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Energy!. Notes – 30Oct2014 Pappalardo – Science Gr8. PE  KE  PE, etc. (copy). Potential Energy (PE) = stored energy an object/material has due to its position, condition, or chemical composition

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Notes – 30Oct2014

Pappalardo – Science Gr8

pe ke pe etc copy
PE  KE  PE, etc. (copy)
  • Potential Energy (PE) = stored energy an object/material has due to its position, condition, or chemical composition
    • Think: stretched rubber band (elastic PE), height above ground (gravitational PE), or the energy stored in chemical bonds (chemical PE – like in food!)
  • Kinetic Energy (KE) = the energy of moving objects
    • Depends on MASS and SPEED/VELOCITY
    • Like momentum, it can be transferred between objects
    • Think: Newton’s Cradle, bowling, car crashes
newton s laws again copy
Newton’s Laws (again) (copy)
  • Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: the law of inertia
    • Objects at rest tend to stay at rest…
    • Objects in motion tend to stay in motion (in a straight line, at a constant speed)…
    • UNLESS outside forces act on the object (a push, a pull, gravity, friction, air resistance, etc.)
  • Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: F = ma
    • Force (Newtons) = Mass (kg) x Acceleration (m/s2)
    • The more massive something is, the more force it will take to accelerate it in any direction!
    • Think: it takes more force to stop or start a real car than it does to play with a toy car!
newton s laws again copy1
Newton’s Laws (again) (copy)
  • Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: Action & Reaction
    • For every action, there is an equal – but opposite – reaction
    • Think: pushing off a skateboard, hitting a ball with a baseball bat, Teddy & Matthew or Nat & Lowen on scooters 
work copy
Work (copy)
  • Work is done only when a force is exerted over a distance
    • Think: lifting books up, pushing a cart, pulling on a wagon
    • Work (Joules) = Force (Newtons) x Distance (meters)
  • Power is the amount of work done in a period of time
    • Think: lifting weights quickly instead of slowly
    • Power (Watts) = Work (Joules) ÷ Time (Seconds)
simple machines copy
Simple Machines (copy)
  • Inclined Plane = a slope that does not move (ramp)
  • Wedge = two sloping sides that meet at a point (axe blade)
  • Screw = inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder (screw)
  • Wheel & Axle = a wheel on a shaft, or axle (steering wheel)
  • Pulley = a rope that fits into a grooved wheel (used to raise and lower flags, for example)
simple machines copy1
Simple Machines (copy)
  • Lever = rigid bar that turns around a fixed [fulcrum] point
    • 1st Class:
      • Fulcrum in the middle between the input & output forces
      • Think: seesaws, pliers, oars, soda can tabs
    • 2nd Class:
      • Output force is between the input force and fulcrum
      • Think: wheelbarrows, nutcrackers, bottle openers
    • 3rd Class:
      • Input force is between the fulcrum and output force
      • Think: shovels, brooms, fishing rods, baseball bats, toothbrushes, tweezers, golf clubs, rakes, human forearms
compound machines copy
Compound Machines (copy)
  • Compound Machines = two or more simple machines working together
  • Think: Gears (wheel & axle with teeth)
  • Think:
    • pencil sharpeners (gears, levers, wedges)
    • Scissors (wedges, levers)
    • Axes (wedges, levers)
    • Roller coasters, Ferris wheels, bicycles