Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the IBR-2M reactor
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Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the IBR-2M reactor. Anatoly M. Balagurov Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna, Russia. Neutron scattering for condensed matter science. IBR-2M pulsed reactor as a neutron source of third generation.

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Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the IBR-2M reactor

Anatoly M. BalagurovFrank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna, Russia

  • Neutron scattering for condensed matter

    science.

  • IBR-2M pulsed reactor as a neutron source

    of third generation.

  • Performance of neutron scattering

    spectrometers at the IBR-2M.

  • Perspectives.

Hydrogen: primary energy sources,

energy converters and applications


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Neutron space and time domain

S(Q, ω) ~ ∫∫ei(Qr – ωt) G(r, t)drdt

l ~ 2π/Q, τ~ 2π/ω

For elastic scattering:

ΔQ = (10-3 – 50) Å-1

Δl = (0.1 – 6·103) Å

Nanostructured materials are inside!

  • Neutron scattering features:

  • Strong magnetic interaction,

  • Sensitivity to light atoms,

  • Sensitivity to isotopes,

  • Large penetration length, …


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Success of neutron scattering experiment depends on:

I. Parameters of a neutron source

average power, pulse width, spectral distribution, ...

II. Performance of a spectrometer

intensity, resolution, (Q, E)-range, available sample environment,...

III. Team at spectrometer

head of team, experience,contacts,...


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Neutron sources for condensed matter studies

I. Continuous neutron sources

II. Pulsed neutron sources

W = 10 – 100 MW

Const in time

II-a. SPS

II-b. LPS

VVR-M, Russia

IR-8, Russia,

ILL, France

LLB, France

BENSC, Germany

FRM II, Germany

BNC, Hungary

NIST, USA

ORNL, USA

SINQ, Switzerland

W = 0.01 – 1 MW

Pulsed in time

Δt0≈ (15 – 100) μs

W = 2 – 5 MW

Pulsed in time

Δt0≈ (300 – 1000) μs

ISIS, UK

LANSCE, USA

SNS, USA

KENS, Japan

J-SNS, Japan

IBR-2M, Russia

ESS, Europe

LANSCE (new)

???


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Fermi chopper with 2 slit packages

21.79 m

22.5 m

23.5 m

29.9 m

6 Disc choppers

49.6 m

73.4 m

Magnet (25 T)

TOF high-resolution diffractometer at LPS type source

Neutron pulse after fast

chopper Δt0≈ (20 – 50) μs

Δd/d≈ 0.001 for back scattering


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

HRFD – High Resolution Fourier Diffractometer at IBR-2

Put into operation in 1994 in collaboration

between: FLNP (Dubna), PNPI (Gatchina),

VTT (Espoo), IzfP (Drezden)


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

HRFD resolution

The utmost TOF

resolution of HRFD

For V=11,000 rpm & L=30 m

Rt=0.0002 (0.0009 now)

Diffraction patterns of Al2O3 measured at ISIS (UK) and IBR-2 (Dubna). Resolution is the same, despite L is 5 times longer at ISIS.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Neutron spectrometers on the IBR-2M reactor

Diffraction (6):

HRFD, DN-2, SKAT, EPSILON,

FSD, DN-6

SANS (2):

YuMO,SANS-C

Reflectometry (3):

REMUR, REFLEX,GRAINS

Inelastic scattering (2):

NERA, DIN

13 spectrometers (3 new)


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Spectrometers on existing pulsed neutron sources*

* At a new SNS (Oak Ridge) neutron source 18 spectrometers are planning

** Numbers in brackets – spectrometers at the II Target Station

*** IPNS is closed in the very beginning of January 2008


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Diffraction at the IBR-2M

  • HRFD* powders – atomic and magnetic structure

  • FSD* bulk samples – internal stresses

  • DN-2powders – real-time, in situ

  • DN-6microsamples – high-pressure (new project)

  • EPSILON** rocks – internal stresses

  • SKAT**rocks – textures

* Fourier RTOF technique

** Long (~100 m) flight pass


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Diffraction at the IBR-2M. Resolution.

HRFD powders

FSD internal stresses

DN-2real-time, multilayers

DN-6high-pressure

EPSILON stresses

SCAT textures

Resolution becomes better for longer d-spacing!


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

1

2

No 1

No4

4

  • Chamber of the cold moderator.

  • Light water pre-moderator.

  • Flat water reflector.

  • Outer border of the reactor jacket.

20K

No 5

300K

No 6

water

3

No 9

Combi-moderator at the central direction of the IBR-2M reactor, plan view


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Cold moderators at the IBR-2M reactor

Gain factor as a function of λ

Diffraction patterns of TbFeO3 measured at Tmod=30 K and 300 K

Neutron flux distributions as a function of λ


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

HRFD development

Actual state

Resolution: one of the bestin the world

Intensity: not high enough (Ωd≈0.2 sr)

  • Neutron guide

  • Detector array

  • Correlation electronics

Could be

Resolution: best among neutron diffractometers

Intensity: 10 times better than now

~500 KUSD


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

New diffractometer for micro-samples and

high-pressure studies

Chopper

Neutron guide

Sample

Actual state

Ring-shape detectors

Ring-shape multi-element

ZnS(Ag)/6LiF detector

Resolution: optimal for high-pressure studies

Intensity: one of the best in the world

Pressure: up to 7 GPa in sapphire anvils

  • Detector array

  • Neutron guide

Could be

Intensity: 25 times better than now

Pressure: 20-30 GPa in natural diamond or mussonite

~250 KUSD


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

GRAINS: complete reflectometry at the IBR-2M reactor

FLNP: M. Avdeev, V. Lauter-PasyukGermany: H. Lauter

V. Aksenov, V. BodnarchukPNPI: V. Trounov, V. Ul’yanov

Parameters:

Resolution: optimal, δλ/λ = (0.3 – 7)%, angular = (1 – 10)%

Q-range: optimal, (0.002 – 0.3) Å–1

Intensity: one of the best in the world

Modes:

Cost estimate = 1050 kEUR

Contributions:

- Germany, Hungary,

- Romania, external.

  • Reflectometry in vertical plane,

  • Off-specular scattering,

  • GISANS with polarized neutrons.


A new reflectometer grains at the ibr 2m reactor

A new reflectometer GRAINS at the IBR-2M reactor

Main feature: vertical scattering plane→ studies of liquid media


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics

Condensed Matter Department

Proposals

for IBR-2M spectrometer complex

development program

Editors: Victor L. Aksenov, Anatoly M. Balagurov

Dubna, 2006

The second edition of the proposals is under preparation.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Proposalsfor 2008 – 2011

Development of existing

spectrometers

New

spectrometers

General-purpose

projects

  • HRFD (SA)

  • FSD (SA)

  • DN-2

  • SKAT (BMBF)

  • EPSILON (BMBF)

  • YuMO

  • REMUR

  • DIN (RosAtom)

  • NERA (Poland)

  • Moderators

  • Detectors

  • Sample environment

  • Cryogenics

  • Electronics

  • DN-6

  • RTS

  • SANS-C

  • GRAINS

  • SESANS

  • SANS-P

2,700 K$

3,000 K$

4,000 K$

In total: 9.7 M$ for4years


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Priorities for 2008

Priorities for 2009 - 2011

Approved projects

Strategical necessity

YuMO / SANS-C

FSD

DN-6

Projects with external support

Projects without clear perspective

REMUR, NERA, DIN, SESANS, SANS-P, DN-2, RTS

SCAT

EPSILON

GRAINS

HRFD


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

New science after 2010

Modern material science

- nanostructures (catalysts, multilayers, porous materials, …),

- materials for energy (electrochemistry, hydrogen, …),

- biomaterials, polymers (soft-matter),

- new constructive materials for atomic energy,

- geological problems (earthquakes, waste deposit, …), …

Modern fundamental physics

- complex magnetic oxides with strong correlations,

- low-dimensional magnetism,

- phase coexistence in crystals, …


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

User program at the IBR-2 spectrometers

International experts’

commissions:

Time-sharing (13 spectrometers)

FLNP (35%)

I. Diffraction

II. Inelastic Scattering

III. Polarized neutrons

IV. SANS

External

fast (10%)

External

regular (55%)

User statistics

IBR-2 operational time:

~2000 hours/year

Number of experiments:

~150 per year

External users:

~100 per year

Others, 19%

FLNP, 25%

France, 3%

Poland,

5%

Germany,

17%

Russia, 31%


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Condensed Matter Department at FLNP

JINR staff38

Member States staff28

Professor4

Doctor of science10

Candidate of science 26

Ph.D. + students11

1999: 52 + 28 = 80

2007: 38 + 28 = 66

What staff do we need?

CMD administration ~ 4

Heads of directions 4

Group at spectrometer ~ 3x13 = 39

Technical group 5

Additional techniques ~ 5

Scientific groups ~ 10

~ 67

Age distribution

There exists a substantial deficiency of permanent staff personnel


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

  • IBR-2 is one of the best neutron sources in the world and the only existing advanced neutron source among JINR Member States.

  • Existing spectrometers are comparable with that at other advanced pulsed neutron sources; some of them are unique.

  • Experimental potential of the complex is much higher than that existing now.

  • All spectrometers are accessible for international community in a frame of accepted proposals.

  • Period 2008 – 2010 is most convenient for global development of neutron spectrometers.

  • Adequate financial support is urgently needed.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Ambitious goal for Condensed Mater Department,

Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics,

and

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research:

Experimental complex based on the IBR-2M reactor for fundamental and applied investigations of advanced and nanostructured materials.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

From White-Egelstaff law-book for

thermal neutron scattering (~1970):

Law 2:

Neutrons are to be avoided where there is an alternative!

New version:

Neutrons can be applied everywhere, even if an alternative there exists!

For studies of nanostructured materials as well !


Thank you

Thank you !


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Neutron spectrometers on the ISIS spallation source (RAL, UK)

Diffraction (8):

GEM, HRPD, PEARL, POLARIS,

ROTAX, SXD, ENGIN-X, INES

SANS (2):

SANDALS, LOQ

Reflectometry (2):

CRISP, SURF

Inelastic scattering (9):

HET, MAPS, MARI, MERLIN,

PRISMA, IRIS, OSIRIS, TOSCA,

VESUVIO

21 spectrometers


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

from MEETING REPORT

“Consultancy on the Status of Pulse Reactors and Critical Assemblies”

IAEA, 16 – 18 January 2008

The IBR-2 reactor at Joint Institute on Nuclear Research, Dubna is a unique facility internationally, and is being refurbished/modernized to continue to serve as an international centre of excellence for neutron sciences.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Diffraction at the IBR-2M. Intensity.

Mo powder measured in

1 min (1) and 0.2 sec (2).

Intensity / Counting rate

I ≈ Φ0 · S · Ω/4π · δ [n/s] ≥ 106 n/s

Φ0 – neutron flux at a sample, 107 n/cm2/s

S – sample area, 5 cm2

Ω – detector solid angle, 0.2 sr

δ – scattering probability, 0.1


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

IBR-2M pulsed reactor (with cold moderators)

is the source of third generation*)

*) For 2nd generation sources W is between 6 – 200 kW (IPNS, KENS, LANSCE, ISIS)


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Resources which are needed to complete

the 2007 - 2010 program

Technical needs:

1. Neutron guides – ~300 m

2. 1D PSD – 5

3. 2D PSD – 4

4. Large aperture det-s – 6

5. Choppers – 6

6. Neutron optics devices

7. Spin analyzers & polarizers

8. Electronics & computing

9. Sample environment:

refrigerators,

thermostats,

magnets,

acoustic technique…

Financial needs (in KUSD):

A. Development (9) – 4,105 (456)

B. New projects (6) – 2,991 (499)

Total (15): 7,096


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Hydrogen materials: what can we learn with neutrons?

Location of H, OH, H2O in crystal: coherent elastic, diffraction.

Dynamics of H, OH in crystal:incoherent inelastic.

Diffusion of H, H2O in solids or liquids:quasielastic incoherent.

Clustering of H, nanostructures:coherent elastic, SANS.

Exchange membrane, hydration/dehydration:diffraction, reflectometry.

Quantitative analysis:incoherent scattering/ absorption.

H (and Li) are the most important

Elements for fuel cells and batteries!

Proton exchange membrane


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Phase transformations of high pressure heavy ice VIII.

Time-resolved experiment witht = (1 – 5) min.

Ih

Ice VIII

Ic

hda

Time & temperature scale

TOF scale

Time / temperature scale: Tstart=94 K, Tend=275 K. The heating rate is ≈1 deg/min.

Diffraction patterns have been measured each 5 min. Phase VIII is transformed into high

density amorphous phase hda, then into cubic phase Ic, and then into hexagonal ice Ih.


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Project EPSILON/SKAT:

Investigation of strain/stress and texture

on geological samples

Spokesman from JINR:Dr. Ch. ScheffzükSpokesman from Germany:Dr. habil. A. Frischbutter

EPSILON-MDS

SKAT

New neutron guide

Could be

~106 EUR

Intensity: 10 times better than now


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Diffraction at the IBR-2M. General conclusion.

Unique complex with world top opportunities in:

- extremely high-resolution (HRFD),

- extremely high-intensity (DN-6, DN-2),

- applied studies (FSD, EPSILON, SKAT).


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Polarized neutron scattering at the IBR-2M

  • REMURmagnetic multilayers – magnetic structures

  • 2.GRAINSinterface science in physics, biology, chemistry

  • (new project)

  • 3. REFLEXreflectometry in horizontal plane,

  • now is used in test mode


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Resolution at pulse neutron source. Elastic scattering.

R = [(Δt0/t)2 + (Δ/tg)2]1/2

For Δt0 ≈ 350 μs, L ≈ 25 m, λ≈ 4 Å TOF contribution is ~1%.

Geometrical contribution is:

~(0.05 – 0.2)% for back scattering

~(5 – 10)% for SANS and reflectometry

TOF component in resolution function is not important for:

SANS and Reflectometry

It is not very important for:

single crystal diffraction, magnetic diffraction…

Powder diffraction: structural studies, stress analysis, low symmetry textures?


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Criteria which could be used for the evaluation

Modern and interesting science.

Correspondence to the IBR-2M features.

Top level parameters.

Active and effective team.

External support (financial, technical, …).


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Proposals at the IBR-2 reactor, JINR, Dubna

IBR-2 operational time:

~2000 hours/year

Number of experiments:

~150 per year

External users:

~100 per year


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Research reactors in the JINR Member States

Russia

Czechia

I. Dubna, IBR-2 (1984, 2 MW, pulsed)

II. “RCC KI” Moscow, IR-8 (1957, 8 MW)

III. Gatchina, VVR-M (1959, 16 MW)

IV. Yekaterinburg, IVV-2M (1966, 15 MW)

V. Obninsk, VVR-M (1960, 12 MW)

I. Řeź, LVR-15 (1970, 10 MW)

Germany

I. Munich, FRM-II (2005, 20 MW)

II. Berlin, BENSC (1973, 10 MW)

Hungary

I. Budapest, BNC (1970, 10 MW)

The enhanced flux and new instrument concepts will allow to improve the resolution in both space and time ==> “new science”!


Advanced neutron spectrometers for condensed matter studies at the ibr 2m reactor

Neutron Techniques (developed at the IBR-2)

DINSDeep Inelastic Neutron Scattering

INSInelastic Neutron Scattering

LNDLaue Neutron Diffraction

NBSNeutron Back-Scattering

NDNeutron Diffraction

NHolNeutron Holography

NINeutron Interferometry

NPolNeutron Polarimetry

NRadNeutron Radiography

NRefNeutron Reflectometry

NTomNeutron Tomography

NSENeutron Spin-Echo

PolNPolarized Neutrons

PSTPhase-Space Transformation

QENSQuasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

SANSSmall Angle Neutron Scattering

TASTriple-Axis Spectrometry

TOFTime-Of-Flight (techniques)

USANS Ultra SANS

ZFNSEZero-Field NSE

At the IBR-2 the techniques are developed, which are the most effective for condensed matter studies and above all for studies of nano-structured materials.


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