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Soft X-ray FEL Project in the UK. New directions in ultra-fast dynamic imaging. Jon Marangos (Imperial College), Project Leader j.marangos@imperial.ac.uk. May 2009. KEY NEW SCIENCE WE WANT TO DO:.  IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES.

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Soft X-ray FEL Project in the UK

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Soft X-ray FELProject in the UK

New directions in ultra-fast dynamic imaging

Jon Marangos (Imperial College), Project Leader

j.marangos@imperial.ac.uk

May 2009


KEY NEW SCIENCE WE WANT TO DO:

 IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES.

Instantaneous images of nanoscale objects with nanometre resolution at any desired moment.

 CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMS.

Characterizing the rapid intrinsic evolution and fluctuations in the positions

of the constituents within matter.

 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES.

Following the structural dynamics governing physical, chemical and biochemical changes by using laser pump- X-ray probe techniques.

 ULTRA-FAST DYNAMICS IN MULTI-ELECTRON SYSTEMS.

Capability for measuring the multi-electron quantum dynamics that are present in all complex matter

* Science Case Available at www.newlightsource.org


New science enabled by an ultra-fast bright

light source covering THz to Soft X-ray range


IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES

Imaging of Isolated Objects by Coherent Diffraction Imaging

Reconstruced image

Instantaneous capture of:

Shape

Atomic Structure

Magnetic structure

Electronic properties

in Nanoscale Objects

AND

Biological Systems

Scattering pattern

Isolated

nano-object

To capture “soft” systems

like biomaterials need to

use “Diffract and Destroy”

X-ray pulse

< 5 fs - 20 fs

300 eV - 1 keV


30

Reconstructed image

DESY, Uppsala, SLAC, LLNL Collaboration

60

Resolution length (nm)

0

Scattering intensity

60

1 micron

30

From Janos Hajdu (Uppsala)

Biological x-ray imaging would be extended

into water window and beyond withprospects for 1nm feature resolution in

instantaneously recorded images

Live unmodified picoplanktonFLASH, Hamburg March 2007

Single shot ~10 fs diffraction pattern recorded at a wavelength of 13.5 nm of a picoplankton organism.


CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMSSpontaneous dynamics in condensed matter: Correlation Spectroscopy

Ultra-fast Bright Soft X-rays

Enable:

Time Resolved Holography

Ultra-fast XPCS

Multiple exposures

only work for “hard”

samples

capture

I(Q,t)*I(Q,t + )

Fluctuating

System

(x,y,z,t)

Pairs of X-ray pulses

Delay < 1 fs - 100 ns

300 eV - >5 keV


STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

New Pump-Probe Measurements of Structural Dynamics:

UV-THz short pulse pump to trigger change

Soft X-ray to probe

Dynamics studied by varying pump-probe delay

Probe changes in atomic, electronic and magnetic structure following electronic or

lattice excitation: New window into ultra-fast dynamics in condensed matter and

chemical reactions


Incisive structural probes such as X-ray absorption will be key to this science

  • UV/IR/THz pump (including optimally shaped control pulses)

  • Ultrafast X-ray probes e.g. XAS, XPS,XES to give instantaneous structure during chemical reactions and condensed matter changes

Photon energy range must capture the important K and L edges, a machine with harmonics to ~7 keV is eventually required


  • Attosecond electron dynamics are amenable to study through the interaction with bright short wavelength fields.Seeding is very important to ensure synchronisation, high coherence and well controlled and characterized temporal structure.

  • Probing of hole dynamics in atoms, molecules and condensed matter in real time

  • - Time-space resolved studies of nanoscale electron dynamics, e.g. in nanoplasmonic structures

  • Real time probing of coherently driven processes for optimised quantum control of matter

Revealing Electron Dynamics into Attosecond Domain


What New Capability Do We Need For This New Science?

  • High temporal resolution pump-probe needs ~20fs pulses and excellent temporal synchronization

  • Seeded – and so highly coherent and synchronized

  • Structural methods (e.g. XAS) need multi-keV photons

  • High peak brightness to wavelengths <1nm needed for single-shot imaging techniques

  • High repetition rate/reproducible pulses needed to enable a whole new range of time-resolved measurements where high signal/noise is demanded


Baseline Specification for NLS to Deliver this Science

  • High brightness (>1011 photons/pulse) in 50eV – 1keV range

  • Harmonic radiation to 3keV (>108 ph/pulse) and 5keV (>106 ph/pulse)

  • Pulse duration ~20fs

  • Smooth wavelength scanning across entire spectral range

  • Synchronized to ultra-fast light sources covering THz- deep UV

  • 1KHz repetition rate with even pulse spacing (10 - 100kHz in future)

  • Fully coherent X-rays (transverse and longitudinal) - seeded


Meeting the Baseline Specification

  • Free-Electron Lasers to cover the range 50 eV to 1 keV :

    FEL1: 50 - 300 eV FEL2: 250 - 850 eVFEL3: 430 - 1000 eV

    -independently tuneable through undulator gap variation

    -variable polarization using APPLE-II undulators

    -seeded in order to provide longitudinal coherence, in 20 fs pulses

    -harmonics up to 5 keV available

  • Conventional laser sources + HHG for 60 meV (20 mm) – 50 eV

  • IR/THz sources, e- beam generated and synchronised to the FELs, from 20 – 500 mm


facility layout

High Power Laser Gallery (1st floor )

EXPERIMENTAL AREA

Experimental Enclosures

Photon Transports

~80m.

BEAMLINES

Electron Beam Dumps

Beam Stop & Absorber

3 FELs operating

simultaneously

Gas Harmonic Filters

THZ/IR Undulators

~90m.

FELs.

SXR Undulator Arrays

5 x Dipole Arc Spreader

FEL ‘switchyard’)

Strip[ine & Kicker

SPREADER

Diagnostics : Tomography

Diagnostics : Deflecting Cavity

Collimators

1kHz gun – eventually

increasing to >10 kHz

LINAC.

BC3

~400m.

Bunch compressor

BC1

Laser Heater

BC2

3rd Harmonic Cavity

SCRF Cryomodule #1

PHOTO-INJECTOR.

SCRF Booster Module

RF Photo-cathode Gun

CW Superconducing Linac


Modulator 1λw = 44 mm

Modulator 2λw = 44 mm

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 32.2 mm

FEL3

HHG 75-100eV

e- @ 2.25 GeV

430 - 1000eV

Modulator 1λw = 44 mm

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 38.6 mm

Modulator 2λw = 44 mm

HHG 75-100eV

FEL2

e- @ 2.25 GeV

250-850eV

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 56.2 mm

Modulatorλw = 49 mm

FEL1

HHG 50-100eV

50-300eV

e- @ 2.25 GeV

FEL Scheme

- common electron energy for all 3 FELs, allows simultaneous operation

- seeded operation for longitudinally coherent output

- HHG seeding with realistic laser parameters, up to 100 eV

- harmonic cascade scheme to reach up to 1 keV


NLS Architectural Layout

(View from Photo-injector end)

Linac & RF Services Bldg

Cryoplant & Services Bldg

Linac Machine Tunnel

Gun Laser Rooms & Klystron Plant

Module Test Area/ Offices & Control Room

FEL Tunnel

NLS Architectural Layout

(View from Experimental Hall end)

Experimental Hall


Next Steps

  • Complete an Outline Design for Facility

  • Find viable “in principle” solutions to all aspects of the design

  • Develop bid to pass through STFC approval and also gain support from other research councils

  • Deliver Conceptual Design Report in Autumn 09

  • Seek international engagement in the plan

  • Ask for money


NLS Science Team

  • Andrea Cavalleri (Hamburg/Oxford) Condensed Matter

  • Swapan Chattopadhyay (Cockcroft) Accelerator Concepts

  • Wendy Flavell (Manchester) Chemical Sciences

  • Louise Johnson (Diamond/Oxford) Life Sciences

  • Jon Marangos (Imperial) Leader / Attosecond Science

  • Justin Wark (Oxford) High Energy Density Science

  • Peter Weightman (Liverpool) Life Sciences

  • Jonathan Underwood (UCL) Chemical Sciences

  • Greg Diakun (Daresbury) Project Manager

  • Richard Walker (Diamond) Photon Source Manager

    A large number of other scientists have contributed and are

    contributing (including many from Europe, Japan and USA)

NLS Design Team

R.P. Walker, R. Bartolini1, C. Christou, J-H. Han, J. Kay, I.P. Martin1, G. Rehm, J. Rowland, Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire, UK, 1and John Adams Institute, University of Oxford, UK

D. Angal-Kalinin, J.A. Clarke, D.J. Dunning, A.R. Goulden, S.P. Jamison, K.B. Marinov, P.A. McIntosh, J.W. McKenzie, B.L. Militsyn, B.D. Muratori, S.M. Pattalwar, M.W. Poole, N.R. Thompson, R.J. Smith, S.L. Smith, P.H. Williams, STFC/DL/ASTeC, UK

N. Bliss, M.A. Bowler, G.P. Diakun, B.D. Fell, M.D. Roper, STFC/DL, UK

J. Collier, C. Froud, G.J. Hirst, E. Springate, STFC/RAL, UK

J.P. Marangos, J. Tisch, Imperial College, London, UK

B.W.J. McNeil, University of Strathclyde, UK


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