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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. Bellagio Fountain. Lecture 8 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Approximate Running Time - 21 minutes Distance Learning / Online Instructional Presentation Presented by Department of Mechanical Engineering Baylor University Procedures:

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Lecture 8

  • Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
  • Approximate Running Time - 21 minutes
  • Distance Learning / Online Instructional Presentation
  • Presented by
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
  • Baylor University
  • Procedures:
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Lecture 8 Topics

  • Outline
    • Measuring Devices for Measuring Drag
    • Basics of Fluid Mechanics
    • Flight Characteristics of Baseballs & Golf Balls

Dr. Carolyn Skurla

Speaking

lab drag force experiment
Lab: Drag Force Experiment
  • Performing a fluid mechanics experiment
    • Collect experimental data
    • Perform integration of experimental data
  • Equipment:
    • Wind tunnel
    • Cylinder
    • Pressure

transducer

    • Pitot-static

tube

so what is fluid mechanics
So, What is Fluid Mechanics?
  • The study of fluids in motion
    • Solid -> Can resist a shear stress by a static deformation
    • Fluid -> Cannot resist a shear stress
      • Any shear stress applied to a fluid will result in motion of that fluid
      • There are two classes of fluids:
        • Liquids
        • Gases

(White, 1994)

thermodynamic properties of a fluid
Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid
  • Pressure, p
    • Compression stress at a point in a fluid
    • Differences, or gradients, of pressure often drive a fluid flow
  • Temperature, T
    • Measure of internal energy level of a fluid
thermodynamic properties of a fluid1
Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid
  • Density, 
    • Mass per unit volume
      • Highly variable in gases (i.e.,  =f(p))
      • Nearly constant in liquids
        • Almost incompressible
        • Assumed to be imcompressible to make analysis easier
  • Specific Weight, 
    • Weight per unit volume
pressure transducer manometer
Pressure Transducer: Manometer
  • How do we measure pressure, p ?
    • Change in elevation of a liquid is equivalent to a change in pressure
      • Therefore, a static column of liquid can be used to measure pressure difference between 2 points

(White, 1994)

pressure transducer manometer1
Pressure Transducer: Manometer
  • Manometer units are in·H2O
    • How do I convert in·H2O to more standard units for pressure?

SI UnitsEnglish

pitot static tube
Pitot-Static Tube

Static Point

Static Pressure, (pS )

Static Velocity, (vS)

Stagnation Point

Stagnation Pressure, (p0 )

Stagnation Velocity, (v0)

Differential Pressure Transducer (Manometer)

pitot static tubes
Pitot-Static Tubes
  • ps= Static pressure (in the moving stream)
    • Nominal air pressure in atmosphere
  • p0= Stagnation pressure
    • Air pressure in the pitot tube
  • vs= Static velocity
    • Speed of air passing the pitot tube
      • Equivalent to speed of plane through the air
  • v0= Stagnation velocity = 0
velocity
Velocity
  • When there is friction between the fluid and the solid surface
    • No slip of the fluid at the boundary
      • Velocity = 0
    • A boundary layer forms near the solid surface
      • Shear stress is greatest adjacent to the boundary layer at the surface

(White, 1994)

laminar vs turbulent flow
Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow
  • Laminar -> smooth and steady.
  • Turbulent -> fluctuating and agitated.
reynolds number
Reynolds Number
  • Dimensionless parameter
    • Correlates viscous behavior of all newtonian fluids
    •  = density
    •  = viscosity
    • V = characteristic velocity of flow
    • L = length scale of flow
  • Most important parameter in fluid mechanics
    • Governs transition from laminar to turbulent flow
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