Enzymes
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Enzymes. Enzymes are…. Catalysts is any substance that works to accelerate a chemical reaction Most enzymes are proteins. How do catalysts speed up reactions?. The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process

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Enzymes

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Enzymes

Enzymes


Enzymes are

Enzymes are…

  • Catalysts

    • is any substance that works to accelerate a chemical reaction

  • Most enzymes are proteins


How do catalysts speed up reactions

How do catalysts speed up reactions?

  • The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process

  • Catalysts decrease activation energy


Lock and key model

Lock and Key model


Active site

Active Site


Enzymes

  • Substrate: substance that an enzyme reacts with

  • Active Site: part of the enzyme that reacts or binds to the substrate


Enzyme substrate complex

Enzyme-Substrate Complex


Enzymes are specific and complementary

Enzymes are specific and Complementary

  • Complementary: complement one another; shaped for precise pairing

  • Specific: particular, precise

    • Only the correct substrate can fit into the enzyme’s active site


Enzymes end in ase

Enzymes end in -ase

  • Carbohydrase- breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars

  • Amylase- breaks down starch

  • Protease – breaks down proteins into amino acids

  • Lipase- breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol


Digestive end products

Digestive End products


Temperature effects enzymes

Temperature effects enzymes

  • Increasing temperature increases enzyme activity until it reaches an optimum value

  • Increasing temperature past that point denatures the enzyme


Denature

Denature

  • shape of the protein is altered through some form of external stress

  • will no longer be able to carry out its cellular function


Ph effects enzymes

pH effects enzymes

  • Certain pH value causes optimal enzyme activity

  • Too low or too high pH will denature the enzyme


Enzymes are reused or recycled

Enzymes are reused or recycled

  • In a written equation, enzymes appear on both the reactant and product side

  • Substrate + enzyme enzyme and products

    reactants products

  • They are not used up

  • They are recycled and being used over and over gain


Enzymes

  • The function of most proteins depends primarily on the

    (1) type and order of amino acids

    (2) environment of the organism

    (3) availability of starch molecules

    (4) nutritional habits of the organism


Enzymes

  • Enzyme molecules normally interact with substrate molecules. Some medicines work by

    blocking enzyme activity in pathogens. These

    medicines are effective because they

    (1) are the same size as the enzyme

    (2) are the same size as the substrate molecules

    (3) have a shape that fits into the enzyme

    (4) have a shape that fits into all cell receptors


Enzymes

  • The diagram below represents two molecules that can interact with each other to cause a biochemical process to occur in a cell.

    Molecules A and B most likely represent

    (1) a protein and a chromosome

    (2) a receptor and a substrate

    (3) a carbohydrate and an amino acid

    (4) an antibody and a hormone


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