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Physical Development. Involves the growth and change in a person’s body and bodily functions. Physical development involves both physiological and motor development. Motor Skills. Are skills which enable us to move and control our bodies.

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Physical development
Physical Development

Involves the growth and change in a person’s body and bodily functions.

Physical development involves both physiological and motor development.


Motor skills
Motor Skills

  • Are skills which enable us to move and control our bodies.

  • They can be divided into gross (large) and fine(small) motor skills.

  • Both gross and fine motor skills require practise and opportunity to develop muscle strength, balance and co-ordination.


Gross motor skills
Gross Motor Skills

Gross motor skills involve co-ordination of the large muscles. For example: crawling, walking, climbing, etc.

http://www.physiotherapyfoundation.ca/images/stock_pix/Baby-Boy-walking.jpg


Fine motor skills
Fine Motor Skills

Fine motor skills involve co-ordination of the small muscles (manipulation). For example: grasping, turning knobs, drawing, etc.

http://goodtoknow.media.ipcdigital.co.uk/111%7C000001fdb%7C794c_orh100000w614_toddler-drawing.jpg


Physical changes during infancy
Physical changes during Infancy

The infant’s growth:

  • A period of rapid growth

  • Weight usually doubles by 6 months and is three times birth weight by 12 months

  • Length and height changes are equally rapid

  • Muscles, bones and nerve tissues mature

    (See: Kearns, 2010 Birth to big school pages 80 – 98)


Fostering physical skills of infants
Fostering Physical Skills of Infants

http://www.elc.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/infant-300x225.jpg

http://bornangels.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/baby-crawling-300x183.jpg


Fostering physical skills of infants1
Fostering Physical Skills of Infants

Educators need to:

  • Provide a balanced , nutritious diet

  • Follow infant’s lead in exploring the physical environment

  • Offer appropriate encouragement

  • Provide a clean, safe and stimulating environment

  • Provide variety

  • Allow for repetition and mastery

  • Include music to stimulate movement

  • Monitor each child for a range of physical skills and note frustrations etc.


Gross motor development during toddlerhood
Gross Motor Development During Toddlerhood

http://sheldonbrown.com/images/9305N14R25irst%20Bike.jpg


Gross motor development during toddlerhood1
Gross Motor Development During Toddlerhood

The Toddler:

  • Walks well with feet slightly apart

  • Stops for obstacles

  • Walks backwards

  • Displays much energy

  • Show more flexibility at knees and ankles

  • Displays better balance

  • Now runs

  • Walks upstairs (two feet per step)

  • By 30-36 months walks downstairs

  • Jumps off bottom step, one foot leading

    the other

  • Kicks a large stationary ball

  • Pushes a tricycle along with feet

http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-page-main/ehow/images/a06/6r/k7/develop-fine-gross-motor-skills-800x800.jpg


Supporting toddler s gross motor skills
Supporting Toddler’s Gross Motor Skills

Educators need to provide a range of play equipment:

  • Wooden tricycles

  • Trolleys

  • Stepping stones

  • Large balls

  • Bean bags

  • Small tunnels

  • Large cardboard boxes

http://kennedymontessori.com/resources/_wsb_400x242_Toddler+outside.JPG


Fine motor development during toddlerhood
Fine Motor Development During Toddlerhood

http://img.ehowcdn.co.uk/article-new/ehow/images/a08/7a/oc/ideas-sand-pit-children-800x800.jpg


Fine motor development during toddlerhood1
Fine Motor Development During Toddlerhood

The Toddler:

  • By 18 months uses a spoon well

  • Builds with stacking blocks

  • Pushes in large puzzle pieces

  • Strings large beads with a stiff threader

  • Uses two hands to cut with scissors

  • Grasps a pencil between thumb and forefinger (pincer grip)

  • Hammers large knobs and wooden pegs and turn knobs

  • Undresses well though finds dressing more difficult


Supporting toddler s fine motor skills
Supporting Toddler’s Fine Motor Skills

Educators need to provide or encourage:

  • Spoon and cup play in both dramatic play and in the sandpit

  • Appropriate sized buttons and zippers

    on clothing

  • Puzzles with large pieces

  • Large beads for threading

  • Thick paint brushes

  • Nesting cups

  • Water play

http://www.toddler-activities-at-home.com/image-files/toddler-blocks.jpg


Gross motor development during the preschool years see kearns 2010 handout pages 18 24
Gross Motor Development during the Preschool Years(See Kearns 2010 handout – pages 18-24

http://www.playlsi.com/Explore-Products/Product-Lines/Outdoor-Playsystems/PlayShaper/PS-Climbers/ABC-Climber/PublishingImages/ABCCLimber_360.jpg?wax-srv=iabNMY-ydi$fq9Ls1vI0RA71


Fine motor development during the preschool years see kearns 2010 pages 18 24
Fine Motor Development during the Preschool YearsSee Kearns 2010 pages 18-24

http://www.google.com.au/imgres?q=preschoolers+self+help+skills&start=84&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&biw=1152&bih=658&tbm=isch&tbnid=6je0AXQNOxwQJM:&imgrefurl=http://


Motor development during middle childhood
Motor Development During Middle Childhood

  • Children develop, refine and find

    new ways to extend basic skills

    gained in early childhood

    (running, balancing, hopping, drawing)

  • Skill development can be observed

    through ball play, bike riding, skipping,

    dancing, writing etc.

  • There are a wide range of individual

    differences related to practice and

    inherited characteristics

  • Boys tend to be stronger than girls but

    girls display more muscular flexibility

http://www.riverchaseumc.org/clientimages/34137/recreation_ministry/rebounders.jpg


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