Unit 2 fire protection
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Unit 2 Fire Protection. 1.Introduction 1.1. Fire protection begins with building construction and design 1.2. Definitions related to building construction

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Unit 2 Fire Protection

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Unit 2 fire protection

Unit 2 Fire Protection

1.Introduction

1.1. Fire protection begins with building construction and design

1.2. Definitions related to building construction

1.2.1. Fire Proof- a term that should never be used because no construction material is completely immune to the effects of fire

1.2.2. Fire Resistive - noncombustible materials which resist the effects of any fire to which the material may be exposed.

Fire Resistive Assemblies


Fire resistive coating applied to steel beams

Fire Resistive Coating Applied to Steel Beams


1 introduction

1. Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.1. Beam

A beam transmits forces in a direction perpendicular to such forces to the reaction points (points of support).

  • Loading on a Beam

  • Types of Beams


Introduction

Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.2. Column

A column is a structural member which transmits a compressive force along a straight path in the direction of the member.

  • Column Loading


Introduction1

Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.3. Joist and Truss

A joist is one of a series of parallel beams of timber, reinforced concrete, or steel used to support floor and ceiling loads.

A truss is a framework of members that attains stability through triangular formations.


Roof trusses

Roof trusses


Beams joists columns

Beams/Joists/Columns


Beams joists columns1

Beams/Joists/Columns


Beams joists columns2

Beams/Joists/Columns


1 introduction1

1. Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.4. Walls

Walls transmit to the ground the compressive forces applied along the top or received at any point on the wall.

  • Types of Walls


Wall types i

VS 3-6

WALL TYPES I

Load-Bearing

Nonload-Bearing

Party


Wall types ii

VS 3-7

WALL TYPES II

Veneer

Fire

Metal Straps

Studs

Plywood or Chipwood

Cantilever

Tar Paper

Single Layer Brick Veneer


1 introduction2

1. Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.5. Foundations and Floors

All loads are delivered to the ground through the foundation.

A floor provides the supporting surface for the contents of a building load.


Foundations poured walls

Foundations – Poured Walls


Foundations poured floors

Foundations – Poured Floors


1 introduction3

1. Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.6. Connectors

Connections transfer the load from one structural element to another and are a vital part of a structure’s gravity resistance system.


1 introduction4

1. Introduction

1.3 Building Components

1.3.7. Roofing

The basic purpose of a roof is to protect the inside of a building from exposure to the elements.

Roofing Types

  • Type I roofs are best and are listed by FM, UL, and meet NFPA 256

  • Type II roofs are more hazardous


Flat roof construction

VS 10-10

FLAT ROOF CONSTRUCTION

Parapet

Parapet

Sheathing

Bar Joist

Felt

Slag or Gravel

Metal Deck

Flat (Hung) Ceiling

False (Hung) Ceiling


Metal decking

Metal Decking

  • Commercially manufactured, structural grade, cold rolled metal panel formed into a series of parallel ribs.

  • Includes metal floor and roof decks, standing seam metal roofs, other metal roof systems and other products.

  • An initial attachment that is used to secure an initially placed sheet of decking is commonly tack welding or pneumatic fasteners


2 major types of building construction

2. Major Types of Building Construction

Type I (Fire Resistive) Best

Type II (Non-Combustible)

Type III (Exterior Projected-Combustible)

Type IV (Heavy Timber)

Type V (Wood Frame)Poorest


2 major types of building construction1

2. Major Types of Building Construction

2.1 Type I contains structural

members that are non-combustible

and have a fire resistance rating

Two subclasses:Type 442

Type 332


Type i construction

VS 3-1

TYPE I CONSTRUCTION

Double-T

Precast Concrete Slabs Supported on Precast Columns and L-Shaped Girders


2 major types of building construction2

2. Major Types of Building Construction

2.2 Type II is a construction type in which the structural elements are entirely of non-combustible or limited combustible materials.

Three Sub classes:

Type222

Type111

Type000


Type ii construction

VS 3-2

TYPE II CONSTRUCTION

Fire-Resistance Rating on All Parts of Structure; Often Have Flat, Built-Up Roofs


2 major types of building construction3

2. Major Types of Building Construction

2.3 Type III is a construction type where the exterior walls are non-combustible with a minimum 2 hr fire resistance however the interior is constructed of combustible materials.

Two Sub classes:

Type211

Type200


Type iii construction

VS 3-3

TYPE III CONSTRUCTION

Exterior Walls and Structural Members Constructed of Noncombustible or Limited Combustible Materials; Interior Structural Members Completely or Partially Constructed of Wood


2 major types of building construction4

2. Major Types of Building Construction

2.4. Type IV is a construction type in which structural members are basically of unprotected wood with large cross sectional areas.


Type iv construction

VS 3-4

TYPE IV CONSTRUCTION

Exterior and Interior Walls and Structural Members Made of Noncombustible or Limited Combustible Materials; Other Interior Structural Members Made of Solid or Laminated “Heavy Timber” Wood


2 major types of building construction5

2. Major Types of Building Construction

2.5. Type V is a construction type where exterior walls are principally or entirely made of wood or other combustible material.

Two Sub classes:

Type111

Type000


Type v construction

VS 3-5

TYPE V CONSTRUCTION

Balloon Wood-Frame

Platform Wood-Frame

Joists

Joist

Rafter

Subflooring

Rafter

Plate

Fire Stop

Stud

Single

Plate

Double

Plate

Stud

Joist

Girder

Girder

Ribbon

Ledger

Ledger

Joist

Sill

Sill

Subflooring

Foundation Wall

Sheathing

Sheathing


2 major types of building construction6

2. Major Types of Building Construction

What Type of Building Construction?


2 major types of building construction7

2. Major Types of Building Construction

What Type of Building Construction?


3 building codes

3. Building Codes

3.1. Definitions

3.1.1. A building code is a law that sets forth minimum requirements for design and construction of buildings and structures.

3.1.2. A fire code is a law that relates to specific fire hazards in a building and is usually regulated by the fire official.


3 building codes1

3. Building Codes

3.2. Major Provisions of Building Codes

3.2.1. Building and Occupancy Permits

3.2.2. Construction Features Typically Covered

3.2.3. Two General Types of Building Codes


3 building codes2

3. Building Codes

3.3 "Model Building Codes"

3.3.1. Prior to 2000 there were three model building codes used in the United States

  • BOCA- Building Officials & Code Administration

  • Uniform Building Code

  • Southern Standard Building Code


3 building codes3

3. Building Codes

3.3 "Model Building Codes"

3.3.2. International Code Council (1994)

  • primary purpose being of combining the codes of the three model building code organizations into single national models.

  • International Building Code (2000)


4 other considerations in building construction

4. Other Considerations in Building Construction

4.1. Interior Finish

4.1.1. Fire Problems Associated with Interior Finish

4.1.2. Flame Spread

  • Class A 0-25

  • Class B 26-75

  • Class C 76-200


4 other considerations in building construction1

4. Other Considerations in Building Construction

4.1. Interior Finish

4.1.3. Contribute to the Fuel

4.1.4. Smoke Contribution

Dorm room fire!

4.2. Other Factors that Affect the Fire Hazard of Finish Materials


4 other considerations in building construction2

4. Other Considerations in Building Construction

4.3. Hazard of Contents

4.3.1. NFPA Hazard Content Classifications

  • Low Hazard - no self propagating fire can occur

  • Ordinary Hazard - can burn with moderate rapidity or can give off considerable smoke

  • High Hazard - burn with extreme rapidity or explosions are likely


Combustible furnishings finishes

VS 3-10

COMBUSTIBLE FURNISHINGS/FINISHES

Toxic gages produced by burning furnishings and finishes are major factors in the loss of many lives in fires.


5 structural features to slow the spread of fire

5. Structural Features to Slow the Spread of Fire

5.1. Fire Walls

5.2. Fire Doors

The NFPA classifies fire doors based on their Fire Resistance Rating

  • Ranges from 4 hours to 20 minutes and is based primarily on building occupancy and construction.


5 structural features to slow the spread of fire1

5. Structural Features to Slow the Spread of Fire

5.3. Fire Stops

5.4. Baffles


5 structural features to slow the spread of fire2

5. Structural Features to Slow the Spread of Fire

5.5. Fire Dampers

5.6. Parapets


6 processes involving flammable gases

6. Processes Involving Flammable Gases

6.1. Properties of Gases in General

  • Gases are pressurize to maximize the amount in a given space & to assist in the flow of the gas

  • Gases are also liquefied to maximize the amount in a given space

  • Cryogenics are gases that are both pressurized and supercold to condense


6 processes involving flammable gases1

6. Processes Involving Flammable Gases

6.2. General Hazard Controls for all Gases

  • Proper storage vessel design (API) & (ASME)

  • Proper tank venting

  • Proper burner design

  • Emergency procedures for leaks

  • Leak testing & gas detection

  • Inerting & venting

  • Control of Ignition Sources


6 processes involving flammable gases2

6. Processes Involving Flammable Gases

6.3. Gas burning appliances

6.4. General safeguards in gas appliances:

6.4.1. Fuel Safety Shutoff Valve

6.4.2. Combustion Safeguard


6 processes involving flammable gases3

6. Processes Involving Flammable Gases

6.4. General safeguards in gas appliances (continued):

6.4.3. Factory Mutual Cock Safety-Control System

6.4.4. Insure that the system design incorporates all necessary safety features and once installed these are tested

6.4.5. Establish and stick to Preventive Maintenance Schedules

6.4.6. Operators must also be well trained


6 processes involving flammable gases4

6. Processes Involving Flammable Gases

6.5. Methods of detecting gas leaks

6.5.1. Slow leaks

6.5.2. Larger leaks


7 process and storage of combustible solids

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1. Examples of Combustible Solids

7.1.1. Ordinary Combustibles

  • Primarily made up of carbon/hydrogen/oxygen

  • Includes cellulose & some fibrous materials

  • Factors that influence the fire hazards of ordinary combustibles


7 process and storage of combustible solids1

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.2. Rubbers/Plastics/Resins

  • Fire Hazards:

  • Classification of Plastics by Fire Hazard

    • Group I· 

    • Group II

    • Group III


7 process and storage of combustible solids2

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.3. Metals

  • General Properties

  • General Fire Hazards

    • Particle Size

    • Some spontaneously ignite (pyrophoric)

    • Moisture increases speed of burning

    • Ordinary fire extinguishing agents not effective


7 process and storage of combustible solids3

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.3. Metals

  • Fire Hazards Associated with Use

  • Examples:

    • Aluminum

    • Magnesium

    • Titanium


7 process and storage of combustible solids4

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.4. Combustible Dusts

  • Most combustible dusts can produce violent explosion when suspended in air

  • Factors that influence dust explosions


7 process and storage of combustible solids5

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.4. Combustible Dusts

  • Dust Explosion Indices

    • Ignition Sensitivity from ignition temp., min. ignition energy and min. ignition concentration

    • Explosion Severity

    • Dust Explosion Video


7 process and storage of combustible solids6

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.1.4. Combustible Dusts

  • Explosibility Index which includes explosion severity & ignition sensitivity

    < 0.1Weak

    0.1-1.0 Moderate

    1.0-10 Strong

    > 10 Severe

  • General Practices to Prevent Dust Explosions:

  • Review internet video for more specific information on causes and prevention of combustible dust explosions: http://www.csb.gov/videoroom/detail.aspx?VID=30


7 process and storage of combustible solids7

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.2. Inside Storage of Solids

7.2.1. Factors to consider when storing solid materials inside

7.2.2. Classification systems for indoor storage

  • Class I Commodity

  • Class Il Commodity


7 process and storage of combustible solids8

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.2. Inside Storage of Solids

7.2.2. Classification systems for indoor storage

(Continued)

  • Class Ill Commodity

  • Class IV Commodity


7 process and storage of combustible solids9

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.2. Inside Storage of Solids

7.2.3. Rack Storage

7.2.4. Building construction

and arrangement


7 process and storage of combustible solids10

7. Process and Storage of Combustible Solids

7.2.5. Arrangement of storage

  • Stacked to leave spaces

  • Individual stacks

  • Clearances

  • Horizontal channels

  • Aisles in Storage Areas


8 processes and storage of flammable and combustible liquids will be covered in fire labs 4 6

8. Processes and Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids will be covered in Fire Labs # 4-6 !!


9 means of egress

9. Means of Egress

9.1. Introduction

9.1.1. Importance of Life Safety

9.1.2. Human Behavior in Fire & Emergency Situations

The Station Fire


9 means of egress1

9. Means of Egress

9.1.3. Human Perception in Fires

9.1.4. Other factors that influence evacuation include: physical ability, unfamiliar settings, sleeping and physical restraint.

Chicago (2003) Epitome


9 means of egress2

9. Means of Egress

9.2. Definitions

9.2.1. Means of egress - a continuous path of travel from any point in a building or structure to the open air outside at ground level.

9.2.2. Way of exit access - the path from the work station to the entrance of an exit.

9.2.3.Exit - a protected pathway, separated from the rest of the building, leading from some interior area to the exterior at ground level


9 2 definitions

9.2. Definitions

9.2.4. Way of exit discharge -the area between termination of the exit and the exterior ground or street.

9.2.5. Common Path of Travel – exists where a space is arranged so that occupants within that space are able to travel in only one direction to reach any of the exits or to reach the point at which the occupants have the choice of two paths of travel to remote exits.


9 2 definitions1

9.2. Definitions

9.2.6. Authority Having Jurisdiction- (AHJ) the one responsible for enforcing the building codes.

9.2.7. Area of Refuge- an area that has a temporary use during egress, a staging area

9.2.8. Accessibility – must include access for handicap and those physically impaired such as hospitals and nursing homes.


9 3 standards related to life safety

9.3. Standards Related to Life Safety

9.3.1. NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code)

9.3.2. OSHA 1910.35, 36, 37


9 4 general requirements for life safety

9.4. General Requirements for Life Safety

9.4.1. Each work location should have a sufficient number of unobstructed easily visible properly designed paths of travel with a capacity adequate to safely evacuate the maximum number of persons expected to be in the area.


9 4 general requirements for life safety1

9.4. General Requirements for Life Safety

9.4.2. Key Words:

a. Sufficient number

b. Unobstructed c. Easily Visible d. Properly designed

e. Adequate capacity


9 5 way of exit access

9.5. Way of Exit Access

9.5.1. Travel Distance – maximum permitted distance to the nearest exit from any given point

  • Table 7.6.1 in NFPA 101 Handbook

    9.5.2. Minimum Width: 36” for new and 28” for existing

    9.5.3. Changes in elevation > 21 require ramp or stairs


9 6 requirements for exits

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.1. In general, two or more exits are required from a given area and these must be separate and remote (NFPA 101 section 7.4.1)

  • Minimum headroom 7’ 6”

  • NO locks, chains, bars, etc

  • Swing in direction of travel


9 6 requirements for exits1

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.2. Free and unobstructed means of egress

  • Swing in the direction of travel

  • Not through high hazard areas

  • 15 lb/ft. max. to open door and 30 lb/ft to set the door in motion

  • Width varies by occupancy, general rule not less than 36 inches


9 6 requirements for exits2

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.3. Exits must be easily visible

  • Lettering 6” height and 2” width

  • Illuminated to 5 footcandles

  • Emergency Lighting (10 second delay and 1 footcandle at floor surface)


9 6 requirements for exits3

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.4. Exits must be properly designed:

  • Exits must be designed to protect those evacuating from fire and smoke

    * Separation of Exits – Maximum Diagonal Rule


9 6 requirements for exits4

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.4. Exits must be properly designed:

  • Exit interior finish should be of a low combustibility to minimize the chance that fire in exit can prohibit escape.

    Recommend Class A or B

  • Construction must be substantial and reliable, able to hold up in an emergency evacuation. Metal fire escapes no longer used.


9 6 requirements for exits5

9.6. Requirements for Exits

9.6.4. Exits must be properly designed (continued):

Stairways

  • 44” width for capacity of 50-2000 and 36” for capacity less than 50, 4”-7” risers, 11” min. tread width, 6’ 8” min headroom

  • Landing every 12’

  • Projections (railings) permitted up to 4 ½”

  • Railings/handrails for 4 or more risers

    Other design details

  • Exits never get narrowed in the direction of travel

  • Floors should not vary by more than ½”

  • Barrier at street level for exits


10 fire exit drills

10. Fire Exit Drills

10.1. NPPA Code 4.7.1.

10.2. Emergency Response Planning

  • OSHA

  • NIOSH

  • EPA

    10.3. Rescue Systems


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