Secure real time routing protocol with load distribution srtld in wireless sensor network wsn
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Secure Real-Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution (SRTLD) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Secure Real-Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution (SRTLD) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). By ADEL ALI Supervisor : PROF. DR. NORSHEILA BINTI FISAL. Contents. Introduction Problem statement Objective, scope and significance of the research Literature review Related work

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Secure Real-Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution (SRTLD) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

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Secure Real-Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution (SRTLD) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)







Problem statement

Objective, scope and significanceof the research

Literature review

Related work

Research methodology

Design of SRTLD in WSN

Simulation study and preliminary results

Future work

Expected results



Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  • WSN is a wireless ad hoc network that composes of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the event area or very close to it.

  • Each sensor node has one or many different types of sensors. Each node is physically small, with limitation on power, memory and processing capabilities,

Low power signal processing

Low power computation

Short-range communications capabilities

Modest irreplaceable energy budget

Linked by some wireless medium: radio, infrared, ultrasound, etc.

Sensor Node features

Types of sensors

  • Pressure

  • Temperature

  • Light

  • Bio-sensors

  • Chemical

  • Acoustic

  • Accelerometers

  • Seismic

  • Metal detectors

  • Personal motion detectors

WSN and IEEE 802.15.4

  • The IEEE 802.15.4 protocol specifies the Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layer and physical layer

  • Targets for Low-Rate Wireless Private Area Networks (LR-WPAN) with low power consumption, low cost wireless networking that fits the requirements of WSN.

AODV or Cluster-Tree

IEEE 802.15.4 Physical Layer

Overlapping with IEEE 802.11

Channels 25, 26 are non-overlapping

Overlapping between 802.11 and 802.15.4 if the distance is

less than 8m

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Sub layer

IEEE 802.15.4 Message Structure

  • Message frame type:

    • Data

    • Acknowledgement

    • Beacon

    • MAC

Network Topologies

  • WSNhas a peer-to-peer topology and a star topology.

  • A peer-to-peer topology consists of sensor nodes that are connected with each other without infrastructure. Since the nodes in a network can serve as routers and devices, they can forward the packets on behalf of the other nodes.



Peer-to-peer topology

  • A star topology consists of coordinator (PAN) sensor node and number of sensor devices which only communicate with its coordinator. The PAN coordinator dispatches the sensory data to the destination.

Star topology

The sensory data is valid only for a limited time duration, and hence needs to be delivered within such time bound called deadline

WSN demands real-time communication which means messages in the network are delivered according to their end-to-end deadlines (packet lifetime)

Why Real-Time communication in (WSN)

Why Security in WSN

  • Security is the most difficult problem to solve in WSN due to limitation in memory, processing and power.

  • Network layer attacks

    • manipulating routing information,

    • selective forwarding,

    • Sybil,

    • sinkhole,

    • wormhole, and

    • Hello flooding (unidirectional) attacks

Problem Statement

  • WSNs are restricted to limited memory, processing and power

  • WSNs have unreliable links and highly unpredictable communication delays due to

    • limited bandwidth, and

    • link quality heavily influenced by environmental factors.

  • WSN applications must operate for months or years without wired power supplies.

  • The important data must delivery within real-time

  • WSN routing protocols are quite simple, and for this reason are susceptible to several kinds of attacks


  • To design a routing protocol that will provide real-time data transfer for WSN.

  • To develop security in the proposed real-time routing.

  • To develop low rate WSN that will achieve high delivery ratio while utilizing low packet overhead and low power consumption.


  • Mathematical Study

  • Simulation Study

  • Performance Study

  • Test Bed Implementation

  • Test and Verification

Implementation plan

Significance of the research

  • Military environments

    • Target monitoring

    • Early detection of biological, chemical, or nuclear attack detection

  • Civilian environments

  • Emergency operations

    • Fire fighting

    • Flooding detection

    • Earthquake detection

    • Water and Air pollution

Literature Review

Routing in WSN

  • Challenges

    • It is not possible to build a global addressing scheme for the deployment of a large number of sensor nodes as the overhead of ID maintenance is high.

    • Position awareness of sensor nodes is important since data collection is normally based on the location.

    • Data forwarding and data redundancy

    • Power consideration (minimize broadcasting)

    • Security

  • Classification of routing protocol based on structure

    • Flat network

    • Location-based

    • Hierarchical

Related Work

Research Methodology

System Design and Results

Proposed Model of SRTLD







1. Geographical Location Management

Location Tracking for One hop

2. Routing Management

State Machine diagram for routing management


Neighbor Discovery

Neighbor Table


Parameters of selection next hop

  • Velocity

  • PRR

  • Power Remaining


  • Flow chart diagram of unicast forwarding mechanism


  • Unicast forwarding

  • Geodirectional-cast forwarding


Routing Problem Handler

  • Network holes problem

  • If the diameter of the hole is smaller than the transmission range at the maximum power, then SRTLD will identify a maximum transmission power that is sufficient to transmit the packet across the hole.

3.Neighborhood Management

Maximum size of neighbor table is 300 bytes (20 sensor nodes)

4. Power Management

  • Sleeping mode is used to save the power.

    • If the sensor nodes reply to neighbour discovery beacons, they will not sleep until the session of routing is finished (not receive neighbour discovery beacons for two periods time)

5. Security Management

  • Security based on authentication





Original message

Hash message

original message

  • Security should consider the time constrain in real-time routing

  • SRTLD has built-in security due to random selection for the next hop

Comparison between SRTLD and related work

Simulation Study of RTLD (without security)

Network simulation model

Preliminary Results

  • Baseline real-time routing

    • MM-SPEED (multiple communication speeds)

    • LQ (link quality)

    • RTPC (real-time power control)

    • RTLDU (RTLD with unicast forwarding)

    • RTLDG (RTLD with geodirectional-cast forwarding)

  • Performance Analysis:

    • Packet Delivery Ratio

    • Normalized Packet Overhead

    • Energy consumption


  • Impact of varying the network load


  • Effect of Remaining Power


  • Enhancement of RTLD

Future work

  • SRTLD test bed:

    • 25 sensor nodes

    • Laptop with NesC compiler and TinyOS

    • TOSSIM

Interface board


Sensor board



MMCX connector

Logger Flash



Analog I/O

Digital I/O

51-Pin Expansion Connector

Freq. Tunable Radio


MICAz sensor board specification

  • Microprocessor: Atmel ATmega128L

    • 7.3728 MHz clock

    • 128 kB of Flash for program memory

    • 4 kB of SRAM for data and variables

    • 2 UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receive and Transmit)

    • Serial Port Interface (SPI) bus

    • Dedicated hardware I2C bus

  • Radio: Chipcon’s CC2420

  • External serial flash memory: 512 kB

  • 51-pin expansion connector

    • Eight 10-bit analog I/O

    • 21 general purpose digital I/O

  • User interface: 3 programmable LEDs

  • JTAG port

  • Powered by two AA batteries

    • 1850 mAh capacity

Test bed Results

Test bed Results

Expected Results

  • SRTLD :- A secure real-time routing protocol that has high throughput

  • Distribute load forwarding to avoid packet dropping due to power termination in specific forwarding candidate

  • A routing protocol that prolongs network’s lifetime.

  • A real practical implementation of SRTLD in a test bed network.


WSN applications require delivery of various types of sensory data with different levels of real-time requirements because the sensory data is valid only for a limited time duration.

This research proposesSRTLD which is a novel real-time routing protocol which combines link quality, remaining power, packet velocity and securityin WSN

SRTLD will prolong network’s lifetime using distribution load forwarding.

SRTLD will provide efficient power consumption, high packet delivery ratio and minimum control packet overhead in WSN.



  • Real Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution in Wireless Sensor Network, Computer communications, Elsevier 2006, In Press

  • Real Time Routing Protocol with Load Distribution in Wireless Sensor and Ad hoc Networks,Journal Teknologi, 2006, In Press


  • Geocasting and forwarding Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Based on Indoor Location Tracking, ROVISP 2005, Malaysia, June 2005

  • Real Time Routing Protocol with Power Adaptation (RTPA) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN),ICOCI 2006, Malaysia, June 2006

  • Quadrant-based Geocasting and Forwarding (QGF) Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, ICT 2006, Madeira Island, Portugal, May 2006

  • Development of an Indoor GPS-free Self-Positioning System for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), MICC-ICON 2005, Malaysia, November 2005

  • Implementation of a Quadrant-Based Directional Routing Protocol (Q-DIR) In Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network , NCS 2006, Thailand, March 2006

Thank you

for your attention!

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