The Hundred Years War and Joan of Arc
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The Hundred Years War and Joan of Arc. What was the Hundred Years War?. The time from 1337 to 1453 is often known as the Hundred Years War, because England and France were fighting each other for most of this time. Why did the fighting start?.

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The Hundred Years War and Joan of Arc

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The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Hundred Years War and Joan of Arc


The hundred years war and joan of arc

What was the Hundred Years War?

The time from 1337 to 1453 is often known as the Hundred Years War, because England and France were fighting each other for most of this time.

Why did the fighting start?

English and French sailors often came into conflict

The French often helped the Scots in their wars against England

English and French Kings argued over the ownership of Gascony

English merchants complained that French officials tried to stop them sending wool to Flanders

Edward III declared that he was the rightful ruler of France

1337 Edward III declared war on France


English and french traders

Summary

English and French traders

  • The English traders had been complaining that the French were not letting them sell their goods over the channel, in Flanders.

  • This was bad for English business, and so it was in their interest for England to gain control of France.


The scots

Summary

The Scots

  • The Scots were old enemies of England.

  • The French had often helped Scotland in their battles against England.

  • This made the English grudge against France all the stronger.


Edward iii

Summary

Edward III

  • Edward III had a claim to the throne of France, through his mother.

  • But he was already the King of England. He was greedy and wanted more.

  • Philip VI of France was the French choice for king, and his claim was through his father.

  • Edward declared war on France, and the war dragged on for one hundred years.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Edward III’s claim to the French Throne

Key:

Kings of France

Philip III d.1285

Philip IV d.1314

Charles

Louis X d.1316

Philip V d.1322

Charles IV d.1328

Isabella

Philip VI d.1350

Do you think that Edward had a strong claim to the French throne?

Today the English crown passes through the offspring of the eldest male child.

m

Edward II of England

Edward III of England


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Who did the Fighting?

The wars used a lot of mercenaries (hired soldiers). These were often men eager for adventure and fortune.

The foot soldiers were mostly archers and these were often more successful than the noblemen on horseback.

? Why do you think people would become mercenaries? - Think about the sort of life ordinary peasants had at this time.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Developments in Warfare

The two famous English victories at Crecy and Agincourt were in part due to the English use of the Long-bow. These could be fired more quickly and had a longer range than the French crossbows. They also penetrated chainmail.

Longbows were about 6ft long and made of yew

Gunpowder was invented during the Hundred Years War. Unfortunately, early cannons often exploded and killed the soldiers who fired them.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Battle of Sluys

1340 - Philip VI was preparing to invade England. Edward

III decided to prevent the invasion. He forced merchants and fishermen to lend him boats as there was no navy, and packed them full of soldiers.

On 24 June the English ships swept down on the French fleet. Philip was expecting the attack and so had chained the fleet together and put 20,000 men on board.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Once within bow-shot, the English bowmen began to shoot at the French. The English ships rammed the French and our men-at-arms jumped aboard attacking the French with swords, axes and spears. Few of the French had been properly

trained, and many were killed.

By the end of the day the whole of the French fleet was either sunk or captured.

What does this information tell you about which side’s troops were better prepared and more keen for victory?


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Battle of Crecy, 1346

For the next six years, Edward III sent raiding

parties into France. During one of these raids, the first land battle took place at Crecy.

Edward’s force of 12,000 had been chased by a much larger French army. Edward drew up his army along the top of a ridge. He put his men-at-arms in the centre, with his long-bowmen around them.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Battle of Crecy, 1346

When Philip arrived he realised Edward was in a very strong position. However, before he could tell his troops not to attack, his knights began riding up the hill with Italian crossbowmen running in front of them.

It was a disaster for Philip. The English long-bowmen rained arrows down on the French who were forced to retreat. By the time the battle finally ended, 12,000 French were dead.

What does this battle tell us about the French army?


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Battle of Agincourt

When Henry V became King in 1413 he decided to

invade France. He thought he would easily make the French crown him King, as their King, Charles VI, was mad.

The Battle of Agincourt happened when Henry tried to return to Calais for reinforcements after besieging Harfleur. Henry had only 6000 men, and was met by a French army of more than 40,000.

It had been raining heavily. Henry ordered his bowmen to advance about 300 metres from the French and each hammer a stake into the ground pointing at the French. The bowmen then began to shoot.

The heavily armoured French knights charged at the English.

Who had the advantage and why?


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The Results of Agincourt

The French made a grave mistake. Their horses were slowed down by the muddy ground, due to the heavy rain. This meant they were easy targets for the bowmen.

Those who did get through had their horses impaled on the spikes in front of the bowmen. Lightly armed soldiers then dashed out from the English lines, pulled the knights down and stabbed them to death through their armour joints.

In all about 10,000 French were killed and they admitted defeat and retreated allowing Henry to reach Calais.

What were the odds that the English would win this battle? What does the outcome tell you about Henry’s abilities as a soldier and leader?


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Henry V in line for the French Throne

The next year Henry returned to France with a strong army. He conquered most of Normandy and the French made peace.

Henry married Charles VI of France’s daughter, Catherine, and was given the right to become King of France when Charles died.

Unfortunately, Henry died before Charles and left a baby son behind. Although Henry V’s son was crowned King of France when Charles died the French soon began to rebel, wishing to put Charles VI’s son on the throne instead. They were led in their struggle by Joan of Arc.


Henry v s son

Summary

Henry V’s son

  • Henry V died before the French prince, Charles VI, and left a son.

  • This meant that Henry’s son became king and the French remained unhappy, wanting to get Charles VI’s son to the throne.


The hundred years war and joan of arc

Joan Of Arc

She claimed to hear the voices of Christ and His saints

At the age of 17 she led a French army against the English

She defeated the English at Patay and secured the coronation of Charles VII of France

She was captured and sold to the English who burnt her at the stake claiming she was a witch

1412-1431 - a peasant girl

Why do you think the French were prepared to follow this girl?


The hundred years war and joan of arc

The End of the Hundred Years War

Inspired by Joan, the French continued to fight. Charles VII taxed the French heavily and used the money to train and equip a full time army. He also employed John Bureau who invented a mill to make gunpowder finer. This made it explode with more force. He also designed new guns. With their new equipment, the French steadily regained their land.

The Hundred Years War came to an end in 1453. The English had been driven out of all of France except for the town of Calais. The Kings of England lost Gascony, which they had ruled for 300 years.


Joan of arc

Summary

Joan of Arc

  • Joan of Arc led the French at a time when they were nearly defeated by the English.

  • Although she was executed by the English, she inspired them to fight on, and the war continued another twenty two years.


Try to write down what each of the following had to do with the wars lasting so long

Activity: making connections between events

Try to write down what each of the following had to do with the Wars lasting so long.

Edward III

The Scots

English and French traders

?

The Battle of Agincourt

Joan of Arc

Henry V dying


Hundred years war multiple choice questions

Hundred Years War: Multiple Choice Questions


1 who were the hundred years wars between

1. Who were the Hundred Years Wars between?

  • A) England and Spain

  • B) England and Scotland

  • C) England and Germany

  • D) England and France


2 which of the following was invented during the hundred years war

2. Which of the following was invented during the Hundred Years War?

  • A) Gunpowder

  • B) Longbows

  • C) Crossbows

  • D) Armour


Mercenaries were used in the war what is a mercenary

Mercenaries were used in the war. What is a Mercenary?

  • A)An explosive device, used to stop the charge of horses

  • B)A person used as a decoy, pretending to be the king in battle

  • C)A person fighting for money, not because they belong to one side or the other

  • D)A man who fought alongside a knight, looking after their weapons and armour


4 which of the following statements is true

4. Which of the following statements is true?

  • A) Edward III’s claim to the throne of France was based on birth right

  • B) Edward III invaded France, but the French never tried to invade England

  • C) The English suffered heavy casualties at the battle of Agincourt

  • D) The death of Joan of Arc marked the end of the hundred years war


5 which of the following pairs do not link together

5. Which of the following pairs do not link together?

  • A) The English soldiers were better trained than the French…..The French attempt to invade England was a failure

  • B) Henry married Charles (the king of France)’s daughter…….the French rebelled when Charles’s son was not made the king of France

  • C) Joan of Arc was a martyr (this means she died for her cause)……..the French gave up their fight in 1431, and settled to English rule

  • D) The English used long bows to fire arrows, unlike the French crossbows……. The French suffered from the faster rate of arrows fired at them by the English


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