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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

Bellagio Fountain

- Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
- Approximate Running Time - 21 minutes
- Distance Learning / Online Instructional Presentation
- Presented by
- Department of Mechanical Engineering
- Baylor University
- Procedures:
- Select “Slide Show” with the menu: Slide Show|View Show (F5 key), and hit “Enter”
- You will hear “CHIMES” at the completion of the audio portion of each slide; hit the “Enter” key, or the “Page Down” key, or “Left Click”
- You may exit the slide show at any time with the “Esc” key; and you may select and replay any slide, by navigating with the “Page Up/Down” keys, and then hitting “Shift+F5”.

- Outline
- Measuring Devices for Measuring Drag
- Basics of Fluid Mechanics
- Flight Characteristics of Baseballs & Golf Balls

Dr. Carolyn Skurla

Speaking

Lab: Drag Force Experiment

- Performing a fluid mechanics experiment
- Collect experimental data
- Perform integration of experimental data
- Equipment:
- Wind tunnel
- Cylinder
- Pressure

transducer

- Pitot-static

tube

So, What is Fluid Mechanics?

- The study of fluids in motion
- Solid -> Can resist a shear stress by a static deformation
- Fluid -> Cannot resist a shear stress
- Any shear stress applied to a fluid will result in motion of that fluid
- There are two classes of fluids:
- Liquids
- Gases

(White, 1994)

Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid

- Pressure, p
- Compression stress at a point in a fluid
- Differences, or gradients, of pressure often drive a fluid flow
- Temperature, T
- Measure of internal energy level of a fluid

Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid

- Density,
- Mass per unit volume
- Highly variable in gases (i.e., =f(p))
- Nearly constant in liquids
- Almost incompressible
- Assumed to be imcompressible to make analysis easier
- Specific Weight,
- Weight per unit volume

Pressure Transducer: Manometer

- How do we measure pressure, p ?
- Change in elevation of a liquid is equivalent to a change in pressure
- Therefore, a static column of liquid can be used to measure pressure difference between 2 points

(White, 1994)

Pressure Transducer: Manometer

- Manometer units are in·H2O
- How do I convert in·H2O to more standard units for pressure?

SI UnitsEnglish

Pitot-Static Tube

Static Point

Static Pressure, (pS )

Static Velocity, (vS)

Stagnation Point

Stagnation Pressure, (p0 )

Stagnation Velocity, (v0)

Differential Pressure Transducer (Manometer)

Pitot-Static Tubes

- ps= Static pressure (in the moving stream)
- Nominal air pressure in atmosphere
- p0= Stagnation pressure
- Air pressure in the pitot tube
- vs= Static velocity
- Speed of air passing the pitot tube
- Equivalent to speed of plane through the air
- v0= Stagnation velocity = 0

Velocity

- When there is friction between the fluid and the solid surface
- No slip of the fluid at the boundary
- Velocity = 0
- A boundary layer forms near the solid surface
- Shear stress is greatest adjacent to the boundary layer at the surface

(White, 1994)

Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow

- Laminar -> smooth and steady.
- Turbulent -> fluctuating and agitated.

Reynolds Number

- Dimensionless parameter
- Correlates viscous behavior of all newtonian fluids
- = density
- = viscosity
- V = characteristic velocity of flow
- L = length scale of flow
- Most important parameter in fluid mechanics
- Governs transition from laminar to turbulent flow

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