Sports and drug use
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SPORTS AND DRUG USE. OVERVIEW. HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA OLYMPIC GAMES TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957 ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984 GILBERT REPORT , SPORTS ILLUSTRATED 1969 HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ARRIVAL, 1984 TECHNOLOGY, SPORTS AND DRUGS

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SPORTS AND DRUG USE

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Sports and drug use

SPORTS AND DRUG USE


Overview

OVERVIEW

  • HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS

  • DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA

  • OLYMPIC GAMES

  • TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957

  • ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984

  • GILBERT REPORT , SPORTS ILLUSTRATED 1969

  • HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ARRIVAL, 1984

  • TECHNOLOGY, SPORTS AND DRUGS

  • MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL STEROIDS ERA

  • MITCHELL REPORT 2008


Historical antecedents

HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS

  • GREEK ATHLETES, OLYMPIC GAMES

  • “PROTEIN DIET” AND WRESTLERS

  • ENDURANCE SEEDS/ RUNNERS

  • HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS

  • ANCIENT PERU, ANCIENT MEXICO

  • COCA LEAVES, CAFFEINE, MUSHROOMS, SEEDS

  • SPORT, RELIGIOUS EVENTS


Drug use in the sports industrial era

DRUG USE IN THE SPORTS INDUSTRIAL ERA

  • 1860s-1880s SWIMMING, BICYCLE RACING, “SPEED BALLS” (HEROINE-COCAINE) TO INCREASE ENDURANCE

  • 1886 FIRST REPORTED DRUG RELATED DEATH IN SPORTS, A CYCLIST.

  • 1904 OLYMPIC GAMES, ST-LOUIS, THOMAS HICKS, MARATHON RUNNER, COLLAPSED, TEAM GAVE HIM REPEATED DOSES OF BRANDY AND STRYCHNINE, MEDAL AWARDED.


Testosterone era

TESTOSTERONE ERA

  • 1927 FRED KOCH AND CLYDE MCGEE, (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO) ISOLATED AND EXTRACTED TESTOSTERONE FROM BULLS, TESTED ITS IMPAC ON ANIMALS. RESULTS: DRAMATIC INCREASE IN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, PROCESS NOT VIABLE.

  • 1935 YUGOSLAVIA´S CHEMIST LEOPOLD RUZICKA, ALTERED THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF CHOLESTEROL TO PRODUCE SYNTHETIC TESTOSTERONE


Testosterone era1

TESTOSTERONE ERA

  • TESTOSTERONE, 1930s AND 1940s “FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH” GAINS IN ENERGY, WEIGHT, STRENGTH.

  • EXPERIMENTS IN GERMANY, TESTOSTERONE PROVIDED TO ELITE TROOPS

  • 1945 GERMAN SCIENTIFIC&TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES, SEIZED BY SOVIET GOVERNMENT

  • 1952 HELSINKI OLYMPIC GAMES, SOVIET WEIGHTLIFTING TEAM DOMINATES COMPET.

  • 1954 VIENNA WEIGHTLIFTING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP, SOVIET TEAMS

  • U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN, J. ZIEGLER, TESTED TESTOSTERONE ON HIMSELF.


Anabolic steroids era

ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA

  • “ANABOLIC” W/OUT “ANDROGENIC” EFFECTS, MUSCLE-BUILDING W/OUT AGGRESSION, INCREAS. LIBIDO.

  • 1958 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY RELEASED DIANABOL, FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES.

  • DR. ZIEGLER, U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN PERSUADED LIFTWEIGHTERS TO USE DIANABOL


Ziegler training program

ZIEGLER TRAINING PROGRAM

  • NEW EXERCISE ROUTINE ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION + PILLS

  • IOMETRIC CONTRACTION PULL/PUSH AGAINST IMMOBILE RESISTANCE

  • “STRENGTH AND HEALTH” MAGAZINE ARTICLE.

  • STEROIDS USE SPREAD THROUGH GYMS, COLLEGE STUDENTS AND ATHLETES


Steroids olympic games

STEROIDS & OLYMPIC GAMES

  • 1964 TOKYO, 1968 MEXICO CITY

  • COLD WAR OLYMPIC, NATIONAL PRIDE, CAPITALISM vs SOCIALISM

  • ATHLETES CONFESSIONS, HAROLD CONNOLLY, TOM WADDELL, 30% U.S. TEAM ON STEROIDS

  • 1971 PATERA CHALLENGE TO SOVIET ATHLETE: “LET’S SEE WHO’S STRONGER: HIS STEROIDS OR MINE”

  • DEATHS FOR DRUG OVERDOSE


Gilbert report

GILBERT REPORT

  • 1969 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED, B. GILBERT 3-PART DRUGS IN OLYMPIC, COLLEGE AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS

  • USE OF A.STEROIDS IN PRO AND COLLEGE SPORTS

  • PROFESSIONAL SPORTS ASSOCIATIONS LACKED REGULATORY POLICIES

  • 1972 68% U.S. OLYMPIC TRACK & FIELD TEAM HAD USED ANABOLIC STEROIDS

  • 1976 MONTREAL GAMES TEST MANDATORY, PENALTIES UP TO DISQUALIFICATION.


Performance enhancing drugs 1970s

PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS, 1970s

  • 1976 CHANGED IN PATTERN, ATHLETES RETURNED TO TESTOSTERONE (MALE HORMONE) TO BEAT THE TEST, OR COMBINED DIANABOL W/ TESTOSTERONE.

  • 1982 TESTOSTERONE BECAME A BANNED SUBSTANCE

  • 1983 PAN AMERICAN GAMES CARACAS, 15 ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE THE FIRST DAT. 12 U.S. TRACK&FIELD ATHLETES ABANDONED THE GAMES BEFORE BEING TESTED.


H g h era 1984 to present

H.G.H. ERA, 1984 to PRESENT

  • HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

  • BODY BUILDERS, 1970s GH FROM MONKEYS

  • H.G.H. EXPENSIVE, DIFFICULT, EXTRACTED FROM THE PITUITARIES OF CADAVERS ONLY

  • 1990s SYNTHETIC VERSION OF H.G.H.

  • KERR “THE PRACTICAL USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS WITH ATHLETES”


Steroids boom 1990s

STEROIDS BOOM 1990s

  • BODYBUILDING BOOM 1990s

  • SELF-HELP LITERATURE: MANUALS, HANDBOOKS, CONVENTIONS, “PROPER USE” PHILOSOPHY

  • BLACK MARKET OF STEROIDS, SMUGGLERS, GYM-DEALERS,

  • COACH-PROVIDERS

  • ATHLETES-SMUGGLERS


Steroids and pro baseball

STEROIDS AND PRO BASEBALL

  • JOSE CANSECO, 1988 OAKLAND A´s AL MVP, 40-40 ONLY MEMBER CLUB, “BASH BROTHERS” (MARK MCGWIRE).

  • “WASHINGTON POST” THOMAS BOSWELL ARTICLE.

  • KEN CAMINITI STORY, 1996 MVP, 2002 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED INTERVIEW ¨AT LEAST HALF OF THE GUYS ARE USING STEROIDS¨

  • 2004 CAMINITI DIED, HEART ATTACK

  • COMPLAINTS BY SCHILLING, HANK ARON, REGGIE JACKSON, REGARDING INFLATED BATTING RECORDS DUE TO WIDESPREAD USE OF STEROIDS AND AMPHETAMINES

  • “JUICED, WILD TIMES, RAMPANT ´ROIDS, HOW BASEBALL GOT BIG” 2005 BOOK BY JOSE CANSECO IS PUBLISHED

  • MCGWIRE-SOSA “PERFECT SEASON” 1998

  • JOSE “MILKSHAKE” VOGUE.

  • CANSECO BOOK PROVIDED A PLAYERS LIST.


Balco scandal 2003

BALCO SCANDAL 2003

  • BURLINGAME BAY AREA LABORATORY CO OPERATIVE

  • BLOOD-URINE TESTING ANALYSIS FOR ATHLETES

  • 1988 OLYMPIC GAMES SEOUL

  • VICTOR CONTE, NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS PTICHMAN

  • 1996 BILL ROMANOWSKI

  • ELITE ATHLETES CLIENTELE

  • MARION JONES, MIAMI DOLPHINS, BARRY BONDS, 2000.

  • CONTE´S HGH: “UNDETECTABLE, BETTER VISION, MORE ENERGY, MORE MUSCLE MASS”

  • ZIMA TRACK/FIELD CLUB

  • BONDS 0CT 2001 73TH HOMERUN

  • 2003 ANONYMOUS TIPSTER SENT A SYRINGE WITH TGH TETRAHYDROGESTRINONE (ALTERED STEROIDS GESTRINONE AND TRENBOLONE TO AVOID DETECTION IN TESTS)

  • U.S. FIELD/TRACK ATHLETES AND FOUR OAKLAND RAIDERS TESTED POSITIVE

  • SEPTEMBER 2003 FDA AUTHORITIES RAIDED BALCO OFFICES

  • “THE CLEAR AND THE CREAM” BONDS DECLARATION TO THE GRAND JURY .

  • OVER FORTY SUPERSTAR ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE AND/OR WERE SUMMONED IN THE INVESTIGATION

  • U.S. TRACK/FIELD ESTABLISHES LIFE TIME BAN ON FIRST TIME OFFENDERS


Balco scandal

BALCO SCANDAL

  • 2005 U.S. CONGRESS HEARINGS

  • CDC REPORT STEROIDS AND YOUTH

  • CANSECO, MCGWIRE, PALMEIRO, SOSA, SCHILLING CALLED TO TESTIFY.

  • CONTE’S CONVICTION, “ROMO’S BOOK TOUR” (BILL ROMANOWSKY)

  • DRUG FREE SPORTS ACT BILL PROPOSAL (McCAIN, BONNING)

  • MLB DRUG POLICY (OCT 2005) 50GAMES-100GAMES SUSPENSION-AND LIFE BAN ON ANFETHAMINES AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS. STILL NO TEST FOR HGH


Performance enhancing drugs debate

PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS DEBATE

  • MLB JUST RECENTLY APPROVED MANDATORY STEROID TESTING IN ATHLETES. WHAT IN YOUR OPINION WILL BE THE IMPACT OF THIS POLICY.

  • PRO-STEROID LITERATURE ARGUES THAT ANABOLICS USAGE SHOULD BE ACCEPTED AND REGULATED, SINCE ATHLETES USE/TAKE THEM ANYWAY. DO YOU AGREE/DISAGREE? WHY?


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