss of one isozyme. (“On the basis of extensive study” modifies the verb “was attributed”.)


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.56 Style guidelines based on authoritative sourcesare included in this book.

例57 Figure 8 shows the analysis of a drug delivery system based on amorphous, biodegradable polymer microspheres.


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.3)“Due to” means “attributable to”; use it only to modify a noun or pronoun directly preceding it in the sentence or following a form of the verb “to be”.

“Due to” 意思是 “attributable to” (归因于); 用它只是去修饰一个名词或代名词,在句中直接将其前置;或在动词 “to be” 的某种形式之后 。


but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.58 Delays resulted due to equipment failure.

→ Delays due toequipment failure were

unavoidable.

→ The delays were due to equipment

failure.


祝 国庆 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.· 中秋

节日快乐


Dangling phrases but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.包括悬垂分词短语、

悬垂不定式短语和悬垂介词短语3种

a. 悬垂分词短语 (Dangling participle phrases)

Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it.

→ Having reviewed the technical report,

we found several mistakes in it.


Based on but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted. the biological and geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups.

→ On the basis of the biological and

geographical characters, lakes in China

can be divided into five major groups.

→ Lakes in China can be divided into five

major groups according to their biological

and geographical characters.


b. but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.悬垂不定式短语

(Dangling infinitive phrases)

In order to realize sustainable development of society, it needs to consider the protected area construction as an important component of regional developmental planning and …

→ In order to realize sustainable development of society, we should consider the construction of protected area as an important component of regional developmental planning and …


c.  but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.悬垂介词短语

(Dangling preposition phrases)

After removing the outmost leaves, the material

was rubbed with 70% ethanol for surface

sterilization.

→ The materials were cleansed with 70% ethanol

for surface sterilization, after their outmost

leaves were removed.

主句和介词短语均为被动态,their 是指代

materials


下面几种情形不是 but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted.dangling modifiers:

(4)Absolute constructions are words, phrases, or clauses that are grammatically unconnected with the rest of the sentence in which they appear. They are sometimes called “sentence modifiers” because they qualify the rest of the sentence. They may occur anywhere in the sentence, and they are always set off by commas. They are not dangling modifiers.


在句中出现的与句子的其余部分在语法上无联系的词、短语和从句。由于它们是修饰句子的其余部分,有时将其称作句子修饰语 “sentence modifiers” 。这种独立结构可出现在句子的任意处,并以逗号分隔,它们不是垂悬修饰语。

例59 Contrary to the excited‐state situation,

metal–bonding interactions in the ground

states are weak.


“60 The constructions were premature,

considering the lack of available data.

例61 judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive

photolysis of compound 4 had occurred.

例62 The conformations about the Re–Re bond,

in addition, are different for all three

complexes.


Absolute constructions often begin with one of the following words:

独立结构常以下列各词之一开头:

considering provided

given providing

judging regarding

concerning failing


following words:5)In mathematical papers, absolute phrases beginning with the words “assuming” and “taking” are often used as sentence modifiers.

例63 Assuming that distance d is induced by the

norm, M is a symmetrical and positively

defined matrix.

例64 Taking this value as an upper limit, the two

shortest distances are sometimes too long

for incipient hydrogen bonds.


following words:6)A subordinate or elliptical clause may be

used as a sentence modifier.

例65 The compound is stable in air, as we

concluded from the experiment evidence.

例66 The Mo 5s orbitals, as expected, interact

strongly with the ligands.

(7)An introductory infinitive or infinitive

phrase may be a sentence modifier.

例67 To prepare compound 2, the method of

Garner was followed.


4   following words:Awkward Omissions of Verbs and

Auxiliary Verbs

Be sure that each subject in a compound sentence has the proper verbs and auxiliary verbs.

例68 The eluant was added to the column, and

the samples collected in 10-mL increments.

→ The eluant was added to the column, and

the sampleswere collected in 10-mL

increments.


小结 following words:

1 主谓一致

以 … and … 连接的两个单数主语

• 通常,谓语动词用复数

• 有些主语形式上是复数,实际上是单数

这时谓语动词用单数

• 并列主语前后均含有“each”,“every”,

“everybody” 之类的词,用单数谓语动词


following words:两个主语以“or”连接,谓语与最靠近的主语

一致

•集合名词

The series (to be) …视为整体,谓语

用单数

A series of …视为分别的,谓语用复数

•度量单位,单数

•由分数作主语,由随之的介词宾语的数决

定主语的数


2 following words:限制性和非限制性从句

… that …

,which …,

3 悬垂修饰语

与句子主语没有联系的短语修饰语。

•由On the basis of …开头 ,

不是 Based on

• due to 后跟名词或代名词,

或(to be) due to


Sentence modifiers following words:

•独立结构

•数学论文,以assuming, taking 开头

的句子

•从句或省略句

•不定式短语

4 动词与助动词的不合理省略

如助动词“to be”的省略


Language
Language following words:

  • The language must aid the understanding of your work.

  • Poor use of language will discourage editors from accepting your work.

  • Spend time on perfecting the language. Communicating the science is as important as the science itself.

  • Ask a skilled writer or someone fluent in English to check your manuscript before submission.


Language1
Language following words:

Spare the reader the trouble of guessing what you mean!

Complaint from an Editor:

“I refuse to spend time trying to understand what the author is trying to say. They cannot expect us to correct a poorly written manuscript. If there are more than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I do not waste my time reading the rest. ”


Language2
Language following words:

Clarity, objectivity, accuracy, brevity

  • Use scientific English.

  • Practice writing English whenever you can.

    Keep records in English during research.

  • Pay attention to the following:

    • Consistency of the sentences

    • Logic of expression

    • Grammar, spelling and punctuation should be correct


Language long sentences
Language – following words:long sentences

Direct and short sentences are preferred!

  • Avoid long sentences. The average length of sentences in scientific writing is about 12 to 17 words.

  • The Chinese language can express more complicated meaning with fewer words than English. Change your style when writing in English. One piece of information per sentence is sufficient, avoid multiple pieces in one sentence.


following words:2部分 修辞与表达


科技英语写作表达 following words:

的几个问题


1 following words:简明

2 富于变幻

3 辨析近义词

4 语法修辞及其他

(1) 时态、语态与人称

(2) 非谓语动词:分词短语或不定式短语

(3)使用肯定句,不用“双重否定句”

(4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句


(5) following words:不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修饰

(6) 词序

(7) 利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系

(8) 介词

1)与描写实验过程有关的介词

2) 由相同介词引起的相互平行的对等结构

(9) “only”的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定

(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”, “similar to”,

“identical to”, “identical with” 等惯用语拆开


(11) following words:由“relative to”,“as compared to”,

“as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的

相比较的第二成分,与第一成分在语法结构

上必须是平行的。

(12) 科学论文,不用 wasn’t 之类的缩写形式

(13) 根据所要表达的意思,用“and”或“or”

代替“and/or

(14) 正斜体 缩写

(15) 语用含糊

(16) 英译应遵守的原则和修辞的一些问题


1 following words:简明

科学论文不同于文学作品,要求必须简明、清晰、准确

例 As can be seen from Fig.1, growth is

rapid.

As shown in Fig.1 …

→ Growth is rapid (Fig.1).

→ Fig.1 shows that growth is rapid.

→ Fig.1 shows …


The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol

by meansof the third peak area in DSC curve.

→ The molar enthalpy of decomposition was determined to be 62.38 kJ/mol from (or by) the third peak area in DSC curve.


下述句式可以更加简洁的形式表达 62.38 kJ/mol

常以介词或副词代替

a number of = several, some

at a temperature of at

at some future time later

at the present time (moment) now

a very limited number of few

by means of by or with


due to the fact that 62.38 kJ/mol because or since

during the time that while

for a period of for

for the reason that because or since

from the standpoint of according to

greater (or higher) number of more

if conditions are such that if

compared with A, B was bigger

B was bigger

than A


considerable amount of 62.38 kJ/mol much

considerable number (or proportion) many or most

in a careless manner carelessly

in a considerable number of cases often

in a similar manner similarly

in all cases always, all

in any case anyhow

in consequence of this fact therefore


in excess of 62.38 kJ/mol more than

in few cases sometimes, rarely,

seldom

in many cases chemists are …

many chemists are …

in order to to


in some cases 62.38 kJ/mol sometimes

in terms of in

in the case of sodium with sodium

in the event that if

in the near future soon

in the temperature range of

between … and … ℃

in view of the fact that since or because


large number(s) of 62.38 kJ/mol many

large proportion of many

of great importance important

of such hardness that so hard that

on the basis of from, by, because

on the order of about


over the past few years 62.38 kJ/mol recently, in recent years

owing to the fact that since, because

a small number of a few

subsequent to after

a sufficient number of enough

with reference to about

prior to before


It is apparent that … 62.38 kJ/mol Apparently …,

hence,

thus

It appears that … Apparently …

It is interesting to note that … Interestingly …

It was in 1977 that … In 1977 …

It is clear that … Clearly …

It is our conclusion that … We conclude that …


It is possible that … 62.38 kJ/mol

It may be said that … Perhaps …,

Possibly, Probably

It is often the case that … Often …

It is possible that the cause is …

The cause may be …


可去掉 62.38 kJ/mol It, 改用动词,而不用名词

It is the aim of the present investigation

to provide …

→ This investigation is aimed

to providing …


ACS 62.38 kJ/mol 建议以如下几种方式,使文章写得更简明:

(1)删去诸如下述短语

As already stated

It has been found that

It has long been known that

It is interesting to note that

It is worth mentioning at this point

It may be said that

It was demonstrated that


62.38 kJ/mol 2)删去多余的词

It is a procedure that is often used.

→ This procedure is often used.

There are seven steps that must be completed.

→ Seven steps must be completed.

This is a problem that is…

→ This problem is…

These results are preliminary in nature.

→ These results are preliminary.


62.38 kJ/mol 3) 不用短语,用单一词表达

a number of → many, several

a small number of → a few

are in agreement → agree

are found to be → are

are known to be → are

at present → now

at the present time → now


based on the fact that 62.38 kJ/mol → because

by means of → by

despite the fact that → although

due to the fact that → because

during that time → while

fewer in number → fewer

for the reason that → because

has been shown to be → is


if it is assumed that 62.38 kJ/mol → if

in color, e.g., red in color → just state the

color, e.g., red

in consequence of this fact → therefore,

consequently

in length → long

in order to → to

in shape, e.g., round in shape → just state the

shape, e.g., round

in size, e.g., small in size → just state the

size, e.g., small

in spite of the fact that → although


in the case of … 62.38 kJ/mol → in …, for…

in the near future → soon

in view of the fact that → because

is known to be → is

it appears that → apparently

it is clear that → clearly

it is likely that → likely

it is possible that → possibly


it would appear that 62.38 kJ/mol → apparently

of great importance → important

on the order of → about

owing to the fact that → because

prior to → before

reported in the literature → reported

subsequent to → after


两种类型的复合句及其简化 62.38 kJ/mol

有被动式从句与主动式从句之分

[被动式从句]

He uses an instrument which is called a spectroscope.

→ He uses an instrument called a spectroscope

(将定语从句简化为后置的过去分词短语作定语)


[ 62.38 kJ/mol 主动式从句]

例 The man who lectures on Thursday is an

expert in dynamics.

→ The man lecturing on Thursday is an

expert in dynamics.

(简化为现在分词,作后置定语。)


再简化 62.38 kJ/mol

被动式

Air which is compressed can be used for

several purposes.

→ Air compressed can be used for several

purposes.

→ Compressed air can be used for several

purposes.


主动式 62.38 kJ/mol

Malaysia is a country which produces rubber.

Malaysia is a country producing rubber.

Malaysia is a rubber- producing country.


带有 62.38 kJ/mol 介词 + which句子的简化

(1)at which→where

Airport is a place at which special

attention is paid to the weather.

→ Airport is a place where special

attention is paid to the weather.


(2) 62.38 kJ/mol by means of which→whereby

A fuse box is a device by means of which excessive loads are avoided.

→ A fuse box is a device whereby excessive load are avoided.


Definition of thermal analysis 62.38 kJ/mol

A general term covering a group of related techniques whereby the dependence of the parameters of any physical property of a substance on temperature is measured.


(3) 62.38 kJ/mol of which → whose

Venus is a planet of which the surface temperature is thought to be at least 200 ℃.

→ Venus is a planet whose surface temperature

is thought to be at least 200 ℃.


62.38 kJ/mol 有介词 from, in, for 则不能简化

Laboratories are rooms inwhich experiments are conducted.

﹡有助动词的句子,不能简化

Here is a list of experiments which will be/ should be/ have been done this year.(这里是今年要做的/ 必须做的/ 已做过的实验明细表。)


  • 使用较为精确的词语“ 62.38 kJ/mol greater than”或“more than”,而不用不确切的“over”或“in excess of”。例如:

    greater than 50% notin excess of 50%

    more than 100 samples notover 100 samples

    more than 25mg notin excess of 25mg,

    notover 25mg


1 62.38 kJ/mol 简明

2 富于变换

3 辨析近义词

4 语法修辞及其他


2 62.38 kJ/mol 富于变换

比如,“称作”一词

Such fractions are called as non-freezing water.

Such fractions are referred to as freezing bound

water.

This water is designated as freezing water.


再比如, 62.38 kJ/mol 报道、阐述、主张、确认

Conflicting data have been presented in literature concerning the compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC- and poly(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA. Thus, Schurer et al[1] reported PVC/ PMMA to be miscible only in blends having a PVC content greater than mass fraction of 60 %, whereas Rozinska et al[2] claimed PVC/ PMMA to be immiscible. On the other hand, Parmer et al[3] asserted PVC/PMMA to be miscible over the whole range of composition showing a single glass transition, Tg, in the second DSC heating rate traces. Miscibility of PVC/PMMA has also been confirmed by Albert et al[4] by non-radiative energy transfer and NMR.


1 62.38 kJ/mol 简明

2 富于变换

3 辨析近义词

4 语法修辞及其他


3 62.38 kJ/mol 辨析近义词

例1 absorbed by, adsorbed on

adsorbed on(吸附于表面),

absorbed by(吸收其中)。

如:

…adsorbed on the surface of silver iodine.

(…吸附于碘化银的表面。)

water was absorbed by the sponge.

(水被泡沫材料吸收。)


62.38 kJ/mol 2 accuracy, precision

accuracy(准确度),示值(实验值)与被测量真值(约定真值)的一致程度;

precision(精密度),某一物理量多次测量值的一致性(或称数据的分散性)。

例如:

Although high precision was achieved, accuracy was low.(虽然达到高精密度,但准确度低。)


62.38 kJ/mol 3 actually, in fact

在例句

“Actually, the reaction rates by employing some other methods were considerably slower, …”

中,对于科学论文来讲,这里使用in fact更为合适。与书面语言相比,actually更多用于口语。


62.38 kJ/mol 4adjust, calibrate

calibrate的名词形式是calibration(校准),在规定条件下为确定测量仪器或测量系统的示值与被测量相对应的已知值之间关系的一组操作。可以用校准的结果评定测量仪器、测量系统的示值误差,或给任意标尺上的标记赋值;有时把校准的结果表示为校正因子或取校正曲线形式的一系列校正因子。可按上述的校正对测量结果做调整(adjust)。例如:The results of the calibration permitted us to adjust the final result.(校准的结果允许我们去调整最终结果。)


62.38 kJ/mol 5common, general, ordinary, usual, routine

common(普通的,共同的),α-Alumina monohydrate is a common component of many bauxites.(α-氧化铝单水合物是许多铝土矿的共同成分。)

general(一般的),One of the best and most general methods for preparing ketones in the aromatic series is the Friedel-Craft reaction.(制备芳酮类化合物一般最好的方法之一是Friedel-Craft反应。)


ordinary 62.38 kJ/mol (普通的,通常的),如:

Heavy water differs somewhat from ordinary water in certain physical properties.(重水在某些物理性质方面与普通的水有所不同。)

ordinary pressure(常压),

ordinary temperature(常温)。

Usual(常规的),Under these conditions the end-point of titration could be found accurately in the usual way.(在这种条件下,按常规的办法可以精确发现滴定终点。)


茲以 62.38 kJ/mol method为例:

a common method 普通的方法

a general method 一般的方法

a usual method 常规的方法

a conventional method 传统的方法

此外,routine(贯常的),如routine test(惯常测试),是指按即定的程序开展的大量重复测试。


62.38 kJ/mol 6by means of, in terms of

by means of与by, using, by using同义,表示利用某种方法(手段,诸如IR, DSC, NMR, X射线衍射等)开展研究、观测;

in terms of 通常用在采用某种理论(说法)、参数来解释实验结果。


例如: 62.38 kJ/mol

The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated by means of DSC and DMA.

Sometimes, we have to study the miscibility of polymer blends bymeans of a combination of two or more methods in order to confirm the experimental results.


Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature ( Tg ) and copolymer compositions.

→ The relationship between glass temperature ( Tg )

and copolymer compositions was interpreted

in terms of Fox equation.


We have prepared the complex of title compound and discussed its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics by means of the Malek method.

→ … in terms of the Malek method.


its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 7curve, thermogram

curve(曲线), thermogram(热谱)。

thermogram的一种解释是,住院病人,例行查房,体温的逐日记录。因此,以英国学者为主的热分析名词委员会主张称热分析的记录为“曲线”,而不称“热谱”。如DTA curve(DTA曲线),DSC curve(DSC曲线)。


its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 8derivative, differential

derivative(微商),表示某物理量P对温度T或时间t的微商,dP/dT (或dP/dt ), 如derivative thermogravimetry(微商热重法)

differential(差,差示),如differential scanning calorimetry(差示扫描量热法)。

differential thermogravimetry


its thermal decomposition procedure by TG-DTG, DTA, SEM and IR techniques and the corresponding non-isothermal kinetics 9 Determination, measurement

“测量” (measurement)是指对某物理量(如空间、时间、速度、功能等的有关数值)进行测试的过程,对地形、地貌的测绘也称测量,可称测量目的、测量原理、测量方法、测量条件、测量步骤等;而“测定” (determination)是更着眼于测试的结果,取得待测的某种参数,如比定压热容cp 的测定、动力学参数的测定、熔点测定、玻璃化温度的测定、纯度测定等。这种区别从如下英文的表述中也可以明显看出。


A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.

(在程序温度下, 测量物质的物理性质与温度的关系的一类技术。)


The change in specific heat capacity as a function of temperature is measured and the characteristic glass transition temperatures determined from the curve thus obtained

(测量比热容随温度的变化,并由此测得的

曲线测定特征玻璃化转变温度。)


temperature is 10different, various, varying

different(不同的),various(各种的),varying(改变……的)。例如:

The results are clearly different.

(结果显然不同。)

We tried various(或several different)methods.(我们试过各种方法。)

The effect of varying the condition was …

(改变条件的影响是……)


temperature is 11mass, weight

mass(质量),weight(重量)。

如:mass of the sample(试样质量,或简称试样量),而不称sample weight(试样重量)。重量在本质上与力是相同的,即是质量与因重力而产生的加速度的乘积。


temperature is 12usually, often, sometimes

它们在表现时间的频次上是不同的,

usually, often, sometimes 依次为

“通常”、“常常”、“有时”,频次降低。

如:

It was usually observed that …

(通常观测……)

It was often observed that …

(常常观测……)

It was sometimes observed that …

( 有时观测……)


temperature is 13standard material, certified reference material

standard material标准物质,

certified reference material有证参样(或称有证标准物质)。

standard material用于检定仪器测量准确度的物质;certified reference material用一种或多种技术上正确的方法,鉴定了其特性值、具有可溯源性并附有鉴定机构所发给的证书或其他文件的标准物质。


temperature is 14

material

substance

sample

specimen

test specimen

specimens

试料


ISO 11358 temperature is : sample: A small part or portion of a bulk material or batch of products intended to be representative of the whole. (样品:可代表整个材料或产品的一小部分批料)


test specimen temperature is : A complete product or single piece taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. In the case of bulk materials such as pellets, powders and granules: a portion taken from a sample and used to carry out a test. (试样:取自样品的一个完整产品或单一件并用于进行测试。对于诸如板材、粉末或粒子的批料,是从样品取一小部分,并用于测试。)


用非常少量的 temperature is 试样而又必须能代表整个样品,则要求必须制备成均匀组成的分析试样。


1 temperature is 简明

2 富于变幻

3 辨析近义词

4 语法修辞及其他

(1) 时态、语态与人称

(2) 非谓语动词:分词短语或不定式短语

(3)使用肯定句,不用“双重否定句”

(4) 由which, that, where 引出的从句

(5) 不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修饰

(6) 词序

(7) 利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系

(8)介词

1)与描写实验过程有关的介词

2)由相同介词引起的相互平行的对等结构


(9) “only” temperature is 的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定

(10) 通常不应将诸如“different from”,

“similar to”,“identical to”, “identical with”等惯用语

拆开

(11) 由“relative to”,“as compared to”,

“as compared with”,以及单词“versus”引出的

相比较的第二成分,与第一成分在语法结构上必

须是平行的。

(12) 科学论文,不用如下的缩写形式

(13) 根据所要表达的意思,用“and”或“or”代替“an

(14) 正斜体 缩写

(15) 语用含糊

(16) 英译应遵守的原则和修辞的一些问题


4 temperature is 语法修辞及其他

(1)时态、语态与人称

1)时态

• 用一般过去时,陈述以往做过的事。如:

The solutionheatedto boiling.

The spectrawere recorded.

Jonesreviewedthe literature and gathered much

of this information.

The structurewas determinedby neutron

diffraction methods.


temperature is 用现在时叙述事实

Absolute rate constants for a wide variety of

reactionsare available.

Hyperbranched compoundsare macromolecular

compounds that contain a branching point in

each structural repeat unit.


temperature is 现在时和一般过去时可用于表达文章的结果、讨论和结论

The characteristics of the voltammetric curve

indicate that electron transfer and breaking of

the carbon-iodine bondare concerted.


The excellent thermal stability of poly(nRMI) temperature is

was confirmedby thermal analysis technique,

i.e., theyhada high glass transition temperature

and decomposition temperature.


论文常用时态 temperature is 可概括如下:

•表示“报道、研究、综述”等,通常用一般现在时

In this paper we report the synthesis of RFC containing barium ferrite according to a specific method and its evaluation of dielectric and mechanical properties.

The probable mode of evolution is discussed.


叙述 temperature is 他人已报道的内容用一般过去时或现在完成时

In the past decade public attention more and more focused on the potential applications of renewable resources (for example as building materials, Sobral 1990)(90).


temperature is 表示研究过程的行为通常用一般过去时或现在完成时

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

was kindly supplied by FIAT (Italy).

The HDPE was blended with the LDPE, in the

molten state at high temperature (200℃),

using a Brabender blender,equipped with

rotating blades.


Films temperature is were obtained from all the mentioned materials, by compression moulding on a laboratory scale at T = 180℃ with a thickness≈0.2mm.


The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate have been studied.


short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 表示实验结果及其产生的原因,通常用一般现在时

Tensile strength decreaseswith the addition of ferrites. This is due to the poor interfacial adhesion between

the ferrite filler and nature rubber.


如用 short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 一般过去时,则表示这一结论仅适用于该研究过程中的特定情况,不具普遍性

We conclude that the principle of the

test system allow increased safety and

accuracy in hospital drug handling.


short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 表示计划与预期的结果用将来时

When photosynthesis can be carried out

artificially on a large scale,we shall

be able to set up factories

to mass-produce food.

In the coming years,scientistswill try

tocollect signals from outer space.


时态的呼应 short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate

from: 冯志杰 汉英科技翻译指要

• 通常,主从句(尤其是宾语从句和主语从句)谓语动词的时态应保持一致。

We presume that a cyclase gene from S. cattleyawas cloned according to the function of the gene products.

→According to the function of the gene products,

we may come to the conclusion that a cyclase

gene from S. cattleyahas been cloned.

2)  语态

与被动语态相比,主动语态更直接,并口语

的味道较少

The fact that such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic control is demonstrated by our

work in this area.

→ Our work in this area demonstrates that such

processes are under strict stereoelectronic

control.


He short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate had to discontinue his undergraduate

studies because his physical condition

becomes worse and worse.

→ He had to discontinue his undergraduate studies because his physical condition became worse and worse.


Agricultural production short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate rose significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.

→ Agricultural production has increased significantly since 1979 owing to the economical reforms in rural China.

since…要求谓语动词用现在完成时


An earlier paper, short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate entitled “Modulated DSC; Calculation and Calibration of MDSC Signals”(1), presented a discussion on the basic approach that has been used to calculate MDSC signals since commercialization of the technique in 1992.

下划线部分(,--ed …, )是 paper 的后置定语


short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 但,有些情况也可不一致。如,虽主句是过去时,但从句叙述的是客观事实,故用现在时。

Since centrosome is chemically complex

cellular structure and autoimmune

antiserum is polyclonal, further

investigation was made by using one of

the antisera against centrosome.

I lived where there are mountains and

rivers.


2)   short nylon fiber-styrene butadiene rubber composites with and without an interfacial bonding agent based on 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate 语态

与被动语态相比,主动语态更直接,并口

语的味道较少

The fact that such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic controlis demonstrated

by our work in this area.

  • .

→ Our work in this areademonstratesthat

such processes are under strict

stereoelectronic control.


总之,可用过去时、现在时(现在完成时),及其被动语态(与主动语态相比仍居多)叙述作者的工作。总之,可用过去时、现在时(现在完成时),及其被动语态(与主动语态相比仍居多)叙述作者的工作。

而分别用下述时态叙述作者的结果和结论:

• 现在时 客观真理

• 现在完成时 延续性

• 过去时 局限性

主语从句、宾语从句的时态通常与主句一致。

但即使主句用过去时,而从句叙述的是客观事实时,从句仍可用现在时。


3) 总之,可用过去时、现在时(现在完成时),及其被动语态(与主动语态相比仍居多)叙述作者的工作。人称

使用第一人称会更加清楚地表达你的意图

Jones reported xyz, but we found …

we present here a detailed study …

Our recent work demonstrated …

To determine the effects of structure on

photophysics, we …


不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式

We believe

We feel

We concluded

We can see


(2) 不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式非谓语动词:分词短语或不定式短语

from: 中国科技期刊研究,2004,15(6):747

用非谓语动词可紧缩某些冗长的主从复合句,使句子显得简洁明快,短小、精练,富于表现力。

1)采用分词短语或不定式短语作定语,代替

定语从句

Matter is anything having mass and

occupying space.


2不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式)采用分词短语或不定式短语作状语,代替状语从句

While the Indian government were increasing grain yields, they were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.

→While increasing grain yields, the Indian government were improving post harvest processing and storage of agro-products.

用分词短语 increasing…代替时间状语从句


3不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式)采用不定式短语作状语,代替结果或目的状语从句

We pain so much attention to R line selection that we achieved the hybrid rice of high grain quality.

→ We pain so much attention to R line selection as to achieve the hybrid rice of high grain quality.


4不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式)采用with(或without)引导分词独立结构,

代替伴随状语从句或并列句

When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose, most of tomenta fell off.

→ When the leaves at different parts of the stalks were picked according to the standard, the tissues were loose with most of tomenta felling off.


(3)不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式使用肯定句,不用“双重否定句”

This reactionis not uncommon

→This reaction is common

This reaction is not rare

→This reaction occurs about 40% of the time

This transitionwas not unexpected

→This transition was expected

→We know that such transitions were possible


This strategy不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式is not infrequently used

→ This strategy is frequently used

This strategy is occasionally used

This resultis not unlikelyto occur

→ This result is likely to occur

This result is possible


不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式4)由 which, that, where, what 引出的从句

which

1)通过 which 进行双扩展

The change of heat of fusion of polyethylene as a function of the specific volumewhich the sample has at room temperature, and which is related to the crystallinity through Eq.(5) in Chapter IVis shown in Fig.IV 12.


Reference specimen: 不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式A known specimenwhich is used throughout a thermoanalytical difference measurement against the test specimen to be investigated and which is usually thermally inactive over the temperature and time range of interest.

先行词A known specimen which …,

and which …


2)不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式由于插入从句,which远离它所代替的主

句中的先行词

In the case of cold crystallization it is suggested that by reason of somewhat rigid backbone chains in these polymers, there will be some local ordersuch as parallel chains or nematic domains, originating during quenching the melt and frozen in the glassy state, which favors subsequent crystallization.

…local ordersuch as …, originating …,

which …


That不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式引出从句

1)  that充当句子成分(关系代词)

• 作主句的宾语或表语

作主句表语 的例子

One of the difficulties in illustrating the problems of standard DSC is that there are no polymer standards for crystallinity.


作主句介词宾语的例子不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式

As discussed in the initial overview of this series on MDSC, Modulated DSC differs from standard DSC in that it applies two simultaneous heating rates to sample.


不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式由As + -ed…,作句子的状语

As mentioned in initial paper, there are three general misunderstandings associated with technique of MDSC.

As previously stated, the same instrument is used to run both DSC and MDSC experiments.

As has been stated many times, it is important to use the same experimental conditions when comparing samples.


不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式引出定语从句,that是从句的主语

This paper outlines the basis for the Modulated DSC technique and shows its value in solving analytical problems that cannot be readily tackled by traditional DSC.


2)不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式that 不充当句子成分(连接代词)

•揭示it的实质性内容

In fact it only requires that there be a periodic change in heating rate.

•引出定语从句

The data (Figure 6) might incorrectly lead to the conclusion thatthe material was only PET.


This significantly raises probability 不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式thatthe sample will change in structure during heating, thus reducing the ability to measure the initial structure.


Where不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式

This “baseline” region in the data is where there is no transition occurring and heat flow signal is due only to the heat capacity of the sample.


what不过,要用事实说话,避免主观臆断。因此尽量不用下列句式

That’s what (= the thing which) I should like to know. (这正是我想知道的。)

这里的代词“what”称为“连接代词”,具有双重作用, 既引起表语从句,又充当从句中谓语的宾语


This is a result of cross-linking of the molecules, which results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is what causes the reaction rate to slow as the reaction moves from chemical control to diffusion control.

这里的what引出的 是表语从句,是从句的主语。


results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 5)不要在一个名词前用一串词进行修

Thermal decompositionkinetics of the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine by DSC method

→ DSC study on kineticsof thermaldecomposition for the complexes of light rare earth bromides with alanine


results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 6)词序

In the form of extended helical chain, the junction zones are linked.

→ The junction zones are linked in the form of

extended helical chain.

Fox equation interprets the relationship between glass temperature (Tg) and copolymer compositions.

→ The relationshipbetween glass temperature

(Tg) and copolymer compositions was

interpreted in terms of Fox equation.


results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 7)利用时态表示事件发生的先后关系

Examine the contents of the tube in which the

liquid have been collected.

[考察(事先已在)试管中收集的液体。]

(现在完成时在前,现在时在后。)


Communications results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is are not accepted if the editor believes that the principal content has been published elsewhere.

In many cases, authors are expected to publish complete details (not necessarily in the same journal ) after their communications have been published.


After results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is having finished the measurement the specimen holder assembly is brought back to loading temperature and the crucible containing the test specimen is taken out.


results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 8)介词

1)与描写实验过程有关的介词

• under condition

… under non-isothermal condition

• at heating/ cooling rate

under atmosphere

The exothermic crystallization peaks were recorded at different cooling rates ranging from 2.5--40℃/min under a nitrogen atmosphere.


  • 升、降温速率也可用 results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is with, 但如with已用于使用某种仪器前,则扫描速率仍须用at。

    The melting range of this polymer was 138~163℃, and the heat of fusion was 24 cal/g, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry with a scan speed of 8℃/min.

      … subsequently the specimens were cooled down, and crystallization thermograms were recorded at scan speed of 0.5~32℃/min with a differential scanning calorimeter manufactured by Perkin-Elmer (DSC model 1 B).


By results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 使用方法differential scanning calorimetry

With 使用仪器differential scanning calorimeter

• in 按(升、降温)模式

The following equation is valid for the heat flow rate absorbed by the sample (without reference sample) in (quasi-) steady heating mode.

Peak area calibration can be performed in two ways.


2) results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is 由相同介词引起的相互平行的对等结构

The amorphous subsystem is linked to the equilibrium melt, followed by extrapolation into the nonequilibrium, supercooled melt to the glass , as described in Section V.A.1 and Fig 2.


The following results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is is valid for the (steady-state) heat flow rates exchanged between furnace and sample, φfs, between furnace and reference sample, φfr, and for the measured heat (output) flow rateφm and true heat flow rate φture in to the sample.

… is valid for… and (is valid) for…


3 results in lower mobility. This decrease in mobility is )由疑似对等结构产生歧义的例子

endothermic peak: A peak in which the energy supplied to the test specimen is greater than the energy corresponding to the virtual baseline.

( from: ISO 11357—1)

误译: 输入到试样的能量大于相应的准基线的

能量的峰。

to 后的the test specimen 与 to the virtual baseline 不能对等。


其含义应为“相对于准基线而言,输给试样更多的能量。”

建议英文修改成:“…than the energy in comparison with maintaining the virtual baseline.”


常见介词问题

from: 李学军等.编辑学报,2004,16(6):418

1)介词搭配错误

a.非固定搭配错误

ecological adjustment of

groundwater

→ecological adjustment by groundwater


the impending earthquake prediction of some Chinese scientists

→the impending earthquake prediction

by some Chinese scientists


about 500 times at every year

→ about 500 times in every year

fluid inclusions of early stage

→ fluid inclusions at early stage

in the depth of 800 m

→ at the depth of 800 m

It is shown on/by Fig.5.

→ It is shown in Fig.5.


The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred on May 13-22, 1998.

→ The forest fire in the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains occurred during May 13-22, 1998.


Hydrogen can enter the basin from deep faults.

→ Hydrogen can enter the basin through deep faults.

When chrysotiles acton body fluid …

→ When chrysotiles act with body fluid …


b. 固定搭配错误

the difference of geochemical property

→the difference in geochemical

property

the relationship of human and nature

→ the relationship between human and

nature


A meteorite impacted in the Pacific plate.

→ A meteorite impacted on the Pacific

plate.


The research for geological fluids

→ The research ongeological fluids

thermoluminescence response of radiation

→ thermoluminescence response to

radiation


The growth rules of quartz are similar

with those of feldspar.

→ The growth rules of quartz are

similar to those of feldspar.


2 )介词误用

the concepts of Magoon and Dow (1994)

→ the concepts proposed by Magoon and Dow

(1994)


3 )介词省略出错

two ideas ofrelating the infrared radiation mechanism

→ two ideas relating to the infrared

radiation mechanism

the earthquake with magnitude of > 6.5

→ the earthquake with magnitude

more than 6.5


The random variable xis the power-function distribution.

→ The random variable xisof the power-function distribution.


4 )短语介词出错

The results show in follows.

As for this, a lot of oil reservoirs

were formed.

→ The results show as follows.

→ The results show in the following.

→ As a result, a lot of oil reservoirs

were formed.


(9) “only”的具体含义视其在句中的位置而定,

仅限定紧跟随的词汇

Only the largest groupwas injected with the test compound. ( Meaning: no other group)

The largest group wasonly injected with the test compound. ( not given the compound in any other way)

The largest group was injected withonly the test compound. ( no other compound )


(10) 通常不应将诸如

“different from”,

“similar to”,

“identical to”,

“identical with” 等惯用语拆开

The complex shows a significantlydifferentNMR

signal from that of compound 1.

→The complex shows an NMR signal significantly

different fromthat of compound 1.


Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation undersimilarthe conditionstocompound 6.

→Compound 5 does not catalyze hydrogenation under the conditionssimilar to those for compound 6.


但如 插入介词短语修饰语,则可分开。

The single crystals are all similar in structure to

the crystals of compound 7.

Solution A is identical in appearance with

solution B.


(11) 由 “relative to”,

“as compared to”,

“as compared with”,

以及单词 “versus” 引出的相比较的第二成分,与第一成分在语法结构上必须是平行的。

The greater acidity ofnitric acidrelative tonitrous acidis due to the initial state charge distribution in the molecules.


The lowering of the vibronic coupling constants for Nias compared withCuis due to configuration interaction.

The behavior is analogous to the reduced Witting‐like reactivity inthiolateversusphenoxide complexes.


(12) 科学论文,不用如下的缩写形式

The identificationwasn’tconfirmed by mass

spectrometry.

→ The identificationwas notconfirmed by mass

spectrometry.


(13) 根据所要表达的意思,用“and”或“or”代替

“and/or”。

Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leavesand/orroots.

→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leavesandroots.

→ Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in either the leavesorthe roots.

→ Our goal was to confirm the presenceof the alkaloid in the leaves, the roots, or both.


14)正斜体 缩写

斜体(Italic type)

• 应慎用斜体强调某一词或短语,不可对一 长段话使用斜体;

•文章中首次出现的新引进的术语,可使用斜 体 如:

In an outer-sphere transfer, an electron moves from reductant to oxidant with no chemical alteration of the primary coordination spheres.


文题、刊名、书名和报纸的名称以往规定使用斜体

I read articles on that new chiral compound in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

• 取代基的位置、构型等使用斜体

N-乙烯基咪唑 cis- trans-

• 对于通用的拉丁语和缩略语不使用斜体

ca. e.g. at al. etc. i.e. in situ vs …


Brief introduction

of Introduction to Instrumental Analysis

This book has the following characteristics:

• Easy to understand, Concise and comprehensive

This book not states profound theory and in a pithy style, avoiding tedious mathematical derivation.

•Practical

In view of practical, each chapter provides the general principles and also experimental procedure, expression of results, typical examples and possible problems in practical measurements.


Overall analytical methods of instruments

This book covers most all analytical methods of instruments in not long space, such as:

Infrared spectrometry (IR)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Mass spectroscopy (MS)

Gas chromatography (GC)

Liquid chromatography

Thermal analysis

x-ray diffraction analysis


Both figures (pictures) and texts are excellent

• A lot of common experimental data of typical compounds

In addition, there are 22 translation notes, making the meaning of some concepts and definition more clear and definite.


缩写( Abbreviations)

缩写应不与测量单位、元素符号、基团

名称混同,易理解、表义单一。

•一篇文章通篇多次重复使用一个很长的名称或术语,则可适当使用缩写,这类名称或术语在正文首次出现时,应先给出全称,随之在括号内写出缩写,之后便可全文使用。对于通用的缩写则无需再予定义。诸如:


a.m. before noon

anal. analysis

at. wt atomic weight

bp boiling point

ca. about

CP chemical pure

ed. edition

Ed., Eds. Editor, Editors

e.g. for example

eq(s) equation(s)[with

number(s)]


et al. and others

etc. and so forth

fp freezing point

i.e. that is

IR infrared

mp melting point

Mr relative molecular mass

(molecular weight)

NMR nuclear molecular resonance

p, pp page, pages

p.m. after noon


P.O. Post Office (with Box and number)

ref(s) reference(s)[with number(s)]

sp vol specific volume

U.K. United Kingdom

U.S. United States

USP United States Pharmacopeia

UV ultraviolet

vol volume

vs versus

v/v volume per volume

wt weight

w/v weight per volume

w/w weight per weight


such as 诸如

for example 例如

e. g. 是拉丁文exempli gratia 的缩写,等同于 for example

i. e. 等同于 that is, in other words, namely

etc. 是 et cetera 的缩写,等同于and so on,

用于列举事物

et al 是拉丁文et alii 的缩写,等同于and others,

用于列举人


对于缩略词还应注意到:

小写字母构成的缩略词一般使用缩略点;

而大写字母构成的缩略词一般不使用缩略点

e.g. etc. p.m. vol. et al. (计量单位除外 m, cm, km)

Fig.4, Eq(3) 等缩略结构若出现在句首,须写出全称Figure 4, Equation(3)

由“&”构成的缩略词, &前后均不留空

R&D


日期(月份)

a.正文中不管有无特定日期,月份通常是全拼,例

如:

On August 3, 1996, we completed the second

phase of the experiment.

The final results will be available in January

1997.

b.在注、图表、参考书、文献表中带有日期或日期

和年,则月份可缩略或全拼

Jan April July Oct

Feb May Aug Nov

March June Sept Dec


多字母符号的复数形式

a.所有字母全大写的缩写或以大写字母结尾的

缩写,其复数形式只需加小写“s”;

HOMOs pHs

b.为表达清晰起见,下面几种情形加“’s”构

成复数形式

- 小写的缩写 cmc’s

- 单字母大写的缩写 O’s( Os 是osmium

的元素符号)

- 以上、下角标结尾的缩写 Tg’s pKa’s

- 以斜体字母结尾的缩写 pK ’s


缩写重复性英文表达的错误

All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectra.

MS spectra = mass spectra spectra

… and MS techniques. 或 MS

类似地 TGA analysis =

thermogravimetric analysis analysis

TGA


15)语用含糊

由于认识水平的局限、自然语言的特性和避

免武断,科技论文也常使用较为含糊的用语。 诸如:

light green, dark green (并非七基色)

This research suggests that … possible

We believe …

… might be due to ( may be due to;

can be due to )

[参见:曾瑜薇,胡芳.英语论文摘要中的语用

含糊[J]. 中国科技期刊研究,2005,16

(6):938]


国家标准 GB/T 7714—2005 与1987年标准相比做了许多修改,但与国际标准似乎有了更大的不同。


(16) 英译应遵守的原则和修辞的一些问题

from:

中国科技期刊研究, 2005,16(1):127-129 ;

2006,17(6):1206-1211


语句的一致性、连贯性、完整性、

单义性

1 一致性(Agreement):

主谓一致和代词与先行词一致

(1)复合主语成为一个整体,或指同一个人、

同一个地方、同一件事物,谓语动词用单数

Its inventor and practitioner is Robert.


2)“there is”, “there are” 句型,主语为复合主

语时,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致

There wasa teacher and several students in the laboratory.

There wereseveral students and a teacher in the laboratory.


3)用or, nor (或者either…or, neither…nor) 连接的复合主语,有时用复数,有时用单数。复合主语中两个主语均是单数时,谓语动词用单数;两个主语均是复数时,谓语动词用复数

The designer or another scientist usually announces the decision.

Neither banks nor independent agenciesoffer appropriate life insurance policies.


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致

Neither the quality nor the priceshave changed.

Neither the prices nor the qualityhas changed.


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致4)集合名词指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数;指集体中各个体时用复数

That datais reliable.

Do not form conclusion until the datahave

been gathered.


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致5)代词与先行词一致

The purpose is to bring together several

manuscripts by active scientists and engineers

and publish them in a single issue.


统一性 复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致(unity)

违反统一性 (disunity)

句子成分间或段落中各个句子之间的协调一致,一个句子的各个部分或段落内的各个句子都从属于一个中心,不存在游离于中心思想之外的句子。

•违反主从关系:主从颠倒、主从并列

•意思不完整或不明确:成分残缺,结构混乱,表达不充分,表达不具体


2 复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致连贯性 (coherence)

违反连贯性 (discoherence)

包括意连(句子内在意义的逻辑关系)

形连(使用转换词语)

(1)叙述主体对象突然改变,逻辑衔接欠妥

(lack of unity)

The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.

→ The underwater scene was dark and mysterious; above, the willows lining the shore dipped into the water.


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致2)主语或语态突然改变

例 If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, several difficulties are encountered. (假如用这种方法解决问题,会遇到一些困难。)

从句中的主语、语态与主句中的主语、语态不同

→ If we attempt to solve the problem in this way, we shall encountered several difficulties.(强调研究者的行为)

或 If the problem is to be solved in this way, several difficulties shall be encountered. (强调遇到的困难)


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致3)必要的过度性连接副词

科技论文常用的连接副词可分为:

•时间和顺序关系 after, before, first, second, then, finally, later, meanwhile, while, whilst, in the future

例如 A group of techniques in which a physical property of a substance is measured as a function of temperature whilst the substance is subjected to a controlled temperature programme.(在程序温度下,测量物质的物理性质与温度的关系的一类技术。)


  • Differential scanning calorimetry 复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致,DSC:A technique in which the difference between the heat flux (power) into a test specimen and that into a reference specimen is measured as a function of temperature and/or time while the test specimen and the reference specimen are subjected to a controlled temperature programme.(试样和参比物在程序控温下,测量输给试样和参比物的热流量(或功率差)与温度或时间关系的技术。)


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致空间关系 here,there,nearby,under,below

•附加、递增关系 also, again, in addition,

besides,furthermore, moreover

•异同关系 yet, however, nevertheless,

on the contrary, likewise,

similarly


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致因果关系 thus, therefore, consequently,

as a consequence, accordingly,

for this reason

•举例说明 for example, for instance,

in other words

•总结归纳 in conclusion, in short,

in a word,in brief,

on the whole


复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致4)平衡关系被破坏

例 This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily to

carry out serial determinations.

→ This method is rapid, inexpensive, and easily

applicable to serial determinations.

保持平行结构

例 Test specimen: Specimen to be analysed which is enclosed in the test specimen crucible and placed for measurement on the sample side of symmetric specimen holder assembly.

(5)垂悬短语


3 复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致完整性

The laboratory needed an operator. Preferably someone with intelligence and experience.

→ The laboratory needed an operator, preferably someone with intelligence and experience.

Such comments neither contribute nor detract from his reputation.

→ Such comments neither contribute to nor detract from his reputation.


4 复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致单义性

(1) 两个句子不以逗号连接

TV weather maps have various symbols ,

for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.

→ TV weather maps have various symbols; for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle.

(2)句子不应粘连(run-on sentence)

The sensor requires little maintenance it can be place in difficult-access areas.

→ The sensor requires little maintenance, so it can be place in difficult-access areas.


Thanks!复合主语中一个主语是复数,另一个是单数,谓语动词与靠近的主语一致

Thanks!


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