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SPORTS AND DRUG USE. OVERVIEW. HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA OLYMPIC GAMES TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957 ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984 GILBERT REPORT , SPORTS ILLUSTRATED 1969 HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ARRIVAL, 1984 TECHNOLOGY, SPORTS AND DRUGS

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overview
OVERVIEW
  • HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS
  • DRUG USE IN THE INDUSTRIAL ERA
  • OLYMPIC GAMES
  • TESTOSTERONE ERA, 1927-1957
  • ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA, 1958-1984
  • GILBERT REPORT , SPORTS ILLUSTRATED 1969
  • HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ARRIVAL, 1984
  • TECHNOLOGY, SPORTS AND DRUGS
  • MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL STEROIDS ERA
  • MITCHELL REPORT 2008
historical antecedents
HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS
  • GREEK ATHLETES, OLYMPIC GAMES
  • “PROTEIN DIET” AND WRESTLERS
  • ENDURANCE SEEDS/ RUNNERS
  • HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS
  • ANCIENT PERU, ANCIENT MEXICO
  • COCA LEAVES, CAFFEINE, MUSHROOMS, SEEDS
  • SPORT, RELIGIOUS EVENTS
drug use in the sports industrial era
DRUG USE IN THE SPORTS INDUSTRIAL ERA
  • 1860s-1880s SWIMMING, BICYCLE RACING, “SPEED BALLS” (HEROINE-COCAINE) TO INCREASE ENDURANCE
  • 1886 FIRST REPORTED DRUG RELATED DEATH IN SPORTS, A CYCLIST.
  • 1904 OLYMPIC GAMES, ST-LOUIS, THOMAS HICKS, MARATHON RUNNER, COLLAPSED, TEAM GAVE HIM REPEATED DOSES OF BRANDY AND STRYCHNINE, MEDAL AWARDED.
testosterone era
TESTOSTERONE ERA
  • 1927 FRED KOCH AND CLYDE MCGEE, (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO) ISOLATED AND EXTRACTED TESTOSTERONE FROM BULLS, TESTED ITS IMPAC ON ANIMALS. RESULTS: DRAMATIC INCREASE IN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, PROCESS NOT VIABLE.
  • 1935 YUGOSLAVIA´S CHEMIST LEOPOLD RUZICKA, ALTERED THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF CHOLESTEROL TO PRODUCE SYNTHETIC TESTOSTERONE
testosterone era1
TESTOSTERONE ERA
  • TESTOSTERONE, 1930s AND 1940s “FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH” GAINS IN ENERGY, WEIGHT, STRENGTH.
  • EXPERIMENTS IN GERMANY, TESTOSTERONE PROVIDED TO ELITE TROOPS
  • 1945 GERMAN SCIENTIFIC&TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES, SEIZED BY SOVIET GOVERNMENT
  • 1952 HELSINKI OLYMPIC GAMES, SOVIET WEIGHTLIFTING TEAM DOMINATES COMPET.
  • 1954 VIENNA WEIGHTLIFTING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP, SOVIET TEAMS
  • U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN, J. ZIEGLER, TESTED TESTOSTERONE ON HIMSELF.
anabolic steroids era
ANABOLIC STEROIDS ERA
  • “ANABOLIC” W/OUT “ANDROGENIC” EFFECTS, MUSCLE-BUILDING W/OUT AGGRESSION, INCREAS. LIBIDO.
  • 1958 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY RELEASED DIANABOL, FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES.
  • DR. ZIEGLER, U.S. TEAM PHYSICIAN PERSUADED LIFTWEIGHTERS TO USE DIANABOL
ziegler training program
ZIEGLER TRAINING PROGRAM
  • NEW EXERCISE ROUTINE ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION + PILLS
  • IOMETRIC CONTRACTION PULL/PUSH AGAINST IMMOBILE RESISTANCE
  • “STRENGTH AND HEALTH” MAGAZINE ARTICLE.
  • STEROIDS USE SPREAD THROUGH GYMS, COLLEGE STUDENTS AND ATHLETES
steroids olympic games
STEROIDS & OLYMPIC GAMES
  • 1964 TOKYO, 1968 MEXICO CITY
  • COLD WAR OLYMPIC, NATIONAL PRIDE, CAPITALISM vs SOCIALISM
  • ATHLETES CONFESSIONS, HAROLD CONNOLLY, TOM WADDELL, 30% U.S. TEAM ON STEROIDS
  • 1971 PATERA CHALLENGE TO SOVIET ATHLETE: “LET’S SEE WHO’S STRONGER: HIS STEROIDS OR MINE”
  • DEATHS FOR DRUG OVERDOSE
gilbert report
GILBERT REPORT
  • 1969 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED, B. GILBERT 3-PART DRUGS IN OLYMPIC, COLLEGE AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS
  • USE OF A.STEROIDS IN PRO AND COLLEGE SPORTS
  • PROFESSIONAL SPORTS ASSOCIATIONS LACKED REGULATORY POLICIES
  • 1972 68% U.S. OLYMPIC TRACK & FIELD TEAM HAD USED ANABOLIC STEROIDS
  • 1976 MONTREAL GAMES TEST MANDATORY, PENALTIES UP TO DISQUALIFICATION.
performance enhancing drugs 1970s
PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS, 1970s
  • 1976 CHANGED IN PATTERN, ATHLETES RETURNED TO TESTOSTERONE (MALE HORMONE) TO BEAT THE TEST, OR COMBINED DIANABOL W/ TESTOSTERONE.
  • 1982 TESTOSTERONE BECAME A BANNED SUBSTANCE
  • 1983 PAN AMERICAN GAMES CARACAS, 15 ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE THE FIRST DAT. 12 U.S. TRACK&FIELD ATHLETES ABANDONED THE GAMES BEFORE BEING TESTED.
h g h era 1984 to present
H.G.H. ERA, 1984 to PRESENT
  • HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
  • BODY BUILDERS, 1970s GH FROM MONKEYS
  • H.G.H. EXPENSIVE, DIFFICULT, EXTRACTED FROM THE PITUITARIES OF CADAVERS ONLY
  • 1990s SYNTHETIC VERSION OF H.G.H.
  • KERR “THE PRACTICAL USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS WITH ATHLETES”
steroids boom 1990s
STEROIDS BOOM 1990s
  • BODYBUILDING BOOM 1990s
  • SELF-HELP LITERATURE: MANUALS, HANDBOOKS, CONVENTIONS, “PROPER USE” PHILOSOPHY
  • BLACK MARKET OF STEROIDS, SMUGGLERS, GYM-DEALERS,
  • COACH-PROVIDERS
  • ATHLETES-SMUGGLERS
steroids and pro baseball
STEROIDS AND PRO BASEBALL
  • JOSE CANSECO, 1988 OAKLAND A´s AL MVP, 40-40 ONLY MEMBER CLUB, “BASH BROTHERS” (MARK MCGWIRE).
  • “WASHINGTON POST” THOMAS BOSWELL ARTICLE.
  • KEN CAMINITI STORY, 1996 MVP, 2002 SPORTS ILLUSTRATED INTERVIEW ¨AT LEAST HALF OF THE GUYS ARE USING STEROIDS¨
  • 2004 CAMINITI DIED, HEART ATTACK
  • COMPLAINTS BY SCHILLING, HANK ARON, REGGIE JACKSON, REGARDING INFLATED BATTING RECORDS DUE TO WIDESPREAD USE OF STEROIDS AND AMPHETAMINES
  • “JUICED, WILD TIMES, RAMPANT ´ROIDS, HOW BASEBALL GOT BIG” 2005 BOOK BY JOSE CANSECO IS PUBLISHED
  • MCGWIRE-SOSA “PERFECT SEASON” 1998
  • JOSE “MILKSHAKE” VOGUE.
  • CANSECO BOOK PROVIDED A PLAYERS LIST.
balco scandal 2003
BALCO SCANDAL 2003
  • BURLINGAME BAY AREA LABORATORY CO OPERATIVE
  • BLOOD-URINE TESTING ANALYSIS FOR ATHLETES
  • 1988 OLYMPIC GAMES SEOUL
  • VICTOR CONTE, NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS PTICHMAN
  • 1996 BILL ROMANOWSKI
  • ELITE ATHLETES CLIENTELE
  • MARION JONES, MIAMI DOLPHINS, BARRY BONDS, 2000.
  • CONTE´S HGH: “UNDETECTABLE, BETTER VISION, MORE ENERGY, MORE MUSCLE MASS”
  • ZIMA TRACK/FIELD CLUB
  • BONDS 0CT 2001 73TH HOMERUN
  • 2003 ANONYMOUS TIPSTER SENT A SYRINGE WITH TGH TETRAHYDROGESTRINONE (ALTERED STEROIDS GESTRINONE AND TRENBOLONE TO AVOID DETECTION IN TESTS)
  • U.S. FIELD/TRACK ATHLETES AND FOUR OAKLAND RAIDERS TESTED POSITIVE
  • SEPTEMBER 2003 FDA AUTHORITIES RAIDED BALCO OFFICES
  • “THE CLEAR AND THE CREAM” BONDS DECLARATION TO THE GRAND JURY .
  • OVER FORTY SUPERSTAR ATHLETES TESTED POSITIVE AND/OR WERE SUMMONED IN THE INVESTIGATION
  • U.S. TRACK/FIELD ESTABLISHES LIFE TIME BAN ON FIRST TIME OFFENDERS
balco scandal
BALCO SCANDAL
  • 2005 U.S. CONGRESS HEARINGS
  • CDC REPORT STEROIDS AND YOUTH
  • CANSECO, MCGWIRE, PALMEIRO, SOSA, SCHILLING CALLED TO TESTIFY.
  • CONTE’S CONVICTION, “ROMO’S BOOK TOUR” (BILL ROMANOWSKY)
  • DRUG FREE SPORTS ACT BILL PROPOSAL (McCAIN, BONNING)
  • MLB DRUG POLICY (OCT 2005) 50GAMES-100GAMES SUSPENSION-AND LIFE BAN ON ANFETHAMINES AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS. STILL NO TEST FOR HGH
performance enhancing drugs debate
PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS DEBATE
  • MLB JUST RECENTLY APPROVED MANDATORY STEROID TESTING IN ATHLETES. WHAT IN YOUR OPINION WILL BE THE IMPACT OF THIS POLICY.
  • PRO-STEROID LITERATURE ARGUES THAT ANABOLICS USAGE SHOULD BE ACCEPTED AND REGULATED, SINCE ATHLETES USE/TAKE THEM ANYWAY. DO YOU AGREE/DISAGREE? WHY?
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