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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. VASOMOTOR CONTROL CENTRE. Is responsible for regulating blood pressure VASODILATION dilation of arterioles and opening of precapillary sphincters Increases blood flow to active muscle VASOCONSTRICTION constriction of arterioles and closure of precapillary

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Vasomotor control centre
VASOMOTOR CONTROL CENTRE

Is responsible for regulating blood pressure

VASODILATION

dilation of arterioles and opening of precapillary sphincters

Increases blood flow to active muscle

VASOCONSTRICTION

constriction of arterioles and closure of precapillary

sphincters reduces blood flow to inactive organs


  • Blood flow changes dramatically once exercise commences.

  • At rest, only 15-20% of cardiac output is directed to skeletal muscle (the majority of it goes to the liver (27%) and the kidneys (22%).

  • Blood is redirected to areas where it is needed most.

  • This is known as the VASCULAR SHUNT MECHANISM or Accommodation

  • Chemoreceptors in muscles inform VCC of increase in Lactic Acid and Carbon dioxide

  • Baroreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries inform VCC systolic pressure has increased/decreased


  • The redistribution of blood is controlled primarily by the vasoconstriction and vasodilatationof arterioles.

  • It reacts to chemical changes of the local tissues. For example, vasodilatation will occur when arterioles sense a decrease in oxygen concentration or an increase in acidity due to higher CO2 and lactic acid concentrations.


Activity 1
ACTIVITY 1

COMPLETE WORKSHEETS 4.11.4 & 4.11.5


The transport of oxygen
THE TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN

97% of Oxygen is carried by red blood cells combined with

Haemoglobin in the blood plasma

HAEMOGLOBIN + OXYGEN = OXYHAEMOGLOBIN

Hb + O2 = HbO2


Activity 2
ACTIVITY 2

DRAW THIS GRAPH AND THEN ADD THE

FOLLOWING – BLOOD FLOW CHANGES TO

SKELETAL MUSCLE AND ALL OTHER ORGANS

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 100

BLOOD FLOW (% OF CARDIAC OUTPUT)

EXERCISE INTENSITY (%)



Smoking
SMOKING PERSONS HEALTH ?

This simply has a negative effect on aerobic

fitness

Oxygen wants to attach to the Haemoglobin

but the waste product from the smoke (Carbon

Monoxide) attaches first therefore the oxygen

supply to muscles is greatly reduced


Carbon dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE PERSONS HEALTH ?

Carbon Dioxide produced in the body tissues is

transported in blood in different ways

  • 8% is dissolved in blood plasma

  • 20% combines with Haemoglobin to form Carbaminohaemoglobin

  • 70% dissolved in water as Carbonic Acid


Activity 3
ACTIVITY 3 PERSONS HEALTH ?

COMPLETE WORKSHEET 4.11.6


Activity 4
ACTIVITY 4 PERSONS HEALTH ?

WRITE A LIST OF ALL THE REASONS YOU CAN

THINK OF AS TO WHY PRIOR TO PARTICAPTION

IN AN ACTIVTY YOU PERFROM A WARM UP

*REMEMBER WE ARE IN THE

CARDIOVASUCLAR SYSTEM

THINK ABOUT THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS*


Warm ups
Warm Ups PERSONS HEALTH ?

  • Improves oxygen supply to muscles via increase in Heart Rate

  • Increases venous return therefore stroke volume

  • Initiates Vascular Shunt Mechanism which redistributes blood to the working muscles

  • Increase in body temp so reduction in blood viscosity

  • Delays D.O.M.S. – so can work harder for longer


Exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle
EXERCISE AS PART OF A PERSONS HEALTH ?HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in the industrialised World and is estimated at 40% of all UK deaths

    Independent risk factors

    These are so called because either one will

    greatly increase the chance of developing CVD

    Following: Smoking and eating a high fat diet


  • There are several forms of CVD PERSONS HEALTH ?

    -Atherosclerosis, the deposition of fatty deposits in the arteries

    -Coronary Artery Disease, the narrowing of coronary arteries which can lead to angina or myocardial infarction (heart attack)

    -Stroke, a blockage of the arteries supplying the brain

    -Hypertension, permanently high blood pressure


Dependent risk factors PERSONS HEALTH ?

These are so named because they may not

necessarily cause CVD but will increase the

chances

  • Heredity – Genetics through family history

  • Personality/Stress – How you deal/cope

  • Lack of exercise – Working at 70%MaxHR can reduce risk by 30%

  • Age (older)

  • Gender (men more likely)


Activity 5
ACTIVITY 5 PERSONS HEALTH ?

YOU HAVE BEEN ASKED TO DESIGN A TRAINING

PROGRAMME FOR MIDDLE AGED MEN WHO

HAVE BEEN REALTIVELY INACTIVE FOR YEARS

  • WHAT FACTORS DO YOU NEED TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION

  • STATE WHICH TYPE OF EXERCISE YOU WOULD RECOMMEND


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