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Cooking Methods Review. Dry Heat Methods. Learning Targets:. Understand how dry heat affects food Identify a variety of dry heat methods. Performance Target. Use a variety of dry heat methods Determine doneness in foods prepared by dry heat methods. Standards. PLC 5.0 Food Safety

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cooking methods review

Cooking Methods Review

Dry Heat Methods

learning targets
Learning Targets:
  • Understand how dry heat affects food
  • Identify a variety of dry heat methods
performance target
Performance Target
  • Use a variety of dry heat methods
  • Determine doneness in foods prepared by dry heat methods.
standards
Standards
  • PLC 5.0 Food Safety
  • PLC 6.0 Kitchen Safety
  • ACF 5 Food Preparation
    • Demonstrate how to read and follow a standard recipe
    • Demonstrate proper scaling and measurement techniques
    • Demonstrate a variety of cooking techniques
methods of heat transfer
Methods of Heat Transfer
  • Any cooking method changes:
    • The way a food looks
    • The way a food tastes
    • Nutritive value
  • In dry heat, heat is transferred by:
    • Radiant heat (rays coming from glowing/red hot heat source such as burning coals, flames or a hot electric element) – think baking/rotisserie
    • Metal that conducts heat from a burner to the food – griddle
    • By oil that is heated when a pan transfers heat from the burner to the oil
changes to food
Changes to food
  • Visually:
    • Heat source causes the outside of food to dry as it cooks
    • Outside color changes: foods prepared by dry heat are golden or deep brown
    • Foods that contain sugars turn brown when they get hot enough (carmelization)
    • Also protein rich foods also brown when heated
  • Texturally:
    • Outer layer of food stiffens, sometimes see distinct crust
    • Eggs, meat, fish, poultry all become firm
    • Other foods become softer - onions
maintaining moisture
Maintaining Moisture
  • Dust food with flour
  • Grilled/broiled Meat/veg – soaked in oil, marinade, herbs/spices
  • Coat in batter/breading before frying
  • BEST WAY -don’t overcook
dry heat methods
Dry heat methods
  • Eight basic methods:
    • Grilling and broiling
    • Roasting and baking
    • Sauteing and stir-frying
    • Pan frying and deep frying
grilling and broiling
Grilling and Broiling
  • Food placed on rack for cooking.
  • Radiant heat source is located below the rack holding the food
grilling and broiling1
Grilling and Broiling
  • Griddle sometimes used to prepared grilled foods
  • Uses a solid, flat metal plate above the heat source
broiling
Broiling
  • Similar to grilling, except the heat source is located ABOVE the food
roasting and baking
Roasting and Baking
  • Dry heat techniques where food is cooked by hot air trapped inside an oven
  • No significant difference between roasting and baking
  • Difference is between SIZE of food
    • ROAST – indicates whole item or large piece of food
    • BAKE – indicates smaller pieces of a larger food
sauteing
Sauteing
  • Saute – cooking tech. that cooks food quickly, often uncovered, in a very small amount of fat in a pan over high heat
  • Foods suitable for sauteing – tender and thin enough to cook in a short time
  • Food often coated with flour before sauteing
  • Fat keeps food from sticking to pan
saute
Saute
  • How to Saute:
    • Let pan heat up first
    • Once hot, add oil
    • When you add food to the pan, the pan cools off. More food = longer time to get hot again (recovery time)
    • Success of a saute = short recovery time
    • Turn sauteed food halfway through cooking
    • Resists temptation to move food around unless cooking too quickly or starting to get too dark
saute variations
Saute variations
  • Stir Frying
    • Made in wok (pan w/ round bottom and sloping sides)
    • Foods cut into small strips to cook quickly
    • CONSTANTLY STIR FOOD as it cooks
  • Searing
    • Cook food in small amt of fat just long enough to color the outside of food
  • Pan broiling
    • Like sauteing, except you use NO fat (cause foods already have high fat content – think bacon)
    • AKA dry sauteing
  • Sweating/smothering
    • Lower heat, food cooked uncovered in small amt of fat
    • Food softens, releasing moisture, not allowed to brown
variations example
Variations example

Stir Fry

Sear

Sweat

pan fry v deep fry
Pan Fry v. Deep Fry
  • Pan fry
    • Food cooked in hot oil in a pan
    • Oil should come halfway up the sides of the food
    • Turn foods only once
pan fry do s
Pan Fry Do’s
  • DO - Heat oil
    • How do you know?
      • NEVER PUT WATER IN OIL!!!!
      • Use a thermometer
      • Stick a wooden spoon into oil. When you see bubbles form and rise to top – its hot enough
      • Put a little flour in oil – if it bubbles/sizzles, its hot enough
  • Do lower rather than drop food into oil
  • Do watch you oil – if you see smoke rising, lower your temp. Its an indication you’ve reached the “smoke point” – where oil quality begins to degrade
don t
Don’t
  • Don’t add food before it’s hot, food will absorb oil = greasy food
  • Don’t crowd the pan – this reduces the temperature of the oil and increases recovery time
pan fried foods usually coated
Pan Fried Foods usually coated
  • Seasoned Flour
    • Simply flour seasoned with salt and pepper
  • Standard Breading
    • Flour -> Egg -> Breading – Think chicken katsu
  • Batter
    • Blend of flour and liquid
determine doneness
Determine Doneness
  • How to tell if food is done?
    • Visually – outside is golden brown
      • Chicken/Pork – no blood/red juices, no red flesh
    • Texture – firm or crispy depending on food
  • Things to consider:
    • Carryover cooking – foods continue to cook even after coming out of heat
      • Should take foods out before totally done
    • Resting Food –
      • Allows food to carry over cook and reach its proper doneness
      • Food is moister, juices redistribute within food
      • Allows time for proper plating and presentation
circle map for thinking
Circle Map for thinking
  • A great way to visually see your information!
  • In the center – write “Dry Cooking Methods”
  • You have 8 Dry Cooking Methods and 8 outer sections
  • Define each method and create an illustration to remind you of the method
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