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Cooking Methods Review. Dry Heat Methods. Learning Targets:. Understand how dry heat affects food Identify a variety of dry heat methods. Performance Target. Use a variety of dry heat methods Determine doneness in foods prepared by dry heat methods. Standards. PLC 5.0 Food Safety

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Cooking methods review

Cooking Methods Review

Dry Heat Methods

Learning targets
Learning Targets:

  • Understand how dry heat affects food

  • Identify a variety of dry heat methods

Performance target
Performance Target

  • Use a variety of dry heat methods

  • Determine doneness in foods prepared by dry heat methods.


  • PLC 5.0 Food Safety

  • PLC 6.0 Kitchen Safety

  • ACF 5 Food Preparation

    • Demonstrate how to read and follow a standard recipe

    • Demonstrate proper scaling and measurement techniques

    • Demonstrate a variety of cooking techniques

Methods of heat transfer
Methods of Heat Transfer

  • Any cooking method changes:

    • The way a food looks

    • The way a food tastes

    • Nutritive value

  • In dry heat, heat is transferred by:

    • Radiant heat (rays coming from glowing/red hot heat source such as burning coals, flames or a hot electric element) – think baking/rotisserie

    • Metal that conducts heat from a burner to the food – griddle

    • By oil that is heated when a pan transfers heat from the burner to the oil

Changes to food
Changes to food

  • Visually:

    • Heat source causes the outside of food to dry as it cooks

    • Outside color changes: foods prepared by dry heat are golden or deep brown

    • Foods that contain sugars turn brown when they get hot enough (carmelization)

    • Also protein rich foods also brown when heated

  • Texturally:

    • Outer layer of food stiffens, sometimes see distinct crust

    • Eggs, meat, fish, poultry all become firm

    • Other foods become softer - onions

Maintaining moisture
Maintaining Moisture

  • Dust food with flour

  • Grilled/broiled Meat/veg – soaked in oil, marinade, herbs/spices

  • Coat in batter/breading before frying

  • BEST WAY -don’t overcook

Dry heat methods
Dry heat methods

  • Eight basic methods:

    • Grilling and broiling

    • Roasting and baking

    • Sauteing and stir-frying

    • Pan frying and deep frying

Grilling and broiling
Grilling and Broiling

  • Food placed on rack for cooking.

  • Radiant heat source is located below the rack holding the food

Grilling and broiling1
Grilling and Broiling

  • Griddle sometimes used to prepared grilled foods

  • Uses a solid, flat metal plate above the heat source


  • Similar to grilling, except the heat source is located ABOVE the food

Roasting and baking
Roasting and Baking

  • Dry heat techniques where food is cooked by hot air trapped inside an oven

  • No significant difference between roasting and baking

  • Difference is between SIZE of food

    • ROAST – indicates whole item or large piece of food

    • BAKE – indicates smaller pieces of a larger food

Roasting v baking
Roasting v. Baking




  • Saute – cooking tech. that cooks food quickly, often uncovered, in a very small amount of fat in a pan over high heat

  • Foods suitable for sauteing – tender and thin enough to cook in a short time

  • Food often coated with flour before sauteing

  • Fat keeps food from sticking to pan


  • How to Saute:

    • Let pan heat up first

    • Once hot, add oil

    • When you add food to the pan, the pan cools off. More food = longer time to get hot again (recovery time)

    • Success of a saute = short recovery time

    • Turn sauteed food halfway through cooking

    • Resists temptation to move food around unless cooking too quickly or starting to get too dark

Saute variations
Saute variations

  • Stir Frying

    • Made in wok (pan w/ round bottom and sloping sides)

    • Foods cut into small strips to cook quickly

    • CONSTANTLY STIR FOOD as it cooks

  • Searing

    • Cook food in small amt of fat just long enough to color the outside of food

  • Pan broiling

    • Like sauteing, except you use NO fat (cause foods already have high fat content – think bacon)

    • AKA dry sauteing

  • Sweating/smothering

    • Lower heat, food cooked uncovered in small amt of fat

    • Food softens, releasing moisture, not allowed to brown

Variations example
Variations example

Stir Fry



Pan fry v deep fry
Pan Fry v. Deep Fry

  • Pan fry

    • Food cooked in hot oil in a pan

    • Oil should come halfway up the sides of the food

    • Turn foods only once

Pan fry do s
Pan Fry Do’s

  • DO - Heat oil

    • How do you know?


      • Use a thermometer

      • Stick a wooden spoon into oil. When you see bubbles form and rise to top – its hot enough

      • Put a little flour in oil – if it bubbles/sizzles, its hot enough

  • Do lower rather than drop food into oil

  • Do watch you oil – if you see smoke rising, lower your temp. Its an indication you’ve reached the “smoke point” – where oil quality begins to degrade

Don t

  • Don’t add food before it’s hot, food will absorb oil = greasy food

  • Don’t crowd the pan – this reduces the temperature of the oil and increases recovery time

Pan fried foods usually coated
Pan Fried Foods usually coated

  • Seasoned Flour

    • Simply flour seasoned with salt and pepper

  • Standard Breading

    • Flour -> Egg -> Breading – Think chicken katsu

  • Batter

    • Blend of flour and liquid

Determine doneness
Determine Doneness

  • How to tell if food is done?

    • Visually – outside is golden brown

      • Chicken/Pork – no blood/red juices, no red flesh

    • Texture – firm or crispy depending on food

  • Things to consider:

    • Carryover cooking – foods continue to cook even after coming out of heat

      • Should take foods out before totally done

    • Resting Food –

      • Allows food to carry over cook and reach its proper doneness

      • Food is moister, juices redistribute within food

      • Allows time for proper plating and presentation

Circle map for thinking
Circle Map for thinking

  • A great way to visually see your information!

  • In the center – write “Dry Cooking Methods”

  • You have 8 Dry Cooking Methods and 8 outer sections

  • Define each method and create an illustration to remind you of the method