Research Ethics
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Research Ethics. -Inquiry 2 proposals are due in lab this week -This week’s reflection should be about your inquiry 1. Do not tell me your results, but your experience carrying out your inquiry. http://www.phdofu.com/. Main shortcomings of inquiry 1: Inappropriate use of statistics.

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Research Ethics

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Research Ethics


-Inquiry 2 proposals are due in lab this week-This week’s reflection should be about your inquiry 1. Do not tell me your results, but your experience carrying out your inquiry.

http://www.phdofu.com/


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics

  • Age and favorite band:14= Hannah Montana15= Miley Cyrus19= the Pussycat Dolls19= Slipknot22= Kid Rock27= Nelly33= Boyz II Men57= Beatles


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics

  • Age and favorite band:14= Hannah Montana= 115= Miley Cyrus= 219= the Pussycat Dolls= 319= Slipknot= 422= Kid Rock= 527= Nelly= 633= Boyz II Men= 757= Beatles= 8


Age vs favorite band

favorite band

Age (Years)


Age vs favorite band

log

favorite band

Age (Years)


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics

  • Age and favorite band:14= Hannah Montana= 315= Miley Cyrus= 119= the Pussycat Dolls= 719= Slipknot= 422= Kid Rock= 827= Nelly= 533= Boyz II Men= 257= Beatles= 6


Age vs favorite band

favorite band

Age (Years)


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics:


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics

  • Proof instead of disproofEliminate incorrect hypotheses.


  • Main shortcomings of inquiry 1:

  • Inappropriate use of statistics

  • Proof instead of disproof

  • Asking questions with known or irrelevant answers

  • You are the principal investigator(s), and you are responsible for designing/carrying out the experiment(s) and then analyzing the data.


Research Ethics


Genetic Engineering: Direct manipulation of DNA


Bacteria can be used to transform plants

Global area planted with GM crops

Texas =70 ha

Millions of Hectares

http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/agri_biotechnology/gmo_planting/257.global_gm_planting_2006.html


GMO’s Many Questions, but Few Answers?

Can GMO’s be contained and kept from spreading?

Are GM foods safe for the environment?

Are GM foods safe to eat?

Are GM foods profitable for:

Consumers, Farmers, and Companies?


Patents give 20 year monopoly for inventor

www.uspto.gov


Three types of U.S. patents:

1) Utility patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof;

2) Design patents may be granted to anyone who invents a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture; and

3) Plant patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant.

www.uspto.gov


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties

  • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammatory


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties

  • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammator

  • GTG in Australia has patents on non-coding human DNA for detecting risk of various diseases


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties

  • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammatory

  • GTG in Australia has patents on non-coding human DNA for detecting risk af various diseases

  • Harvard patented cancer susceptible mouse


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Harvard patented cancer susceptible mouse

  • Rejected by Canadian Supreme court in 2002


The Canadian Patent Act defines "invention" as "any new and useful art, process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement in any art, process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter".


The Canadian Patent Act defines "invention" as "any new and useful art, process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement in any art, process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter".

Canadian court ruled that microorganisms, GM plants, modified DNA and cells could be patented, but not whole animal.


  • Examples of current patents:

  • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties

  • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammatory

  • GTG in Australia has patents on non-coding human DNA for detecting risk af various diseases

  • Harvard patented cancer susceptible mouse

  • Over 70 U.S. patents for use of Indian neem tree


Neem, say the women, helps babies sleep, keeps flies away, is a cosmetic, a disinfectant and a pesticide. Its leaves make good cattle fodder, its twigs are good for teeth and gums. It is used, they say, for snake bites, malaria, hysteria, high blood pressure, pain relief, skin diseases and a host of other ailments.

Over 70 U.S. patents for use of Indian neem tree


Neem, say the women, helps babies sleep, keeps flies away, is a cosmetic, a disinfectant and a pesticide. Its leaves make good cattle fodder, its twigs are good for teeth and gums. It is used, they say, for snake bites, malaria, hysteria, high blood pressure, pain relief, skin diseases and a host of other ailments.

Over 70 U.S. patents for use of Indian neem tree

One was rejected due to previous use in indigenous Indian culture


Concerns of developing nations vs. industrialized countries

Bioprospecting


U.S. patent issued on cell line developed from indigenous 21 year old from New Guinea.

Possible use in treating leukemia, NIH researchers listed as inventors.


Lack of research on third world problems.(tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, dysentery…Not profitable.


Universities own patent rights for inventions on campus. Share profits with inventors.

$

$

$


Universities own patent rights for inventions on campus. Share profits with inventors.

What is the purpose of university research?


-Inquiry 2 proposals are due in lab this week-This week’s reflection should be about your inquiry 1. Do not tell me your results, but your experience carrying out your inquiry.

http://www.phdofu.com/


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