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Immigration and Urbanization 1880-1920. Use the notes page and fill in the blanks as you read!. A New Wave of Immigration. 8.12.7. The Big Idea A new wave of immigration in the late 1800s brought large numbers of immigrants to the United States. Main Ideas

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immigration and urbanization 1880 1920

Immigration and Urbanization1880-1920

Use the notes page and fill in the blanks as you read!

a new wave of immigration
A New Wave of Immigration

8.12.7

  • The Big Idea
  • A new wave of immigration in the late 1800s brought large numbers of immigrants to the United States.
  • Main Ideas
  • The late 1800s brought a wave of new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Mexico.
  • Some Americans opposed immigration and tried to enact restrictions against it.
slide3
Main Idea 1: The late 1800s brought a wave of new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Mexico.
  • Old Immigrants
  • Arrived before 1880s
  • Mostly from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandinavia
  • Mostly Protestants, but some Catholics
  • Many were skilled workers who spoke English.
  • Settled in rural areas and became farmers
  • New Immigrants
  • Came after 1880
  • From southern and eastern Europe; included Czechs, Greeks, Hungarians, Italians, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks
  • Included Eastern Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, and Jews
  • Wanted job opportunities in cities
journey to america
Journey to America

Immigrants faced a difficult journey, usually traveling in steerage: the area below the ship’s deck.

New arrivals had to go to immigration processing centers run by state and local governments.

Ellis Island in New York opened in 1892; millions of immigrants came through its center over the next 40 years.

Officials in processing centers interviewed immigrants to determine whether to let them enter the country. Immigrants had to pass medical, mental and legal exams.

settling in neighborhoods
Many immigrants moved into ethnic neighborhoods with others from the same country.

They could hear their own language, eat familiar foods, and keep their customs.

Business owners often helped new arrivals by offering loans.

Many immigrants lived in tenements—poorly built, overcrowded apartments.

Settling in Neighborhoods
immigrant workers
Many immigrants were farmers in their homelands, but had to find jobs in cities in the United States.

Had to take low-paying, unskilled jobs in garment or steel factories and construction

Some worked long hours for little pay in small shops or mills called sweatshops.

Immigrants with appropriate skills sometimes found work in a wide range of occupations.

Others saved, shared, or borrowed money to open small businesses.

Some Mexican immigrants worked on large commercial farms in Arizona, Texas, and California.

Immigrant Workers
main idea 2 some americans opposed immigration and tried to pass restrictions against it
Anti-immigrant feelings grew with increases in immigration.

Some unions feared immigrants would take their jobs.

Americans called nativists held racial and ethnic prejudices.

Thought immigrants’ poverty and presumed lack of education might harm American society

Some were violent toward immigrants.

Some nativists worked to pass laws limiting immigration.

Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882.

Nativists in Boston founded the Immigration Restriction League in 1894.

Main Idea 2: Some Americans opposed immigration and tried to pass restrictions against it.
city life
City Life

8.12.5

  • The Big Idea
  • Cities in the United States experienced dramatic expansion in the late 1800s.
  • Main Ideas
  • New technology and ideas were developed to deal with the growth of urban areas.
  • The rapid growth of cities created a variety of urban problems.
main idea 1 new technology and ideas were developed to deal with the growth of urban areas
Immigrants and native-born Americans moved to cities in the late 1800s, causing rapid urban growth.

About 40 percent of Americans lived in urban areas by 1900.

Some city residents were businesspeople and skilled workers; many more were poor laborers.

African Americans from the South began moving to northern cities to find better economic opportunities in the 1890s.

Main Idea 1: New technology and ideas were developed to deal with the growth of urban areas.
new technology and ideas
New Technology and Ideas
  • New Technology
  • Stronger and cheaper steel led to the construction of skyscrapers.
  • Mass transit was public transportation designed to move lots of people.
    • Elevated trains, subways, electric trolleys
  • Many middle-class Americans moved to suburbs outside cities.
  • Mass Culture
  • Developed forms of mass culture:leisure and cultural activities shared by many
  • Giant retail shops, or department stores,appeared in city centers.
  • World fairs
  • City dwellers became aware of the need for open public spaces, and parks were designed.
main idea 2 the rapid growth of cities created a variety of urban problems
Shortage of affordable housing

Overcrowded tenements

Disease and health problems

Caused by overcrowding and lack of sanitation

Fire and crime

Help from city governments was limited by lack of funds or internal corruption.

Main Idea 2:The rapid growth of cities created a variety of urban problems.
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