Soft x ray fel project in the uk
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Soft X-ray FEL Project in the UK. New directions in ultra-fast dynamic imaging. Jon Marangos (Imperial College), Project Leader [email protected] May 2009. KEY NEW SCIENCE WE WANT TO DO:.  IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES.

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Soft X-ray FEL Project in the UK

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Soft x ray fel project in the uk

Soft X-ray FELProject in the UK

New directions in ultra-fast dynamic imaging

Jon Marangos (Imperial College), Project Leader

[email protected]

May 2009


Key new science we want to do

KEY NEW SCIENCE WE WANT TO DO:

 IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES.

Instantaneous images of nanoscale objects with nanometre resolution at any desired moment.

 CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMS.

Characterizing the rapid intrinsic evolution and fluctuations in the positions

of the constituents within matter.

 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES.

Following the structural dynamics governing physical, chemical and biochemical changes by using laser pump- X-ray probe techniques.

 ULTRA-FAST DYNAMICS IN MULTI-ELECTRON SYSTEMS.

Capability for measuring the multi-electron quantum dynamics that are present in all complex matter

* Science Case Available at www.newlightsource.org


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

New science enabled by an ultra-fast bright

light source covering THz to Soft X-ray range


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES

Imaging of Isolated Objects by Coherent Diffraction Imaging

Reconstruced image

Instantaneous capture of:

Shape

Atomic Structure

Magnetic structure

Electronic properties

in Nanoscale Objects

AND

Biological Systems

Scattering pattern

Isolated

nano-object

To capture “soft” systems

like biomaterials need to

use “Diffract and Destroy”

X-ray pulse

< 5 fs - 20 fs

300 eV - 1 keV


Live unmodified picoplankton flash hamburg march 2007

30

Reconstructed image

DESY, Uppsala, SLAC, LLNL Collaboration

60

Resolution length (nm)

0

Scattering intensity

60

1 micron

30

From Janos Hajdu (Uppsala)

Biological x-ray imaging would be extended

into water window and beyond withprospects for 1nm feature resolution in

instantaneously recorded images

Live unmodified picoplanktonFLASH, Hamburg March 2007

Single shot ~10 fs diffraction pattern recorded at a wavelength of 13.5 nm of a picoplankton organism.


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMSSpontaneous dynamics in condensed matter: Correlation Spectroscopy

Ultra-fast Bright Soft X-rays

Enable:

Time Resolved Holography

Ultra-fast XPCS

Multiple exposures

only work for “hard”

samples

capture

I(Q,t)*I(Q,t + )

Fluctuating

System

(x,y,z,t)

Pairs of X-ray pulses

Delay < 1 fs - 100 ns

300 eV - >5 keV


Structural dynamics underlying physical and chemical changes

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

New Pump-Probe Measurements of Structural Dynamics:

UV-THz short pulse pump to trigger change

Soft X-ray to probe

Dynamics studied by varying pump-probe delay

Probe changes in atomic, electronic and magnetic structure following electronic or

lattice excitation: New window into ultra-fast dynamics in condensed matter and

chemical reactions


Incisive structural probes such as x ray absorption will be key to this science

Incisive structural probes such as X-ray absorption will be key to this science

  • UV/IR/THz pump (including optimally shaped control pulses)

  • Ultrafast X-ray probes e.g. XAS, XPS,XES to give instantaneous structure during chemical reactions and condensed matter changes

Photon energy range must capture the important K and L edges, a machine with harmonics to ~7 keV is eventually required


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

  • Attosecond electron dynamics are amenable to study through the interaction with bright short wavelength fields.Seeding is very important to ensure synchronisation, high coherence and well controlled and characterized temporal structure.

  • Probing of hole dynamics in atoms, molecules and condensed matter in real time

  • - Time-space resolved studies of nanoscale electron dynamics, e.g. in nanoplasmonic structures

  • Real time probing of coherently driven processes for optimised quantum control of matter

Revealing Electron Dynamics into Attosecond Domain


What new capability do we need for this new science

What New Capability Do We Need For This New Science?

  • High temporal resolution pump-probe needs ~20fs pulses and excellent temporal synchronization

  • Seeded – and so highly coherent and synchronized

  • Structural methods (e.g. XAS) need multi-keV photons

  • High peak brightness to wavelengths <1nm needed for single-shot imaging techniques

  • High repetition rate/reproducible pulses needed to enable a whole new range of time-resolved measurements where high signal/noise is demanded


Baseline specification for nls to deliver this science

Baseline Specification for NLS to Deliver this Science

  • High brightness (>1011 photons/pulse) in 50eV – 1keV range

  • Harmonic radiation to 3keV (>108 ph/pulse) and 5keV (>106 ph/pulse)

  • Pulse duration ~20fs

  • Smooth wavelength scanning across entire spectral range

  • Synchronized to ultra-fast light sources covering THz- deep UV

  • 1KHz repetition rate with even pulse spacing (10 - 100kHz in future)

  • Fully coherent X-rays (transverse and longitudinal) - seeded


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

Meeting the Baseline Specification

  • Free-Electron Lasers to cover the range 50 eV to 1 keV :

    FEL1: 50 - 300 eV FEL2: 250 - 850 eVFEL3: 430 - 1000 eV

    -independently tuneable through undulator gap variation

    -variable polarization using APPLE-II undulators

    -seeded in order to provide longitudinal coherence, in 20 fs pulses

    -harmonics up to 5 keV available

  • Conventional laser sources + HHG for 60 meV (20 mm) – 50 eV

  • IR/THz sources, e- beam generated and synchronised to the FELs, from 20 – 500 mm


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

facility layout

High Power Laser Gallery (1st floor )

EXPERIMENTAL AREA

Experimental Enclosures

Photon Transports

~80m.

BEAMLINES

Electron Beam Dumps

Beam Stop & Absorber

3 FELs operating

simultaneously

Gas Harmonic Filters

THZ/IR Undulators

~90m.

FELs.

SXR Undulator Arrays

5 x Dipole Arc Spreader

FEL ‘switchyard’)

Strip[ine & Kicker

SPREADER

Diagnostics : Tomography

Diagnostics : Deflecting Cavity

Collimators

1kHz gun – eventually

increasing to >10 kHz

LINAC.

BC3

~400m.

Bunch compressor

BC1

Laser Heater

BC2

3rd Harmonic Cavity

SCRF Cryomodule #1

PHOTO-INJECTOR.

SCRF Booster Module

RF Photo-cathode Gun

CW Superconducing Linac


Fel scheme

Modulator 1λw = 44 mm

Modulator 2λw = 44 mm

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 32.2 mm

FEL3

HHG 75-100eV

e- @ 2.25 GeV

430 - 1000eV

Modulator 1λw = 44 mm

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 38.6 mm

Modulator 2λw = 44 mm

HHG 75-100eV

FEL2

e- @ 2.25 GeV

250-850eV

APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 56.2 mm

Modulatorλw = 49 mm

FEL1

HHG 50-100eV

50-300eV

e- @ 2.25 GeV

FEL Scheme

- common electron energy for all 3 FELs, allows simultaneous operation

- seeded operation for longitudinally coherent output

- HHG seeding with realistic laser parameters, up to 100 eV

- harmonic cascade scheme to reach up to 1 keV


Soft x ray fel project in the uk

NLS Architectural Layout

(View from Photo-injector end)

Linac & RF Services Bldg

Cryoplant & Services Bldg

Linac Machine Tunnel

Gun Laser Rooms & Klystron Plant

Module Test Area/ Offices & Control Room

FEL Tunnel

NLS Architectural Layout

(View from Experimental Hall end)

Experimental Hall


Next steps

Next Steps

  • Complete an Outline Design for Facility

  • Find viable “in principle” solutions to all aspects of the design

  • Develop bid to pass through STFC approval and also gain support from other research councils

  • Deliver Conceptual Design Report in Autumn 09

  • Seek international engagement in the plan

  • Ask for money


Nls science team

NLS Science Team

  • Andrea Cavalleri (Hamburg/Oxford) Condensed Matter

  • Swapan Chattopadhyay (Cockcroft) Accelerator Concepts

  • Wendy Flavell (Manchester) Chemical Sciences

  • Louise Johnson (Diamond/Oxford) Life Sciences

  • Jon Marangos (Imperial) Leader / Attosecond Science

  • Justin Wark (Oxford) High Energy Density Science

  • Peter Weightman (Liverpool) Life Sciences

  • Jonathan Underwood (UCL) Chemical Sciences

  • Greg Diakun (Daresbury) Project Manager

  • Richard Walker (Diamond) Photon Source Manager

    A large number of other scientists have contributed and are

    contributing (including many from Europe, Japan and USA)

NLS Design Team

R.P. Walker, R. Bartolini1, C. Christou, J-H. Han, J. Kay, I.P. Martin1, G. Rehm, J. Rowland, Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire, UK, 1and John Adams Institute, University of Oxford, UK

D. Angal-Kalinin, J.A. Clarke, D.J. Dunning, A.R. Goulden, S.P. Jamison, K.B. Marinov, P.A. McIntosh, J.W. McKenzie, B.L. Militsyn, B.D. Muratori, S.M. Pattalwar, M.W. Poole, N.R. Thompson, R.J. Smith, S.L. Smith, P.H. Williams, STFC/DL/ASTeC, UK

N. Bliss, M.A. Bowler, G.P. Diakun, B.D. Fell, M.D. Roper, STFC/DL, UK

J. Collier, C. Froud, G.J. Hirst, E. Springate, STFC/RAL, UK

J.P. Marangos, J. Tisch, Imperial College, London, UK

B.W.J. McNeil, University of Strathclyde, UK


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